Sherzad Ali Ismael,Community Medicine Dept,College of Medicine.                           Research Methods- Thinking about...
   Subject      Research Methods   Credit units 1   Hours        15 hours theory   Assessment:     Quizzes (3): 30%  ...
1.   Thinking about research & nature of     research.2.   Formulating & clarifying research topic3.   Critically reviewin...
   Designing he questionnaires   Reference writing using Endnote   Technical research skills and IT   Writing & publis...
   Writing the reference (Harvard and    Vancouver).   Clinical trials.   Critical appraisal.   Plagiarism.           ...
1.   Bob Mathews & Liz Ross. Research Methods, a practical guide     for the social sciences. Pearson Education limited 20...
6. RL Bijlani. Medical Research. Jaypee brothers   medical publishers (P) limited 2008. New Delhi.7. Mohit Bhandari & Para...
   Provide an understanding and overview of    different types of research methods.   Formulate research topics, design ...
Research MethodsSherzad Ali Ismael,Community Medicine Dept,College of Medicine.                           Research Methods...
   Understand the concept of research,    approaches & components.   Distinguish between quantitative and    qualitative...
   Knowledge: Information about or awareness    of something, an issue, a fact that you have    gained through learning o...
   Hypothesis: an idea that is suggested as an    explanation for something, but that has not    been proved to be true....
   Science:     the study of the structure and behavior of the      physical and natural world and society, especially  ...
   Science is empirical     Based on scientific tests or practical experiments,     not on ideas.   Science is rational...
   The Oxford Dictionary:     Researches [plural], a careful study of a subject,     especially in order to discover new...
   Undertaken when:     we have a question to answer.     we need to acquire knowledge (causes of      headache are…)  ...
   To gain familiarity with a phenomenon.   To portray accurately the characteristics of a    particular individual, sit...
   Desire to get a research degree.   Desire to face the challenge in solving the    unsolved problems.   Desire to be ...
   The question.   The research process.   The answer.                    Research Methods- Thinking about research & n...
   The nature of research IS NOT:     Simply gathering information or facts.     Divorced from practical life.         ...
   The nature of research IS:     Structured & purposefulness (both in gathering &      interpreting data)     Accurate...
   …a search for knowledge   … a scientific & systematic search   … an art of scientific investigation   … a systemize...
   Descriptive vs. Analytic.   Applied vs. Fundamental.   Quantitative vs. Qualitative.   Conceptual (Philosophers & t...
1.    Quantitative Research      Generates statistics through the use of large scale       survey methods, questionnaire ...
   Based on measurement – applicable where    quantitative measurements can be applied.   Knowledge of statistical metho...
   Explore attitudes, behavior & experience    through interviews or focus groups.   Attempts to get an in depth opinion...
   When phenomenon being studied is    qualitative, not amenable to clear    measurement.   E.g. motivation research (wh...
   …the term research refers to the systematic    method consisting of enunciating the problem,   formulating a hypothes...
Research MethodsSherzad Ali Ismael,Community Medicine Dept,College of Medicine.                           Research Methods...
   The two words are often confused, used    interchangeably & misunderstood.   Methods:     Defined as “techniques or ...
   Methodology (Philosophy):     A way of systematically solve the research      problem.     Answer the questions:    ...
   Key aspects to research quality:     Reliability- or dependability (replicability)      ▪ Results may/ can be replica...
   Key aspects to research quality:     Validity: Do the methods & tools truly measure     what they are intended to mea...
   Quality criteria in Research (Becker et al    2006):     Accessible to appropriate audience.     Clearly addresses t...
   Descriptive research: describe subjects    accurately.   Exploratory research: ‘what is happening; to    seek new ins...
THEORYInductive                                                                    Deductive                              ...
Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research   37
Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature   38
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  1. 1. Sherzad Ali Ismael,Community Medicine Dept,College of Medicine. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 1
  2. 2.  Subject Research Methods Credit units 1 Hours 15 hours theory Assessment:  Quizzes (3): 30%  Assignments (2): 20%  Course exam (1): 50%  Success: 60% Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 2
  3. 3. 1. Thinking about research & nature of research.2. Formulating & clarifying research topic3. Critically reviewing the literature4. Formulating the research design (Strategies)5. Writing & presenting the research protocol6. Data collection methods (quantitative & qualitative) Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 3
  4. 4.  Designing he questionnaires Reference writing using Endnote Technical research skills and IT Writing & publishing research paper Research ethics Academic writing in research Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 4
  5. 5.  Writing the reference (Harvard and Vancouver). Clinical trials. Critical appraisal. Plagiarism. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 5
  6. 6. 1. Bob Mathews & Liz Ross. Research Methods, a practical guide for the social sciences. Pearson Education limited 2010. England.2. Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis, & Adrian Thornhill. Research methods for business students. Pearson Education Limited 2009. Edinburgh.3. Jonathan Grix. The Foundation of Research. Palgrave Macmillan 2004. London.4. Geoffrey Marczyk, David DeMatteo & David Festinger. Essentials of Research Design & Methodology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc 2005. New Jersey.5. SK Gupta. Basic principles of clinical research & methodology. Jaypee brothers medical publishers (P) limited 2007. New Delhi. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 6
  7. 7. 6. RL Bijlani. Medical Research. Jaypee brothers medical publishers (P) limited 2008. New Delhi.7. Mohit Bhandari & Parag Sanchesti. Clinical Research made easy, a guide to publishing in medical literature. Jaypee brothers medical publishers (P) limited 2010. New Delhi.8. Yugish Kumar Singh. Fundamental of Research Methodology & Statistics. New Age International Publishers 2006. New Delhi.9. Catherin Dawson. Practical Research Methods, A user-friendly guide to mastering research. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data 2002. UK. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 7
  8. 8.  Provide an understanding and overview of different types of research methods. Formulate research topics, design & critically reviewing the literature. Identify different types & design of questionnaire. Use technical research skills to write & publish researches. conduct academic research and present research protocol. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 8
  9. 9. Research MethodsSherzad Ali Ismael,Community Medicine Dept,College of Medicine. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 9
  10. 10.  Understand the concept of research, approaches & components. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative researches. Explain the concepts of quality of researches in terms of validity and reliability. Understand research methodology with other dimensions of research. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 10
  11. 11.  Knowledge: Information about or awareness of something, an issue, a fact that you have gained through learning or experience. (Longman Dictionary) Information: Facts or details that tell you something about a situation, person, events etc. (Longman Dictionary) Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 11
  12. 12.  Hypothesis: an idea that is suggested as an explanation for something, but that has not been proved to be true. Theory: a set of ideas or related concepts which can be used to explain & understand an event, situation, social phenomena. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 12
  13. 13.  Science:  the study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world and society, especially through observation and experiment”. (The Oxford Dictionary)  Knowledge about the world, especially based on examining, testing, and providing facts”. (Longman Dictionary) Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 13
  14. 14.  Science is empirical  Based on scientific tests or practical experiments, not on ideas. Science is rational  Based on reasons rather than emotions Science is cumulative  Facts that can be built upon by future scientists. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 14
  15. 15.  The Oxford Dictionary:  Researches [plural], a careful study of a subject, especially in order to discover new facts or information about it”. Research is “a systematic method of finding solution to a problem” (Kothari, 2004).  the systematic method consisting of stating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the data, analyzing the facts & reaching certain conclusions. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 15
  16. 16.  Undertaken when:  we have a question to answer.  we need to acquire knowledge (causes of headache are…)  we want to extend our understanding of the social world. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 16
  17. 17.  To gain familiarity with a phenomenon. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. To determine the frequency with which something occurs. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 17
  18. 18.  Desire to get a research degree. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems. Desire to be of service to society. Desire to get respectability. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 18
  19. 19.  The question. The research process. The answer. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 19
  20. 20.  The nature of research IS NOT:  Simply gathering information or facts.  Divorced from practical life. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 20
  21. 21.  The nature of research IS:  Structured & purposefulness (both in gathering & interpreting data)  Accurate.  Strong & defensible.  Systematic. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 21
  22. 22.  …a search for knowledge … a scientific & systematic search … an art of scientific investigation … a systemized effort to gain new knowledge Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 22
  23. 23.  Descriptive vs. Analytic. Applied vs. Fundamental. Quantitative vs. Qualitative. Conceptual (Philosophers & thinkers) vs. Empirical (Experiment or observation). Other types  Clinical or diagnostic  Cross-sections or longitudinal.  Exploratory or explanatory. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 23
  24. 24. 1. Quantitative Research  Generates statistics through the use of large scale survey methods, questionnaire or structures interviews.  Words like: ▪ how many? ▪ How often? ▪ test, ▪ verify, are used. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 24
  25. 25.  Based on measurement – applicable where quantitative measurements can be applied. Knowledge of statistical methods helps us qualify our conclusions-attach scientific probabilities (levels of significance)- and provides a basis for accepting or rejecting hypotheses. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 25
  26. 26.  Explore attitudes, behavior & experience through interviews or focus groups. Attempts to get an in depth opinion from participants. Words like:  Discover  Motivation  Experiences  Think/ thoughts  Problems  Behave/ behaviors are used. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 26
  27. 27.  When phenomenon being studied is qualitative, not amenable to clear measurement. E.g. motivation research (why do you study research methodology?) Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 27
  28. 28.  …the term research refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts & reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions toward the concerned problem, or in certain generalizations for some theoretical formulation” (Kothari, 2011: p.1-2). Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 28
  29. 29. Research MethodsSherzad Ali Ismael,Community Medicine Dept,College of Medicine. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 29
  30. 30.  The two words are often confused, used interchangeably & misunderstood. Methods:  Defined as “techniques or procedures used to collect & analyze data” (Blaikie 2000: 8).  Can be used in both quantitative & qualitative researches.  E.g. using questionnaire, interview, statistical analysis,…etc. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 30
  31. 31.  Methodology (Philosophy):  A way of systematically solve the research problem.  Answer the questions: ▪ How the research is done scientifically? ▪ Which methods are used & why?  The term refers to the choice of research strategy. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 31
  32. 32.  Key aspects to research quality:  Reliability- or dependability (replicability) ▪ Results may/ can be replicated by other researchers using the same methods? How? ▪ (e.g. all data is included, & no data is lost) Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 32
  33. 33.  Key aspects to research quality:  Validity: Do the methods & tools truly measure what they are intended to measure? ▪ Internal validity: Are the data that I’m gathering relevant to my research question? ▪ I.e. will they help me to answer my research question or test my hypothesis? ▪ External validity: can results of my research be generalized to the wider population? Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 33
  34. 34.  Quality criteria in Research (Becker et al 2006):  Accessible to appropriate audience.  Clearly addresses the research question.  Transparency in data collection & analysis.  A clear statement of how the research process was conducted.  The research makes a contribution to knowledge.  More… Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 34
  35. 35.  Descriptive research: describe subjects accurately. Exploratory research: ‘what is happening; to seek new insights; to ask questions and to assess phenomena in a new light’ (Robson 2002:59). Explanatory (causal relationship) research: between variables of interest. Evaluation research: What changes in MOH policy help young men to quit smoking? Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 35
  36. 36. THEORYInductive Deductive DATA Source: Bob Mathews & Liz Ross 2010 Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 36
  37. 37. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature of research 37
  38. 38. Research Methods- Thinking about research & nature 38
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