Instructional Plan - Speed Rapport
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Speed rapport instructional plan

Speed rapport instructional plan

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Instructional Plan - Speed Rapport Document Transcript

  • 1. INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN Speed Rapport Steven Ortiz February 25, 2007
  • 2. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 2 Table of Contents Needs Assessment ................................................................................................. 3 Problem.......................................................................................................................... 3 Environment and Learners .............................................................................................. 3 Plan Description..................................................................................................... 4 Goal ....................................................................................................................... 6 Performance-Based Objectives .............................................................................. 7 Assessment ............................................................................................................ 8 Strategy.................................................................................................................. 8 Content .................................................................................................................. 9 Practice .................................................................................................................10 References ............................................................................................................11 Appendix A—Objective Test................................................................................13 Appendix B—Objective Test Rubric ....................................................................14 Appendix C—Performance Assessment................................................................15 Appendix D—Performance Assessment Rubric....................................................16
  • 3. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 3 Needs Assessment Problem T he problem is poor teacher-student rapport accounts for up to 27% of the Hispanic student dropout in Alief Hastings High School in the Alief Independent School District. A portion of the students most at risk of dropping out of school drop out because they did not get along with teacher. The Texas Education Agency reports that in the 1992-1993 school year 52% of Texas students were minorities, and trends show that minorities, Hispanics in particular, will become a majority population in Texas by 2015 (TEA, nd). Minority majority populations are already seen in over one quarter of the school districts in Texas. The ethnic composition found in the Texas student population has not occurred in the teaching work force; 77% of the Texas teachers being Caucasian (TEA, nd). Teacher instruction does a poor job of preparing teachers to handle the current student diversity and socio-economic background of the students in their classrooms. The diversity of the teaching workforce is relevant because students need role models that have similar cultures and traits, teachers engage better with culturally similar students, and interaction increases awareness and empathy of different cultures thereby improving teachers’ ability to interact with diverse students (TEA, nd). Environment and Learners Alief is an urban community that encompasses 36.6 square miles in the far southwest area of Houston, Texas. Alief is home to 55,700 households–33.2% are family households. 64% of Alief households receive a “white collar” median income of $34,809, which is below the
  • 4. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 4 national average of $42,350.95 (Yahoo, 2007). The area is ethnically mixed yet experiencing flight of its Caucasian families to surrounding suburbs in Fort Bend and Harris counties. The Alief Independent School District is an ethnically diverse school district. Student enrollment is 45,513 as of the 2005 school year with 45%, 20,480, Hispanic students according to SchoolMatters.com (S&P, 2006). The district employs 2,975 teachers with 959 fulltime secondary-school teachers. Total enrollment at Hastings High School is approximately 5100 students in grades 9 through 12. The school includes two adjoining campuses: a main campus for 10th to 12th grades and a 9th-grade center. Class size at Hastings is between 22 and 25 students. Student ethnicity grouping in the 2005 school year was 41% Hispanic, 37% African-American, 15% Asian, and 7% Caucasian. The instructional plan targets instruction for secondary school teachers at Hastings High School at grades where Hispanic student dropout occurs most—the 9th and 10th grades. Secondary schools administrators at Hastings High School will also receive instruction as they are likely to interact with students in non-classroom areas of the school; areas of high student- student socialization. Plan Description The instructional plan focuses on improving teacher-student rapport. Teacher-student rapport is a cause of Hispanic student dropout that teachers can control with instruction and practice. Rapport and trust develop through synchronization of modes of communication (Wood, 2006). The synchronization of teacher–student communication can facilitate student success.
  • 5. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 5 Craft’s study (2001) details techniques that link mental processes and communications to human behavior that alleviate ineffective behavior. Wood (2006) explains that mirroring an individual’s dominant communication cues leads to an assessment of trustworthiness, which then leads to strong rapport. Nigel Brown (2004) presents good communications techniques to incorporate into the instruction. According to Brown (2004), personality preferences affect students’ perceptions of teaching quality. The paper shows that students rate teaching effectiveness on teachers’ knowledge of the subject, the ability to communicate, and student–teacher rapport. Teachers can improve the quality of their teaching with an awareness of these personality preferences and the application of techniques to ameliorate teaching in a dominant communication mode. Teachers and administrators, those who lead effectively through communications, find that improving trust and interpersonal communication is a skill that one can learn. Wood (2006) discusses the principles and techniques of using verbal and non-verbal cues to establish rapport. The article illustrates how language preferences grounded in communication and linguistic theory with an emphasis on the pattern of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic cues that indicate the communication modes in use that one would mirror to establish rapport. Mirroring an individual’s dominant communication cues produces an effect of trustworthiness, which then leads to strong rapport (Wood, 2006). Principles and linguistic practices of neuro-linguistic programming that Craft (2001) discusses—models, strategies, and theories—mirror some learning theory. The literature also details the principles of neuro-linguistic programming and evaluates its model of 'logical levels' (Craft, p. 126). The research by Paul Tosey and Jane Mathison (2003) "identifies language patterns that are believed to reflect basic cognitive processes" (p. 373). The applied practice of
  • 6. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 6 neuro-linguistic programming can enhance learning and the education process (p. 376). A study by Helms (1994) also details the application of neuro-linguistic programming as an appropriate tool for improving the teacher-student relationship. The study details how techniques can be applied to establish rapport between the players in the learning environment–especially administrators who must lead effectively through communications with teachers, students, parents, and the community (Helms, 1994). Helms (1989) previously presented research of neuro-linguistic programming techniques that any educator could learn to use to enhance the learning experience. Awareness and full use of the visual, audio, and kinesthetic feedback system improves interpersonal communication. Principles of body language, with a focus on eye movement, would help the teacher determine the dominant communication modality of a student. A study of the student modality, similar to a cognitive strategy, allows an observer to compare the learning strategies to successful strategies. The communication techniques and practices incorporated into this instruction are not new. Instructional models of communication and rapid rapport building techniques taught to police hostage negotiators and military and civilian field intelligence specialists can provide the framework for teacher instruction. Goal The goal of the instructional plan is to improve learner rapport building skills to eliminate behaviors that disengage students from school and contribute to dropout rates. Learning Context The learning context for this instructional plan involves access to the Alief Hasting High School literary café, which has the appropriate media technology for the instruction: a
  • 7. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 7 presentation projector, an overhead projector with re-writeable transparencies, audio equipment, and a digital video recorder. The literary café, part of the school library, offers a comfortable setting that best for small group socialization and interaction. The skills presented in this training can best be observed under highly social conditions. The groupings of chairs and sofas in the café create the proper atmosphere for social interaction. Instruction takes place as part of teacher in-service training. In-service days at Hastings High School occur while no students are in school, so scheduling access to the literary café will not be difficult. The instructional plan targets instruction for Hastings’ 9th and 10th grade teachers; in grades where dropout rates are highest. Secondary schools administrators at Hastings High School will also receive instruction since they interact with students in non-classroom areas of the school. The café setting ensures that the instructor can work close enough to the groups of teachers to observe proper use of techniques taught. Performance-Based Objectives Learners will identify effective rapport-building communication principles by the end of in-service training with 75% accuracy. By the end of instruction learners shall demonstrate mastery of rapport-building techniques in two out of three simulated incidents. Learners shall demonstrate that he or she can: – Identify another person’s dominant verbal representational system – Identify another person’s dominant eye-accessing cue – Identify another person’s communication strategy – Match the other person’s communication strategy to synchronize communication – Apply an anchor once in rapport with the other person
  • 8. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 8 Assessment The instructor will define, explain, and demonstrate each technique to the teachers and administrators. Learners will practice techniques in groups and evaluate each other during instruction. At the end of instruction teachers will identify effective rapport-building communication by completing a multiple-choice test (Appendix A). The instructor shall assess whether learners can identify rapport-building communication teacher skills by observation of rapport-building interaction with a mock student in a simulated incident (Appendix C). Each simulated incident is video taped for assessment of visual, audible, and kinesthetic technique. Appendix D provides a rubric for the performance assessment. Strategy The instructional strategy details the techniques and instructional process. The instruction intends to teach effective rapport-building involving the identification and use of representational systems. To do so the following strategies shall be followed: − Overview: introduces the instructor, the course, and the instructor − Present representational systems: explanation of the systems − Present eye-accessing cues: explanation and demonstration of cues − Present mirroring and matching: illustration and demonstration of concepts − Present anchoring: explanation and demonstration of concept − Review and take final questions: practice concepts in groups − Assess learn skills: written and mock exercise
  • 9. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 9 Content The following content shall be presented: − Overview o Gain attention using a story or testimonial o Discuss objectives and expected outcome o Present trainer, content, and material o Have learners introduce themselves − Present representational systems (RS) o Have learners identify their dominant RS o Have learners recall and identify a dominant RS of a person sitting next to them o Assess understanding and adjust instruction while moving among the group − Present eye-accessing cues o Have learners recall when they recalled RS in their daily experiences o Have learners identify their eye-accessing cue o Have learners discuss a difficult classroom situation with those sitting next to them while listeners identify the eye-accessing cues of the speakers − Present mirroring and matching RS and eye accessing strategies o Explain how one mirrors strategies using only language o Demonstrate mirroring RS and eye-accessing strategies with a volunteer o Allow learners to practice mirroring with a partner
  • 10. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 1 0 − Present anchoring o Demonstrate mirroring anchoring with a volunteer o Have teachers practice anchoring with a partner o Assess and adjust instruction while moving among groups o Review and take final questions − Assess learner skill o Learners identity rapport-building concepts on a multiple-choice test o Learners demonstrate rapport-building skill in a simulated situation − Present feedback and individual evaluations Practice Learners shall practice concepts presented and demonstrated in the instruction at points in the instruction, where indicated in the content. The instructor will move among groups to assess understanding, adjust instruction, and make corrections. On a clean sheet of paper learners shall: – Identify their dominant representational system – Recall a dominant representational system of a person to the learner’s right – Identify their dominant eye-accessing cue – Discuss a difficult classroom situation with a person sitting to the learner’s left while listeners identify the eye-accessing cues of the one speaking – Practice mirroring with a partner; describe the mirrored strategy – Practice anchoring with a partner and test the anchor
  • 11. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 1 1 References Brown, N. (2004). What Makes a Good Educator? The Relevance of Meta Programmes. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(5), 515-533. Retrieved Sunday, December 17, 2006 from the Academic Search Premier database. Craft, A (2001). Neuro-linguistic Programming and learning theory. The Curriculum Journal, 12(1), 125–136 Helm, D. (1989). Education: The Wagon Train To The Stars/It's Time To 'Jump Start' Learning Through N.L.P. Education, 110(2), 254. Retrieved June 04, 2006 from the Academic Search Premier database. Helm, D. (1994). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Establishing Rapport Between School Administrators and The Students, Staff, and Community. Education, 114(4), 625. Retrieved June 04, 2006 from the Academic Search Premier database. Standard & Poor's (2006). SchoolMatters.com. Retrieved January 13, 2007 from http://www.schoolmatters.com/app/location/q/stid=44/llid=116/stllid=154/locid=958447/ catid=-1/secid=-1/compid=-1/site=pes Texas Education Agency (nd). Texas Teacher Diversity and Recruitment; Policy Research Report. Retrieved February 3, 2007 from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/research/pdfs/prr4.pdf Tosey, P., & Mathison, J. (2003). Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Learning Theory: A Response. Curriculum Journal, 14(3), 371-388. Retrieved June 04, 2006 from the Academic Search Premier database.
  • 12. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 1 2 Wood, J. (2006). NLP Revisited: Nonverbal Communications and Signals of Trustworthiness. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. XXVI(2), 197-204. Retrieved June 16, 2006 from EBSCO Host database. Yahoo Real Estate (2007). Alief Neighborhood Profile. Retrieved January 13, 2007 from http://realestate.y
  • 13. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 1 3 Appendix A—Objective Test 1. Representational systems are also known as communication a. varieties d. modalities b. networks e. functions c. features 2. The acronym VAK stands for a. video analog knowledge d. visual/audible/kinesthetic b. video/audio knob e. visual analysis of knowledge c. visual acknowledgement 3. What are the two main principles of rapport a. Speech recognition and body c. Text and dialogue appreciation language translations d. Language and information retrieval b. Searching and speech recognition For test questions 4 through 10 match the words or phrases to the appropriate eye motion. You are facing a right-handed individual 4. Picture this a. b. c. d. e. 5. Sigh a. b. c. d. e. 6. I gather you've understood a. b. c. d. e. 7. Note to myself a. b. c. d. e. 8. See what I mean a. b. c. d. e. 9. Face the music a. b. c. d. e. 10. So much tension a. b. c. d. e.
  • 14. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 1 4 Appendix B—Objective Test Rubric 1. Representational systems are also d. modalities known as communication 2. The acronym VAK stands for d. visual/audible/kinesthetic 3. What are the two main principles of a. Speech recognition and body language rapport translations 4. Picture this e. 5. Sigh c. 6. I gather you've understood b. 7. Note to myself e. 8. See what I mean a. 9. Face the music c. 10. So much tension b.
  • 15. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 1 5 Appendix C—Performance Assessment In a simulated incident learners shall apply the knowledge and skills mastered on a mock student. During the performance assessment the learner shall: 1) Demonstrate the ability to identify the mock student’s primary representational system using language cues 2) Demonstrate the ability to identify the mock student’s primary representational system using eye accessing cues 3) Demonstrate the ability to match the mock student’s primary representational system using language 4) Demonstrate the ability to match the mock student’s language to eye accessing cues 5) Demonstrate the ability to mirror the mock student’s representational-system strategies by the mock student’s eye-accessing cues and words Demonstrate the ability to apply an anchor on the mock student once establishing rapport
  • 16. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 1 6 Appendix D—Performance Assessment Rubric 1) The primary representational system is visual 2) The primary representational system is auditory 3) Match primary representational system using visual words 4) Match language to the kinesthetic representational system 5) The representational-system strategy of the learner is auditory, visual recall, and visual construct 6) Applies an anchor such as a finger snap or wink after synchronizing with the learner