Lesson Plan - Interpersonal Communication
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Lesson Plan - Interpersonal Communication Document Transcript

  • 1. Instructional Plan Teacher-Student Communication Staff Development Lessons Introduction This instructional plan provides three problem-based series of lessons incorporating principles of interpersonal communication that a professional teacher, instructor, or trainer can apply to create an engaging learning environment, develop better teacher-student relationships, and become the professional that makes learning enjoyable for the learner. This plan integrates classroom technology and applications that allows the professional to explore these communication principles and disciplines at a deeper level. Steven Ortiz Stephanie Hill Alexander Yevette McGowen April 16, 2007
  • 2. I N S T R U C T I O N A L P L A N 2 Table of Contents Introduction.....................................................................................................1 Lesson I: Interpersonal Communication in the Classroom ............................3 Lesson II: Rapport ..........................................................................................7 Lesson III: Learning with Metaphors ............................................................10 Implementation Plan.....................................................................................14 Computer Use .....................................................................................14 Rotation of Computer..........................................................................14 Computer Teaming and Team Roles .................................................14 Internet Use Guidelines ......................................................................15 Internet Downloads .............................................................................15 Learner Help .......................................................................................15 Troubleshooting ..................................................................................15 Close of Class ..............................................................................................15 Lesson Rubric ..............................................................................................16 Diverse Learner Modifications......................................................................17
  • 3. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 3 Lesson I: Interpersonal Communication in the Classroom Title Interpersonal Communication in the Classroom Author Stephanie Hill Alexander Subject Area Communication Teacher-Student Level Grades 7 – 12, college level Standards This lesson meets regional, state, and national standards for teacher training in content and technology. Lesson Summary Problems exists in a classroom when students and teachers often do not interact effectively, resulting in misunderstandings and ineffective expression of information. This lesson plan can be used in any classroom to prevent interpersonal communication problems or in a classroom where students and teachers are not communicating effectively. Instructional Goal The goal of the lesson plan is to incorporate interpersonal communication techniques into teacher professional training. Learning Objectives and Computer Functions Objectives - By the end of training: Objective 1: Students will be able to describe the communication loop and identify its components. Objective 2: Students will be able to name and illustrate at least 3 ways communication can become garbled within the communication loop. Objective 3: Students will be able to quote examples of listening techniques. Objective 4: Students will be able to compare “I” and “you” statements and explain the features of each. Objective 5: Students will be able to define nonverbal communication and explain why nonverbal communication is valuable. Objective 6: Students will be able to analyze their communication to find problems and restate communication more effectively. Problem Problem Nature: Poor interpersonal communication Problem Data: Imagine suddenly that no one was listening to you when you were talking. Imagine suddenly no one understanding you when you talked. Imagine you were not able to understand others when they
  • 4. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 4 Title Interpersonal Communication in the Classroom tried to talk to you. How can these problems be solved? How can communication be improved? We are going to investigate components of effective communication, and how individuals can improve their skills in communication, both sending and receiving communication. If you could write a play that illustrates individuals effectively communicating, how would that sound? Problem The problem is misunderstanding and ineffective expression of Statement: information occurs in the classroom where students and teachers have poor interact. Data Manipulation Computer Functions Integration Strategies Organization Strategies Internet Research Query and filter data Word processing Write a play Illustrate Spreadsheet Create a spreadsheet of terms Input, sort data Elaboration What websites can you find about communication? Strategies What have you learned about the communication loop after conducting your internet search? Think Sheet Can you name the communication loop’s components? Questions What problems can arise in communication? After your internet research, can you make up examples of listening techniques? What is an “I” statement? A “you” statement? What is nonverbal communication? Can you portray nonverbal communication to others in your learning team? What problems affect communication? How can you restate and improve your communication? Results Write and perform a play or series of skits Presentation Create a spreadsheet of terms and definitions Sorted the terms in ascending and descending order Activities Before using the Introduce students to the material by showing current sitcom clips computer illustrating difficulties in communication. Ask volunteers to read provided copies of the comedy routine of Abbott and Costello called “Who’s On First?” which will also illustrate communication snafus. Ask students to share examples of communication difficulties they
  • 5. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 5 Title Interpersonal Communication in the Classroom have had in their lives. Finally, I will go through an Excel tutorial to share an introduction with the students. Student will brainstorm ideas about topics While using the Research interpersonal communication terms and concepts on the computer Web. Suggested websites for use http://college.hmco.com/collegesurvival/ellis/master_student/10e/stu dents/resources/ch08.html http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/spd110td/interper/index.html http://www.pertinent.com/articles/communication/index.asp http://www.uh.edu/crc/intcomm.html http://www.articles911.com/Communication/Interpersonal_Communi cation/ Create a spreadsheet of interpersonal communication terms, concepts, and associated definitions. Write dialogue for a play or skits Group Students will work together write and perform a play or series of skits Information that illustrate the knowledge and techniques for effective communication they have learned. After using the Discuss new ideas related to material Computer Students will show they can manipulate the data by exhibiting the information sorted in different manners by showing sheets with new terms in ascending order, and new terms in descending order Rehearse play/skits. Supporting Students will work together to conceive of and create a poster that Activities illustrates the communication loop. Students will also work collaboratively to create storyboards that depict the scenes in his or her play or skits. Finally, student groups will discuss among the members of the group their thoughts regarding communication, examples from their own lives, and ideas they have about improving communication. Culminating Each student group will perform their play or series of skits, and Activity present its spreadsheet containing new terms to the entire class. Each group will collectively present the spreadsheet they have created, and show each spreadsheet that illustrates its ability to sort and manipulate the material contained therein. Assessment Task Result Play or Series of The play or skits should include a description of the communication Skits loop.
  • 6. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 6 Title Interpersonal Communication in the Classroom The play or skits should include at least 1 example of a listening technique, an “I” statement, a “you” statement, nonverbal communication, and restating a problem in communication in a way that restates the communication more effectively. Storyboards The storyboards should depict the actions in the play or skits effectively. Students can use as many pieces of cardboard as necessary – there is no specific requirement. Spreadsheet The spreadsheet should list at least six (6) new terms learned in lesson. Definitions will be placed in a separate cell Students will indicate ability to sort information by sharing list of terms saved in separate worksheets: One worksheet will list the terms in ascending order, and one worksheet will list the terms in descending order. Poster Students will choose one technique or one concept he or she has learned in this lesson and depict it on the poster. Both words and pictures will be included in the poster. Discussions In the discussions student groups conduct, each student should participate. The input and ideas of each student are valued, and must be considered by the whole group. Students should be sure to stay on topic during discussions, and endeavor not to allow the conversation to stray off topic.
  • 7. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 7 Lesson II: Rapport Title Rapid Rapport Author Steven Ortiz Subject Area Communication Teacher-Student Rapport Level Teacher Professional Training Lesson Summary Poor teacher-student rapport accounts for close to 30% of the minority student dropout in high school. Portions of these at-risk students drop out because they did not get along with a teacher. The Texas Education Agency reports that in the 1992-1993 school year 52% of Texas students were minorities, and trends show that minorities, Hispanics in particular, will become a majority population in Texas by 2015 (TEA, nd). Over one quarter of the school districts in Texas are comprised of minority-majority student populations. The ethnic composition changes in the Texas student population has not occurred in the teaching workforce; 77% of the Texas teachers are Caucasian (TEA, nd). Teacher training does a poor job of preparing teachers to handle the student cultural and socio-economic diversity of students in their classrooms. The diversity of the teaching workforce is relevant because students need role models with similar cultures and traits, teachers engage better with culturally similar students, and interaction increases awareness and empathy of different cultures thereby improving teachers’ ability to interact with diverse students (TEA, nd). Rapport and trust develop through synchronization of modes of communication (Wood, 2006) Texas Education Agency (nd). Texas Teacher Diversity and Recruitment; Policy Research Report. Retrieved February 3, 2007 from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/research/pdfs/prr4.pdf Wood, J. (2006). NLP Revisited: Nonverbal Communications and Signals of Trustworthiness. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. XXVI(2), 197-204. Retrieved June 16, 2006 from EBSCO Host database. Instructional Goal The goal of the instructional plan is to incorporate rapport-building communication techniques into teacher professional training. Change the classroom behaviors that disengage students from teachers and school Learning Objectives and Computer Functions Objectives Objective 1: By the end of training learners will identify effective rapport-building communication principles with 75% accuracy.
  • 8. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 8 Title Rapid Rapport Use the Internet to locate effective rapport-building communication principles using representational systems. Objective 2: By the end of instruction, learners will demonstrate mastery of representational systems. Create a PowerPoint or HyperStudio presentation that demonstrates rapport-building techniques using communication representational systems. Objective 3: By the end of instruction, learner will: Identify primary representational systems with 75% accuracy using language or eye accessing cues. Match primary representational systems with 75% accuracy using language or eye accessing cues Apply one positive anchor once in rapport Create and perform a song - in any genre – that identifies and mirrors language cues of each representational system, builds rapport with the audience, and once in rapport – sets a positive anchor. Problem Problem Nature: Poor teacher-student rapport Problem Data: Texas Education Agency (nd). Texas Teacher Diversity and Recruitment; Policy Research Report. Retrieved February 3, 2007 from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/research/pdfs/prr4.pdf Wood, J. (2006). NLP Revisited: Nonverbal Communications and Signals of Trustworthiness. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. XXVI(2), 197-204. Retrieved June 16, 2006 from EBSCO Host database. Problem The problem is poor teacher-student rapport accounts for up to Statement: 27% of the Hispanic student dropout Data Manipulation Instructions Research the Internet, create a presentation, and create and perform a song as indicated below. Integration Learning groups use the Internet to locate effective rapport-building Strategies communication principles using representational systems and anchoring. Organization Strategies Learning groups create a PowerPoint or HyperStudio presentation that demonstrates rapport-building techniques using Elaboration representational systems and anchoring.
  • 9. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 9 Title Rapid Rapport Strategies Create and perform a song - in any genre – that identifies and mirrors language cues of each representational system, builds rapport with the audience, and once in rapport – sets a positive Results anchor. Presentation Activities Before Using the Teacher/Instructor presents problem, lesson, and objectives. Computer Learners introduce themselves, while teacher/instructor creates learning groups. Teacher/Instructor explains the training methods used to present the lesson. While Using the Learners will work in groups at the computer to research and create Computer content presentations about representational systems (RS). The teacher/instructor will assess understanding and adjust instruction while moving among groups. Group Information The teacher creates learning groups by seating proximity. Where the facility offers a limited number of computer, groups working the performances can do so offline. After Using the Learning groups will present representational system and Computer anchoring presentations. Learning groups will perform their songs. Supporting Activities Assessment After instruction and research, students will discuss and practice techniques within their learning groups. Members will show mastery of techniques in presentations and performances. Teacher/Instructor will provide audience rubrics for the presentation and performance. Audience members will evaluate the presentations and performance against the stated objectives. Teacher/Instructor will assess learning using the lesson rubric.
  • 10. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 0 Lesson III: Learning with Metaphors Title Learning with Metaphors Author Yevette McGowen Subject Area Communication Teacher –Student Communication using Metaphors Level Teacher In-Service Lesson Summary The problem is that the increase in drop out rates for students is partially attributed to the lack of communication between teachers and students. With the continual changing of demographics within the classroom, along with additional learning standards that are dictated by all levels of government, students are at risk by not having a clear and definitive educational path with their teachers. A portion of this risk is based on the manner in which teachers and students communicate. The purpose of this lesson plan is to create a new way of learning to communicate with the use of metaphors. Instructional Goal The goal of the instructional plan is to incorporate communication techniques with the use of metaphors into teacher in-service training A secondary goal is to encourage teacher-students to identify and discover what each other is saying or meaning by use of metaphors. Learning Objectives and Computer Functions Objectives - By the end of training: Objective 1: Learners will: Define what a metaphor is and how to incorporate basic metaphors in daily communication. Use the Internet to locate definition and types of metaphors. Use MS Word to create a table of basic metaphors and their meaning. Objective 2: Learners will: Demonstrate mastery of metaphor learning and communication techniques in two out of three simulated incidents. Complete an exercise designed to identify and to write a metaphor. Use PowerPoint to create a presentation with each learner’s story using clip art. Objective 3: During simulations, learners will: Role play a teacher-student dialogue using metaphors
  • 11. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 1 Title Learning with Metaphors Brainstorm and create a list of student exercises that can be facilitated using metaphors Draft a basic lesson plan using metaphors as part of the learning process. Problem Problem Nature: Poor communication between teachers and students Problem The problem is that teachers and students miss an entire aspect of Statement: communication when they lack the knowledge of metaphor use. Understanding how metaphors affect the day-to-day conversation will play a significant role in improving teacher-student relations in the educational setting. Data Manipulation Instructions The learner used computers at level Integration Intermediate Strategies Organization Organizing, analyzing, and recording Strategies Elaboration Verbally through group interaction and in written format Strategies Think Sheet Questions What websites did you use to define and gain an understanding about metaphors? What is the importance of metaphors, and how can using metaphors improve communication? What are the names of the different types of metaphors used in everyday life? What are the three types of clean-language questions to consider when exploring metaphors? What are five everyday metaphors that students might use and their meaning? Can you explain a sample lesson plan for teaching metaphors? Results Demonstrate comprehension of the subject matter by creating a final Presentation PowerPoint presentation Activities Before Using the Gain attention by stating everyday metaphors Computer Discuss objectives and expected outcome Present trainer, content, and material
  • 12. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 2 Title Learning with Metaphors Have learners introduce themselves Brainstorm and jot down overall learners perceptions about teacher- student communications and ways to incorporate learning using metaphors While Using the Learners work in groups to research a comprehensive list of Computer everyday metaphors used by both teachers and students. Suggested websites for use: http://www.how-to-study.com/metaphors.htm http://mentalhealth.about.com/cs/selfhelp/a/metaphors.htm http://knowgramming.com/metaphors/metaphor_chapters/examples. htm http://www.cleanlanguage.com www.teachersmind.com/metaphors1.htm http://www.learner.org/channel/workshops/nextmove/metaphor/#mor emet http://www.teachablemoment.org/middle/metaphors.html http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112392/metaphor.html Learners work individually on the computer to write a poem or short story describing their teaching style by use of a metaphor. Learners then work in small groups to create PowerPoint presentations with each person’s story or poem. After Using the Have Learners share and discuss the list of everyday metaphors that Computer they have found in their research. Learners will discuss how they went about the task of writing a story or poem describing their teaching style by using metaphors Discuss the process used to incorporate each groups’ story or poem into a PowerPoint presentation. Assess understanding of the goals to ensure that the class is still on task. Supporting Activities Assessment After instruction, each learner will complete an assessment to measure how well he or she understands the meaning of metaphors with questions that are multiple choice, fill in the blank and write out the metaphor based on the description. Two learners will roll-play: one student and one teacher. The remaining learners will provide feedback on how well the
  • 13. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 3 Title Learning with Metaphors communication with use of metaphors was represented. Learning groups will present their PowerPoint presentation on metaphors. Identify concepts of learning with use of metaphors by use of an assessment which includes fill-in-the blank questions and multiple- choice. Learners skills in communications with metaphors will be assessed in a simulated exercise A rubric will evaluate effectiveness of lesson plan.
  • 14. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 4 Implementation Plan The following section explains the rules and procedures for each of the following areas. As guidelines for behavior these instructions will explain how technology is to be used, and will allow everyone to understand what is appropriate use of technology and what is not. Ask the instructor for clarification on any of these instructions. Computer Use During class time, learners are to use the computers available to them in the classroom. In addition, learners may supplement the use of classroom computers with computers at home or available to them outside of school. The computers in the computer lab are also acceptable. Rotation of Computer Because there are fewer students than computers, learners do not have to share computers. No rotation of computer use will be necessary. If more than one learner needs to use a single computer in order to facilitate group work or teamwork within a student group, this is acceptable. Computer Teaming and Team Roles Learning teams are encouraged to discuss how the team will work together to achieve the learning goals. Topics such as division of tasks, responsibility, management of deadlines, communication guidelines, and leadership is strongly encouraged. Ensuring that each team member participates in this discussion and agrees to the terms discussed is vital to the success of the team.
  • 15. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 5 Internet Use Guidelines Learners should endeavor to utilize only legitimate, educational websites. Some web sites defeat the facility content blocks and student encounter these inappropriate websites. We encourage students not to linger on these sites. Students should use only educational and professional websites for their research. Student will not access social-networking websites (Myspace or Facebook), chat rooms, or websites containing pornography in our facility. Internet Downloads To maintain the integrity of the computer systems, no downloads are allowed on school computers. This means no plug in, no extensions, no downloading of any programs. Learner Help Learners are encouraged to help each other when necessary. This encourages teamwork and learner-centered learning. Troubleshooting If learners need help with troubleshooting the computer, for example with a program or with basic computer functions, please ask the instructor for help. If necessary, the school’s technical support personnel will provide assistance beyond basic troubleshooting. Close of Class At the end of each class, please close all websites, programs, and applications in use. It is not required to turn the computer off. This ensures computers are ready for the next class.
  • 16. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 6 Lesson Rubric Levels Score Content Conventions Organization Presentation Content is well No spelling, Research is PowerPoint or researched and grammatical, or focused and Hyperstudio is used defines the principles punctuation errors organized. to demonstrate the Reflects critical High-level use of Presentation have a principles. thinking terms and word logical pattern that Presentation Relates to the topic choice details the clarifies the 4 principles. principles. Identifies verifiable sources Performance is Presentation Is accurate clear and details captures audience the principles. attention. Presentation is well organized. Content is thought 1 to 3 spelling, Information PowerPoint or out and supports the grammatical, or supports the Hyperstudio is used principles. punctuation errors research. to illustrate the Applies critical Good use of terms main points. thinking and word choice Presentation is Has a goal that appropriate for the 3 relates to the topic principles. Identifies several Presentation sources captures audience Is accurate attention. Presentation is organized. Supports the Minimal (3 to 5) Project has a focus Multimedia loosely solution spelling, but might stray from illustrates the main Has application of grammatical, or it at times. points. critical thinking that punctuation errors Information appears Format does not is apparent Low-level use of to have a pattern, suit the content. Has no clear goal vocabulary and but the pattern is Presentation does 2 word choice inconsistent. not capture Is pulled from a limited number of Information loosely audience attention. sources supports the Presentation is Has some factual solution. loosely organized. errors or inconsistencies Provides More than 5 Content is Presentation inconsistent spelling, unfocused and appears sloppy information for grammatical, or haphazard. and/or unfinished. 1 solution punctuation errors Information does Multimedia is Has no apparent Poor use of not support the overused or application of critical vocabulary and solution to the underused.
  • 17. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 7 Levels Score Content Conventions Organization Presentation thinking word choice challenge or Format does not Has no clear goal question. enhance content. I pulled from few Information has no Presentation has no sources apparent pattern. clear organization. Has significant factual errors, misconceptions, or misinterpretations Diverse Learner Modifications This section modifies the first lesson plan “Interpersonal Communication in the Classroom” to work with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students It is important that the students understand that the teacher is not reinforcing any ethnic stereotypes when implementing the following modifications, but rather attempting to facilitate the achievement of the instructional objectives. The teacher and facility can also make modifications to the lessons to accommodate students with learning disabilities. Similar modifications can also be made for students with physical disabilities. Students with learning disorders can use all of these lessons as long as the lessons are modified to accommodate their learning disorders. Specifically, “Interpersonal Communication in the Classroom” can be adapted to ensure the success of students with learning disabilities. Learning disabilities can take many forms, including dyslexia, attention deficit disorders, comprehension disorders, and the like. For these learners, adaptations can be made throughout the lesson plan that allows extra time for the completion of the individual components of each task within the assignments. In addition, students who have paraprofessionals who work with them to improve their reading comprehension can have these adults work with them to increase
  • 18. T E A C H E R - S T U D E N T C O M M U N I C A T I O N 1 8 their understanding of the reading and retain the material. All of the material within the lesson plan may be shared with a paraprofessional, too, and utilized by them to increase students’ success. Paraprofessionals may read to these students, or proctor the reading portions for them. Students with attention issues can work in a classroom or computer lab separate from their teammates if necessary, or the entire student team can work separately from the rest of the class in a separate room. This will increase the student’s ability to focus. For students with physical disabilities, changes can be made to the facilitation of this lesson to increase their access, too. Students with physical disabilities may need computer tables and chairs to be arranged differently to accommodate their access to the computer. Any modification that can be made to the arrangement of the furniture in the classroom should be done so that students with wheelchairs or walkers can gain access to all of the technology available to them. Students who have difficulty hearing or seeing in the classroom should be placed closer to the instructor and closer to the computer to ensure they can see and hear successfully, too. Textbooks in large print as well as computer monitors that allow large print can be utilized in this instance, too. To ensure the success of each student as well as the participation of each student, all of these accommodations should be made where necessary. In addition, it should be stressed to all students to encourage the participation of all students, and to stress to each student to include everyone else in a way that is kind and makes sense. For example, during the play or series of skits, if a student is uncomfortable performing, their skills can be used in writing the play or skit, or directing other students. All efforts should be made to allow for each students comfort level in consideration of their individual learning or physical disabilities. This will ensure everyone is provided a chance to learn and succeed.