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    Thuật ngữ phật học Thuật ngữ phật học Document Transcript

    • I/ SAKYA MUNISakya, the clan or family of the Buddha, said to be derived from sakya, vegetables, butinterpreted in Chinese as powerful, strong, and explained by (NĂNG ) powerful, alsoerroneously by (NHÂN ) charitable, which belongs rather to association with Sakyamuni.The clan, which is said to have wandered hither from the delta of the Indus, occupied adistrict of a few thousand square miles lying on the slopes of the Nepalese hills and on theplains to the south. Its capital was Kapilavastu. At the time of Buddha the clan was underthe suzerainty of Kosala, an adjoining kingdom. The sacerdotal name of his family isGautama, said to be the original name of the whole clan. His personal name wasSiddhartha.His father is Suddhodana, the ruler of Kapilavastu. His mother was Maya. He was born inthe full moon of the 4th calendar month in 624BC. Maya died seven days later, leavinghim to be brought up by her younger sister Prajapati.After that, he married to Yasodhara who bore him a son, Rahula. When he was 29 yearsold he left home and sought for truth, became a ascetic, severely disciplined himself, andfinally at the age 35 years old, under a tree (Bodhigaya: Bồ Đề Đạo Tràng), he realized thatthe way of release from the chain of rebirth and death lay not in asceticism but in moralpurity; this he explained first in his THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS (Thuyết Bốn Đế) andEIGHTFOLD NOBLE WAY (Bát Chánh Đạo), later amplified and developed in manysermons. He founded his community (Sangha: Tăng Già) on the basis of poverty, chastity,and insight or meditation, and it became known as Buddhism, as he became known asBuddha, the Enlightened One (Bậc Giác Ngộ). After 45 years of preaching, he enteredNirvana in Kushinagara (belongs to Nepal now) in 543 BC.According to legend, after 500 or 550 previous incarnations, Sakyamuni finally attained tothe state of Boddhisattva, was born in the Tusita heaven, and descended as a whiteelephant, through her right side, into the womb of the immaculate Maya, the purest womanon earth. He was regarded as the Buddha of the present time.II/ MANJUSRI (BỒ TÁT VĂN THÙ, VĂN THÙ SƯ LỢI)Majusri also called Manjunatha, Manjudeva, Manjughosa, Manjusvara etc… Origin isunknown like most Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, an idealization of a particular quality, in hiscase of Wisdom. Majus is beautiful, Sri: good fortune, virtue, majesty, lord or god. Sixdefinitions are obtained from various scriptures: Diệu Thủ (wonderful or beautiful head),Phổ Thủ (universal head), Nhu Thủ (glossy head), Kính Thủ (revered head), Diệu Đức(wonderful virtue or power), Diệu Cát Tường (wonderful auspicious).He is the grad of wisdom, often placed on the left side of Sakyamuni, and Samantabhadra(Phổ Hiền) on the right side of Sakyamuni. Normally, his hand holds sword of wisdom andhe sits on a lion.III/ SAMANTABHADRABỒ TÁT PHỔ HIỀNSamantabhadra also called Visvabhadra. He and Majusri are on the right and lelf-handassistants of Buddha, representing reason (Lý) and wisdom (Trí). He rides on a whiteelephant.IV/ AMITABHA (ĐỨC PHẬT A DI ĐÀ)Also called boundless light (Vô Lượng Quang), boundless age (Vô Lượng Thọ).Amita: boundless, infinite (Chinese translated immeasurable: Vô Lượng). Amitabha meansboundless light. His name indicates an idealization rather than a historic personality, theidea of eternal light and life. The origin and date of the concept are unknown, but he hasalways been associated with the west, where in his Paradise, the Western Pure Land (CõiTịnh Độ), he receives to unbounded happiness all who call upon his name. This is1
    • consequent on his forty-eight vows, especially the eighteenth, in which he vows to refuseBuddha-hood until he has saved all living beings to his Paradise, except those who hadcommitted the five unpardonable sins, or were guilty of blasphemy against the Faith.While his Paradise is theoretically only a stage on the way to rebirth in the final joys ofNirvana, it is popularly considered as the final resting-place of those who cry Na-mo A-mi-to-Fo, or Blessed me, or Adoration to, Amita Buddha. He has two assistants:Avalokitesvara appears on his left and Mahasthamaprapta on his right side.V/ AVALOKITESVARA (BỒ TÁT QUÁN THẾ ÂM)Avalokitesvara is the popular name of a Bodhisattva in the countries of MahayanaBuddhism such as China, Japan, Vietnam… English translated as Observer or Regarder ofthe world’s sounds or cries. Hes is on the left side of Amitabha Buddha, whileMahasthamprapta is on the right. In China, Vietnam, Japan he is under the form of woman.VI/ MAHASTHAMA (ĐẠI THẾ CHÍ BỒ TÁT)Also called mahasthamprapta (Ma-ha-na-bát); A Bodhisattva representing the Buddha-wisdom of Amitabha. He is on the right side of Amitabha. Amitabha, Avalokitesvara andMahasthama are called the Trinitry (Di Đà Tam Tôn).VII/ MAITREYA (ĐỨC PHẬT DI LẶC)Also called Happy Buddha because he always smiles and seems to be enjoyed life verymuch. He continues preaching beings in the future. He stays in Tusina Heaven. Chinesetranslated The Compassionate One (Bậc Từ Thị).VIII/ LUCKY SIGN (CHỮ VẠN)Lucky sign, Visnu’s breast-curl or mark, Chinese scholars translated sea-cloud (hải-vân),or cirrhus. Used as fancy form of VẠN or PHƯƠNG; It is the 4th of auspicious signs inthe footprint of Buddha, and is a mystic diagram of great antiquity. (p.203).IX/ STUPA (MỘ THÁP)Tope; a tumulus, or mound, for the borns, or remains of the dead, or for other sacred relics(xá lợi), especially of the Buddha, whether relics of the body or the mind, eg. Borns orscriptures.As the body is supposed to consist of 84,000 atoms, Asoka is said to have built 84,000stupas to preserve relics of Sakyamuni. Pagodas, dagodas, or towers with an odd numberof stories are used in China for the purpose of controlling the geomantic influences of aneighbourhood.X/ THE EIGHTFOLD NOBLE TRUTHS (BÁT CHÁNH ĐẠO)The Fourth Noble Truth is that of the Way leading to the Cessation of Dukkha. This isknown as the “Middle Path”, because it avoids two extremes: one extreme being the searchfor happiness through the pleasures of the senses, which is “low, common, unprofitableand the way of the ordinary people”; the other being the search for happiness through self-mortification in different forms of asceticism, which is “painful, unworthy andunprofitable”. Sakya Muni Buddha himself first tried these two extremes, and found themto be useless, then He discovered through personal experience the Middle Path “whichgives vision and knowledge, which leads to Calm, Insight, Enlightenment, Nirvana”. ThisMiddle Path is generally referred to as the Noble Eightfold Path, because it is composed ofeight categories:Chân Lý Thánh thứ IV là Con đường đạo Diệt Khổ. Nó được xem là “Trung Đạo” vì tránhđược hai cực đoan: cực đoan thứ nhất là mưu cầu hạnh phúc thông qua khoái lạc cảm quan(pleasures of senses), đây là con đường bình thường của hạng người bình thường; cực đoanthứ hai là cầu tìm giác ngộ qua sự tu hành ép xác khổ hạnh, con đường này “dày vò thânxác, không lợi ích, vô nghĩa”. Bản thân đức Phật đã thử hai con đường cực đoan này vàthấy chúng vô dụng. Ngài khám phá Con đường Trung Đạo qua thực nghiệm cá nhân và2
    • thấy nó cung cấp một tầm nhìn rộng và trí tuệ dẫn tới Bình Tịnh, Nội Quán, Giác Ngộ vàNiết Bàn”. Con đường Trung đạo nói chung được xem là Bát Chánh Đạo.(1) CHÁNH KIẾN: RIGHT UNDERSTANDINGRight understanding means that you recognize Four Noble Truths (also called FOURAXIOMS). You know which action is good and which is cruel. You recognize all life issuffering, the cause of suffering is ignorant desire, this desire can be destroyed, and themeans to this is the Eightfold Noble Path.(2) CHÁNH TƯ DUY: RIGHT THOUGHTRight thought means you think about good things and abandon bad thought such as findingthe way to kill other people, capture their wives and take their property illegally. You reston right recognition and correct knowledge.(3) CHÁNH NGỮ: RIGHT SPEECHRight speech means that you talk about good things which help people. Your speechdoesn’t separate people. Give your speech on suitable time, right place. Give a usefulspeech.(4) CHÁNH NGHIỆP: RIGHT ACTION, RIGHT DEEDRight action means that you do good things which help yourself and others. Otherwise,don’t steal or rob other people’s property. Don’t debauch. Debauch means making love tosomeone who is not your vife or your husband.Don’t kill people and animals unreasonably.(5) CHÁNH MỆNH: RIGHT LIVELIHOOD, CORRECT OCCUPATIONRight livelihood means that you earn living by moral jobs. Not earn living by sellingweapons, poison, drugs etc… avoiding illegal occupations.(6) CHÁNH TINH TẤN: RIGHT EFFORTRight effort or endeavour means that you do good things which help yourself and others.Abandon bad action which you used to do, avoid doing bad things. Continue doing goodthings which you are doing now and endeavour to do good things which you not yet dobefore.(7) CHÁNH NIỆM: RIGHT MINDFULNESSRight mindfulness means you remember the moral things; or retain good action in yourmind and exclude the false.(8) CHÁNH ĐỊNH: RIGHT CONCENTRATION, CORRECT MEDITATION ORCORRECT ABSORPTIONCorrect meditation means you concentrate on thinking about right thought and then you getenlightened knowledge. Sakya Muni is the Enlightened One (Bậc Giác Ngộ). awakenmeans you get penetrating knowledge. You know the things as they are.XI/ TWELVE LINKS IN THE CHAIN OF EXISTANCE(THẬP NHỊ NHÂN DUYÊN)(1) IGNORANCE: VÔ MINH(2) ACTION, ACTIVITY: HÀNH(3) CONSCIOUSNESS: THỨC(4) NAME AND FORM: DANH VÀ SẮC(5) SIX SENSE OF ORGANS: LỤC NHẬP(6) CONTACT, TOUCH: XÚC(7) SENSATION, FEELING: THỌ(8) THIRST, DESIRE, CRAVING: ÁI(9) GRASPING: THỦ(10) BEING, EXISTING: HỮU(11) BIRTH: SINH(12) OLD AGE AND DEATH: LÃO, TỬ.3
    • Ignorance and action are two causations which belong to the previous life. We rest onconsciousness to incarnate in this world. When we incarnate, we are in the state of toetuswhich are called name and form. In the womb, 6 sense of organs such as eye, ear, nose,tongue, body, and mind are formed (eye to look, ear to hear, nose to smell, tongue to taste,body to touch and mind to have perception). They are called six entrances.When man was born, his intelligence is limited, he just contacts with the outside world bytouching. From 4 or 5 years old to 14 or 15 years old, he has sensation about this world.Ignorance and action belong to the previous life; consciousness, name and form, six sensesof organs, contact, sensation are the causations of present life. What’s about desire orcraving? Man from 16, or 17 years old, the desire becomes more and more stronger. Due toman’s desire, he wants to have something which he loves to hold it. This is grasping. Hehas grasping so that he wants to capture it and he needs to live to enjoy it. This is being orexisting. Desire, grasping and being are the causations of the present life. Human beingsrest on them to incarnate in the next life. So, we have birth. Because of being born, so manalso gets old and death after that. After the death, man has to incarnate in the next life.Twelve links in the chain of existence like twelve hours in our watch.We have no way to understand the causations from ignorance to sensation, we also cannotcontrol two causes of birth and old age and death. We just only control three causations:desire, grasping and being. We build up our karma and we have to be responsible for it.We have examples of the twelve links in the chain of existence. In another circle thetwelve links are represented as follows: (1) ignorance, a blind woman; (2) action, a potterat work, or a man gathering fruit; (3) consciousness, a restless monkey; (4) name and form,a boat; (5) sense of organs, a house; (6) contact, a man and a woman sitting together; (7)sensation, a man pierced by an arrow; (8) desire, a man drinking wine; (9) graving, acouple in union; (10) existence through childhood; (11) birth, a man carrying a corpse; (12)disease, old age, death: an old woman leaning on a stick. Our life is a circle from which wecannot escape except the Arhat (means kill enemy), Bodhisattva and Buddha.XII/ MAHAYANA (PHẬT GIÁO ĐẠI THỪA)Mahayana is also called: Thượng Thừa; Diệu Thừa; Thắng Thừa; Vô Thượng Thừa; VôThượng Thừa; Bất Ác; Vô Đẳng; Vô Đẳng Đẳng etc…Maha means great; yana means van. The great van or conveyance, or the greater vehicle incomparison with the Hinayana (Tiểu Thừa). It indicates Universalism, or Salvation for all,for all are Buddhas and will attain bodhi (Giác ngộ). It is the form of Buddhism prevalentin Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, and Japan and in other places in the Far East. It is alsocalled Northern Buddhism or Sanskrit Buddhism.XIII/ HINAYANA (PHẬT GIÁO TIỂU THỪA)Hinayana also called Nhị Thừa.The small, or inferior van, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed afterSakyamuni’s death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahayana doctrineswere introduced. It is the orthodox school and more indirect line with the Buddhistsuccession than Mahayana which developed on lines fundamentally different. Buddha wasa spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery andperpetual transmigration. Hinayana remains the form in Ceylon (Sri Lanka now), Burma(Myanma now), Laos, Siam (Thai Land now), Cambodia. It is also called SouthernBuddhism or Pali Buddhism.XIV/ SEVEN EMOTIONS (THẤT TÌNH)The seven emotions are pleasure (hỷ), anger (nộ), sorrow (ai), joy (lạc), love (ái), hate (ố)and desire (dục).XV/ SIX SEXUAL ATTRACTIONS (LỤC DỤC)The six sexual attractions arise from colour; form, carriage; voice (or speech); softness (orsmoothness); and features.4
    • SIX THINGS THAT FERRY ONE BEYOND THE SEA OF MORTALITY TONIRVANA (LỤC ĐỘ).The six things that ferry one beyond the sea of death to Nirvana are:(1) Charity, donation or giving, including the bestowing of the truth on others (bố thí).(2) Keeping the commandments (trì giới).(3) Patience under insult (nhẫn nhục).(4) Zeal and progress (tinh tấn).(5) Meditation or contemplation (thiền định).(6) Wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth (trí tuệ).It is the last which carries across the samsara (the sea of incarnate life) to the shore ofNirvana. The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, adistracted mind, and ignorance.XVII/ TEN MERITS OR POWER (THẬP CÔNG ĐỨC).Ten merits commended by Buddha to his bhiksus: zealous progress; contentment with fewdesires; courage; learning (so as to teach); fearlessness; perfect observance of thecommands and the fraternity’s regulations; perfect meditation; perfect wisdom; perfectliberation and perfect understanding of it.XVIII/ TEN EVIL THINGS (THẬP ÁC)Ten “not right” or evil things are: killing (sát sanh), stealing (trộm cắp), adultery (tà dâm),lying (nói dối), double tongue (lưỡng thiệt: nói ác), coarse language (nói chia rẽ), filthylanguage (nói phù phiếm), covetousness (tham), anger (sân), perverted views (si).XIX/ TEN GOOD CHARACTERISTICS VIRTUES (THẬP THIỆN)Not doing evil things mean doing ten good virtues.There are some books that explain 10 good virtues in the positive and flexible way such as:1/ Not killing beings but also releasing them.(Không giết hại mà còn phóng sinh).2/ Not stealing but also charity.(Không trộm cắp mà lại còn hay bố thí).3/ No adultery but also living in virtuous way.(Không tà dâm mà lại còn sống trong sạch).4/ Not telling a lie but also giving truthful speech.(Không nói dối mà nói lời chân thực).5/ Not having double tongue but also giving united speech.(Không nói lời chia rẽ mà nói lời đoàn kết).6/ Not using coarse language but also giving gentle speech.(Không nói lời độc ác mà nói lời dịu hiền).7/ Not using filthy language but also giving useful speech.(Không nói lời vô nghĩa mà nói lời có ích).8/ No covetousness.(Không tham).9/ No anger.(Không sân).10/ No delusion.(Không si mê).http://www.thongtindulichvietnam.com/diendan/viewtopic.php?f=93&t=2785
    • TỨ DIỆU ĐẾ:Còn gọi là Bốn chân lý Thánh (the Four Noble Truths – Pali: Cattari)gồm có:1/ Khổ Đế (Dukkha)2/ Tập Đế (Samudaya), sự phát khởi hay nguồn gốc của khổ.3/ Diệt Đế (Nirodha), sự diệt khổ.4/ Đạo Đế (Magga), con đường dẫn tới diệt khổ.1. Dukkha2. Samudaya, the arising or origin of dukkha.3. Nirodha, the cessation of dukkha.4. Magga, the way leading to the cessation of dukkha.)Adhamma: Bất thiện pháp.Ahara: lợi dưỡng.Alaya-vijnana: Tạng thức hoặc A-lại-da thức.Amata (Skt. Amrta): nước cam lồ, trường cửu, một từ đồng nghĩa với Nirvana.Anapanasati: quán sổ tức.Anatta: Vô ngã.Arahant: A-la-hán, bậc thánh đã giác ngộ, thành tựu được Niết Bàn, cũng còn gọi là bậc vôhọc.Ariya-attangika-magga (Noble Eightfold Path): Bát Chánh Đạo.Ariya-sacca (Noble Truth): chân Lý Thánh.Atman (Skt. Atta): Tiểu ngã, cái Ta.Avihimsa (Skt. Ahimsa): thuyết bất hại, bất bạo động.Avijja: vô minh, ảo ảnh.Ayasma: bậc đạo sư, bậc tôn túc.Bhikkhu: tỷ kheo, tăng sĩ.Bhisakka: thầy thuốc, y sĩ.Bodhi, Bo-tree: cây Bồ đề, cội Bồ đề. Đức Phật thiền định và thành tựu chánh giác dướicội Bồ đề.Bojjhanga (factors of Enlightenment): Bồ Đề Thất Phần.Brahma: Đấng sáng tạo ra vũ trụ.Brahmana, Brahmin: thành viên của đẳng cấp cao nhất ở Ấn độ, đẳng cấp Bà-la-môn.Buddha: Bậc Giác Ngộ.Buddhaghosa: Luận sư Phật Âm, nhà sớ giải lớn của đạo Phật Đại thừa sống ở thế kỷ thứV.Cetana (volitional action): tác ý.Chanda (will): ý chí.Citta (mind): tâm, tâm thức.Deva: loài trời.Dhamma (Skt. Dharma): Chân lý, chánh pháp, tất cả mọi thực thể trong vũ trị.Dhamma-cakka (wheel of Truth): bánh xe pháp.Dhamma-cakkhu: Tuệ nhãn.Dhatuvibhanga-sutta: Kinh Giới Phân Biệt được đánh số 140 thuộc Kinh Trung Bộ, tươngđương với kinh Phân Biệt Lục Giới trong Trung A Hàm, được đánh số 162.Dhyana: Thiền Na, tĩnh lự, thiền định, một trạng thái siêu việt của tâm thức.Dosa (anger, hatred, il-will): sân, sân hận.Dravya (substance): thực thể.Dukkha (suffering): khổ.Dukkha-dukkha: khổ khổ, là nỗi khổ thông thường.Hinayana (Small Vehicle): Tiểu thừa, từ được các nhà theo Phật giáo Đại thừa6
    • (Mahayanist) dùng để chỉ phái chính thống trước tiên. Sau này, người ta không gọi là Phậtgiáo Tiểu thừa hay Phật giáo Đại thừa nữa mà thay vào đó là Phật giáo Nguyên thủy hayPhật giáo Phát triển.Jara-marana (old age and death): lão-tử, một trong 12 nhân duyên (vô minh, hành, thức,danh sắc, lục nhập, xúc, thọ, ái, thủ, hữu, sinh, lão-tử).Kama: (sense-pleasures, desire for sense-pleasures): niềm vui xác thịt, tình dục.Kamma (Skt. Karma) (volitional action, deed): nghiệp, nghiệp báo.Khanti (tolerance): khoan dung, rộng lượng.Kilesa (defilements, impurities, passions): bất tịnh, dục vọng.Ksatriya (royal caste): đẳng cấp vương tướng, đẳng cấp thứ hai trong hệ thống đẳng cấpẤn giáo, đứng sau đẳng cấp Bà-la-môn. Đức Phật về sau không đồng ý như vậy, Ngài chủtrương không có đẳng cấp, tất cả đều bình đẳng.Lankavatara-sutra: Kinh Lăng Già.Magga (Path, Way): con Đường đạo.Mahayana (Great Vehicle): hình thức của Phật giáo Phát triển, phổ biến ở Trung Hoa, TâyTạng, Nhật Bản, Triều Tiên, Việt Nam.Majjhima-nikaya: Trường Bộ Kinh.Majjhima-patipada (Middle Path): Trung Đạo, Con đường Đi giữa.Metta (love, universal love, lit. ‘friendship’): ái hữu.Nagarjuna: Long Thọ, vị Bồ tát thành lập phái Trung Quán (Madhyamaka).Nalanda: Học viện Phật giáo đầu tiên trên thế giới, vào thế kỷ 12, nó bị quân Hồi giáothiêu rụi vào thế kỷ 12.Nama-rupa (Nam and Form): danh sắc.Neranjana: dòng sông Ni liên thiền gần nơi đức Phật ngồi nhập định dưới cội Bồ đề vàthành Chánh quả.Nirodha (Cessation): Diệt đế.Nirvana, Pali: Nibbana: Niết Bàn.Nissarana (freedom, liberation): tự do, tự tại.Pancakkhandha (Five Aggregates): Ngũ Uẩn.Panna: tuệ, trí tuệ.Paramattha (Skt. Paramartha): Absolute Truth, Ultimate Reality, Chân lý Tối thượng, Chânlý Tuyệt đối.Pariccaga (giving up, renouncing): xả bỏ.Paticca-samuppada (Conditioned Genesis): Lý Duyên Khởi.Paticca-samuppada (Conditioned Genesis): Lý Duyên Khởi.Phassa (contact): xúc, tiếp xúc.Piti (joy): hiền vui, niềm hân hoan.Pudakkhadha (the Aggregate of Matter): Sắc uẩn.Ratanattaya (Triple-Gem): Tam Bảo gồm Phật, Pháp và Tăng.Rupa: sắc, vật chất.Saddha, Skt. Sraddha (confidence): tự tín.Sakkaya-ditthi (Once-Returner): Nhập lưu, dự lưu.Samadhi (concentration): nhập định.Samkhara-dukkha: Hành khổ, khổ được tạo ra do bị chi phối.Samkharakkhandha (The aggregate of Formation): Hành uẩn.Samma-ajiva (right livelihood): Chánh mạng.Samma-ditthi (right view): Chánh tri kiến.Samma-kammanta (right action): Chánh nghiệp.Samma-samadhi (right concentration): Chánh định.Samma-samkappa (right thought): chánh tư duy.Samma-sati (right mindfulness): Chánh niệm.7
    • Samma-vaca (right speech): Chánh ngữ.Samma-vayama (right effort): Chánh tinh tấn.Sammuti-sacca (conventional truth): chân lý quy ước.Samsara (continuity of existence): thuyết luân hồi.Samudaya (arising, origin of dukkha, the Second Noble Truth): Tập đế.Sangha (Community of Buddhist monks): Tăng già Phật giáo.Sannakkhadha (the Aggregates of Perception): Tưởng uẩn.Sariputta: Ngài Xá Lợi Phất, một trong những đại đệ tử của đức Phật.Sati (mindfulness, awareness): tỉnh giác.Sattha (teacher, master): đạo sư.Setting up of Mindfulness: Kinh Tứ Niệm Xứ.Sila (virtue, morality): đạo đức, giới luật.Stupa, Dagaba: xá lợi.Sudra: Thủ đà la, đẳng cấp thấp nhất trong hệ thống đẳng cấp ở Ấn Độ.Sukha (happiness, ease, comfort): hạnh phúc.Sutta (discourse, sermon): bài giảng, kinh.Tanha (Skt. Trsna), thirst, desire, craving: khát ái, dục vọng, ham muốn.Tathagata: Bậc đã giác ngộ Chân lý, từ đồng nghĩa của Buddha, nói chung thuật ngữ này làmột danh xưng được Đức Phật sử dụng khi nói về Ngài hay đề cập đến các đức Phật khác.Theravada: Phái của các Bậc trưởng lão, được xem là chính thống phổ biến ở Srilan-ka,Miến Điện, Thái Lan, Lào, Campuchia.Thina-middha (torpor and languor): lưỡng thiệt.Tipitaka, Skt. Tripitaka (Three Books: Discourses, Code of Discipline and HigherDoctrine, Philosophy and Psychology): Tam Tạng Kinh Điển: Kinh Sutta; Luật Vinaya vàLuận Abhidhama.Tisarana (Three Refuges: The Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha): Tam quy: quy yPhật, quy y Pháp và quy y Tăng.Uccheda-vada (annihilation, annihilationist theory): thuyết hoại diệt.Upadana (grasping, attachment): thủ, một trong 12 nhân duyên.Upasaka (a lay Buddhist): cư sĩ.Vedanakkhandha (the Aggregates of Sensations): Thọ uẩn.Vinnanakkhandha (the Aggregate of Consciousness): Thức uẩn.Viparinama-dukkha: Hoại khổ, khổ được tạo ra do sự thay đổi.Vipassana (insight, analytical insight): thiền quán.Viraga (detachment, freedom from desire): xả bỏ.Vyapada (anger, hatred, ill-will): sân.http://www.thongtindulichvietnam.com/diendan/viewtopic.php?f=93&t=2788