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    Thuật ngữ chuyên ngành ctxh Thuật ngữ chuyên ngành ctxh Document Transcript

    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành1 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngUNIT 1WHAT IS SOCIAL WORK?A new international definition of social work was adopted at the General Meeting of theInternational Federation of Social Workers’ (IFSW) in Montreal in July 2000 (available on-line athttp://www.ifsw.org):The social work profession promotes social change, problem solving in human relationshipsand the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Utilizing theories ofhuman behaviour and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where peopleinteract with their environments. Principles of human rights and social justice arefundamental to social work.The definition emphasizes four concepts: social change, problem solving, person-in-the-environment and empowerment. To begin to understand this complex work it is necessary toexplore these four key concepts. Social Change MandateA social change mandate means working in solidarity with those who are disadvantaged orexcluded from society so as to eliminate the barriers, inequities and injustices that exist in society.Social workers should be at the forefront of promoting policy and legislation that redistributeswealth in favour of those who are less well-off- that is, promoting equal opportunity for women,gays, lesbians, bisexuals, transgender persons, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples andracial and other minorities, and defending past gains made in these areas. Problem SolvingSocial workers respond to crises and emergencies as well as everyday personal and socialproblems. Within this process, social workers use problem-solving techniques to identify theproblem and formulate possible plans of action. A problem is not usually clearly defined whensomeone comes to a social service agency. It is therefore crucial for the social worker to explore theperson’s concerns, to identify the need(s) involved, to identify barriers to meeting need(s) and tocarefully determine the goals and possible plans of action. A key characteristic of the problem-solving process is the inclusion of the client at each stage. The process should also teach clientsproblem-solving skills so that they can better deal with future problems on their own. Person-in-the-EnvironmentA key aspect of effective social work practice is to go beyond the “internal” (psychological)factors and examine the relationship between individuals and their environments. This person-in-the-environment approach is partly what distinguishes social work practice from other helpingprofessions. These “environments” extend beyond the immediate family and include interactionswith friends, neighbourhoods, schools, religious groups, laws and legislation, other agencies ororganizations, places of employment and the economic system. Based on this understanding,
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành2 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngintervention may focus on the individual, interactions between people and any given system orstructure, or on the system or structure itself. “Empowerment” and Social WorkIn order for the interventions of social workers to be successful, the clients must believe thatthe efforts of the social worker will make a difference. This leads to the important concept ofempowerment. Being empowered means feeling that you have power and control over the course ofyour life.Empowerment is the process of increasing personal, interpersonal or political power so thatone can improve one’s particular situation. Power can be a personal state of mind, in the sense thatone feels that one can make a difference and have control and influence over one’s own life. It canalso be empowerment within an organization in the sense that one has tangible influence and legalrights. Empowerment, then, involves both a personal perception of being in control and tangibleelements of power within the various social structures of society. Social workers seek to empowertheir clients as a way of helping them to focus on, among other things, access to resources and thestructures of power.“Empowerment-based social work,” therefore, has three aspects: making power explicit in the client-worker relationship (in order thereby to help equalizethe relationship between the client and the worker); giving clients experiences in which they themselves are in control (to allow them to seethe potential for controlling their lives); and always supporting the client’s own efforts to gain greater control over their lives as a wayof promoting change.Putting an empowerment perspective into practice can involve techniques that make powerrelations between the workers and their clients explicit, thereby equalizing the client-workerrelationship. Additionally, it may entail giving clients powerful experiences or experiences that putthem in a position to exercise power. Offering voluntary work experiences that allow clients to usetheir skills to help others can often be an empowering experience. Another approach may be tosupport clients’ efforts to change policies or practices that impinge on their lives and the lives ofothers. Such experiences can help people see the potential for power in their lives.In other instances, an empowering perspective may involve simply focusing on the strengthsof the person, rather than on the “pathology” or what is wrong with the person. In all relationships,it is generally acknowledged that constructive feedback and positive reinforcement is conducive tohelping people make positive changes in their lives. It is often more helpful for social workers toguide their client’s focus towards the success they have achieved in the past rather than dwelling onhow they have been unsuccessful and dysfunctional.An empowerment perspective is the key to good social work practice. And like other aspectsof good practice, it involves not a specific set of skills, but a general orientation on the part of theworker. This orientation is based on helping clients identify their own needs and then helping themto deal with the exigencies of their own particular situation.
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành3 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngUNIT 2INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL WORKSOCIAL WORK AS A PROFESSIONSocial work is similar to helping professions (such as nursing, policing, and psychology) in that (1)it possesses a code of ethics; (2) it has the means to regulate and enforce set standards of behaviouramong its members; and (3) it has developed a theoretical body of knowledge that guides practice(Cross, 1985). Like other professions, social work also requires its members to reach a certain levelof educational preparedness – in terms of knowledge, competencies, and ethics – in order topractice.One of the characteristics that distinguishes social work from other helping professions is itslongstanding association with the social welfare system, which has guided the development anddelivery of many of its programs. This association dates back to the late 19thcentury, when manyreligion-based charitable organizations were replaced by government-sponsored social agencies,which in turn hired social workers to perform a variety of tasks.Another distinguishing feature of social work is its multilevel approach to practice. At themicro level, social workers aim to help individuals, families, and small groups improve theirproblems-solving skills. At the mezzo level, social workers seek to improve conditions in andamong social welfare organizations, while at the macro level they address broader issues such associal problems. Exhibit 7.1 outlines some distinctions been social work and two other helpingprofessions.SOCIAL WORK VALUES AND ETHICSSocial work practice is based on a philosophy of humanitarian and egalitarian ideals that shapesocial work goals and interventions. Underlying this philosophy is a set of values or beliefs abouthow the world should be, rather than how the world really is. Important social work values includeacceptance of and respect for others and the right to self-determination. Social work values reflectthe diverse and often opposing beliefs of a pluralistic society and are strongly influenced by culture,relationships, personal experience, individual perceptions, and other factors (Johnson, 1998;Compton and Galaway, 1994).The extent to which social work values are adhered to in practice is limited. For example, itis important that social workers keep client information confidential. This is because without theassurance that personal information will be kept private, clients will be reluctant to disclose muchinformation about themselves to a worker. Circumstances nevertheless arise that warrant a socialworker’s disclosure of client information without client authorization. For instance, social workerscan breach confidentiality to prevent a crime; to prevent clients from doing harm to themselves or toothers; when ordered by a court of law; when child abuse or neglect is suspected; or whensupervisors, support staff, agency volunteers, or others have an identified “need to know” (CASW,1994b).It is not always easy for social workers to know when to adhere to and when to deviate fromestablished social work values. In 1938 the Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW)
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành4 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngdeveloped a social work code of ethics to help social workers make this kind of decision. Theprimary purpose of a code of ethics “is to provide a practical guide for professional behavior and themaintenance of a reasonable standard of practice within a given cultural context” (CASW, 1983, 2).The CASW code was updated in 1983 and 1994.SOCIAL WORK KNOWLEDGEWhile values focus on what is preferred, desired, or good, knowledge is concerned with what is trueor false. Social work knowledge derives both from inside the social work profession and from otherdisciplines. Knowledge that is produced indigenously by social workers is based on the sharedexperiences of workers, individual professional experiences, and applied research. Much of theknowledge that is “borrowed” is from other helping disciplines such as psychology, psychiatry,education, and public health; social work knowledge has also drawn extensively from academicfields of sociology, economics, history, and law. It is this “crosspollination” of various types ofknowledge that makes social work a highly interdisciplinary field (Johnson, 1998).Social work’s person-in-environment focus requires social workers to gain knowledgeabout the client system, the client’s environment, and the client in interaction with his or herenvironment. At one level, social workers must learn about certain aspects of the client system - forexample, work with individual clients requires an understanding of the person’s psychological,social, physical, spiritual, and other dimensions. It is also important that social workers learn aboutthe client’s environment and how culture, the general economy, the political climate, and otherexternal systems may affect his or her ability to function. Finally, social workers need to be awareof the factors that can influence the interactions between the client and his or her environment(McMahon, 1994).SOCIAL WORK PRACTICEThe Planned Change ProcessSocial work involves the transformation of knowledge into practice. The aim of social work practiceis to help people become more empowered so that they are able to function more effectively. Toachieve this aim, social workers apply a generic, formal, systematic, and scientific set of procedures.This problem-solving process is commonly referred to as the planned change process. The plannedchange process consists of five phases:1) intake;2) assessment;3) planning and contracting;4) intervention; and5) evaluation and termination.The intake phase in concerned with screening applicants who apply to social welfareprograms. Client needs must be considered in view of the agency’s eligibility criteria and resources:that is, can the agency meet the client’s needs or must a referral be made to a more appropriateresource? In the assessment phase, information about the client’s concerns or needs is accumulatedand then organized to form an overall picture of the client’s situation. In the planning andcontracting phase, the worker and client decide together what needs to be changed (perhaps abehaviour, emotion, thought pattern, or environmental condition) and then establish a contract thatoutlines the goals and objectives of the needed change and the types of strategies that will be used to
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành5 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngeffect the change. The intervention phase involves putting the plan into action, monitoring itseffectiveness, and modifying strategies as needed to achieve the goal. Toward the end of thecontract, the intervention is evaluated to determine its effectiveness, and the client-workerrelationship is eventually terminated. The planned change process does not always evolve in a linearfashion; as new client needs or goals arise, certain phase may be repeated or deferred.SOCIAL WORK SKILLSGeneralist social workers are trained to apply a wide range of practice skills in their work withindividuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Three generic skill areas are essentialfor generalist social work practice:1) Interpersonal skills include communication and active listening skills, the ability tobuild a working relationship with clients, and interviewing and counselling skills.2) Process skills enable the worker to identify and assess client needs, plan andimplement appropriate interventions, make referrals, and develop more effectivemethods for serving clients.3) Evaluation and accountability skills demonstrate competency in evaluatinginterventions and holding oneself accountable for one’s practice and behaviour(Johnson, Schwartz, and Tate, 1997).Social work skills can also be thought of in terms of the various roles the worker adopts.Generalist social workers typically assume a wide range of roles. The role of broker involveshelping individuals and groups connect with needed programs and services in the community. Anadvocate speaks or acts on behalf of a client who is having difficulty exercising his or her rights oraccessing needed services. A mediator helps people in conflict reach mutually satisfyingagreements, while a consultant assists organizations in improving service effectiveness andefficiency. A social worker who assumes the role of mediator identifies areas of need in thecommunity and establishes new social programs and services for target groups.The skills and roles mentioned above are generic in that they can be applied to interventionswith any size of client system, including individuals, families, and small groups. The illustration ofthe generalist social work perspective in Exhibit 7.2 reflects the person-in-environment perspectiveand shows the range of approaches and knowledge used in the helping process.MULTISKILLINGIn recent years, a new approach to social work practice has emerged in the form ofmultiskilling. The Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW, 1998, 1) defines multiskillingas “an approach to care and/or a concept in which staff are cross trained but not professionallyeducated in two or more tasks or functions associated with at least two disciplines.” Although socialworkers are still required to obtain accredited education in social work, they are able throughmultiskilling to receive additional training in tasks that are associated with other occupations. Forexample, a social worker may be trained to conduct physical mobility assessments, an activitytraditionally associated with physical therapy or other health-related functions.Multiskilling offers advantages that have made it an increasingly popular approach. Someorganizations see multiskilling as a way to break up rigid divisions of labour and make professionalsmore flexible in the tasks they perform. There are potential economic benefits as well: staff numberscan be reduced since more people are prepared to perform a wider range of duties.
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành6 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngMultiskilling is not without its critics, however. According to the CASW (1998, 3):Social workers believe that specialized practitioners are needed to assist in themeeting the varied needs of people. Neutralizing or diminishing the roles ofprofessions and specialists reduces options for clients and increases the potentialfor harm.At its worst, multiskilling may give staff unrealistic expectations about their ability toperform tasks that are complex and thus better left to specialists.PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITYThe Canadian Association of Social Workers was established in 1926 as a national federation ofprovincial and territorial social work associations. At present, about 15,500 social workers areregistered with a provincial or territorial association (CASW, 2000).According to its mission statement, the CASW (1994a, 2) “seeks to develop, promote,support and maintain national professional standards of practice of the highest quality.” To meet thisend, the CASW sets certain standards and guidelines for social work practice in Canada andparticipates in the development of social work regulation and legislation. The promotion ofstandards and control is intended not only to protect clients and the general public from incompetentof fraudulent practice, but also to legitimate the profession and its practice. Social workers areexpected to practise in accordance with the philosophy, purpose, and standards set by theirprofession and to be accountable to their clients, their profession, and society.
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành7 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngExhibit 7.1A COMPARISON OF THREE HELPING PROFESSIONSSOCIAL WORK PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHIATRYFocus ofattentionDual focus on individualand environment andinteraction between thetwoIndividual behaviour,which includes internalthoughts, feelings, andemotional responsesMental illness; widerange of disturbedbehaviour andemotional reactionsAssessment /diagnostic toolsSocial history; clientinterviews; observationDiagnostic tests ( I.Q.,personality, etc.);interviews; observationMedical exams; useof InternationalClassification ofDisease; interviews;observation; testsInterventionmethodsCasework; family and/orgroup therapy;education/information;referral to communityresourcesBehaviourmodification;psychotherapy;environmentalmodificationPrescribepsychotropicmedication;psychotherapy;biological treatmentsAim ofinterventionTo help individuals,families, andcommunities understandand solve personal andsocial problemsTo solve or preventbehavioural, cognitiveand affective problemsTo reducesymptoms, changebehaviour, orpromote personalitygrowthSpecializations Counselling, group work,social administration,research and evaluation,community organization,teachingClinical, experimental,neurologicaldevelopmental, social,counselling,educational, industrialpersonalityChild, geriatric,forensic, liaison,behaviour, family,sexual,psychoanalysis,researchEducation B.S.W., M.S.W., D.S.W.,Ph.D.B.A. or B.Sc., M.A.,Ph.D.Medical doctor andat least 5 years’psychiatric trainingProfessionalassociation(national)Canadian Association ofSocial WorkersCanadianPsychologicalAssociationCanadian PsychiatricAssociation
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành8 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngUNIT 3SOCIAL WORK WITH INDIVIDUALSThe helping process with individuals is sometimes called social casework, although this termis used infrequently nowadays. A majority of social workers spend their time working withindividuals in private or public agencies or in private practice. Even though other types of socialwork are increasing, the practice of social work with individuals still predominates.Individual social work is aimed at helping people resolve their problems or situations on aone-to-one basis, that is, helping unemployed people obtain work or training, providing protectiveservices for abused children, providing counselling for mental health, providing parole or probationservices, supplying services to the homeless and poor, co-ordinating services for people with AIDSand co-ordinating discharge services for a person being released from hospital. All of us onoccasion find ourselves with problems that we cannot resolve alone. At times the help of a friend orfamily member may be enough, but at other times the skilled help of a social worker is necessary.Social work with individuals can take different forms depending on the philosophy and perspectiveof the social worker. While some workers may address personal problems, others may emphasizethe social relations underlying the problem. Still others may address both dimensionssimultaneously.In general, social work practice with individuals involves the following steps. These steps arecommon to most social work interventions with individuals and families. Although assessmentprecedes intervention, and intervention precedes termination, the process can be cyclical. Forexample, during intervention the client and worker may discover new information that in turn raisesthe need for more planning. In fact each process is taking place throughout the intervention, but ateach step one or more is emphasized. As mentioned previously, the steps are mere guideposts for aprocess that involves a combining and re-combining of actions into new ways of looking at things-that is a praxis or a process of “action-reflection-action.” IntakeIntake is usually the first step taken by a worker when a client seeks help. Intake is a processwhereby a request for service is made by or for a person, and it is then determined whether and whatkind of service is to be provided. The social worker attempts to gather initial information from theclient in order to determine what assistance is needed, and whether the agency and worker is theappropriate provider. If it is mutually determined by both the worker and client that the agency canbe of service, then some sort of agreement or contract is made .When it is determined that theperson’s needs cannot be met by the agency, then a referral to a service elsewhere is made or adecision is made that no social work service is required.During the intake phase, the client makes a personal request for help or someone from thecommunity directs the client to a particular social work agency. The social work relationship can beeither voluntary or involuntary. The intake step is voluntary when a client willing seeks help from asocial work agency. For example, a parent who recognizes the difficulties of caring for a child mayapproach a child welfare agency for assistance. By contrast, an involuntary client is ordered to see asocial worker or is required to do so by law. For example, a social worker is required by law toassist a child in danger when, for example, the child’s situation has been reported as unsafe by a
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành9 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngphysician, hospital worker, police officer or school teacher. In such cases, families are oftenuncooperative, especially if allegations of child abuse are reported.In the intake step, the social worker acknowledges the client’s need for help, collectsinformation from the client, assesses the client’s problem or situation and, based on the agency’sresources, determines if the social worker agency can help the client .In essence, when they firstmeet ,both the worker and client want answers to specific questions. The applicant or potentialclient wants to know: Can I get the help I need here? Can this person help me? How can I get thehelp I need at this agency or with this person? The worker will ask: Can I help this person or wouldit be more appropriate for someone else to help? How can I help this person? Assessment and planningThe assessment and planning step includes two processes. In the assessment process, thesocial worker and the client analyze what help is needed based on the client’s ideas, thoughts andfeelings about the particular problem. Once the assessment is complete ,the social workerformulates a plan designed to help the client with the particular problem. The plan is not set in stonebut provides an initial course of action.Many social work textbooks describe a process that involves problem definition, datacollection and objective setting. This type of model flows more from a management or bureaucraticapproach to social work that stresses technical rationality. In this model, the worker knows best andcan rationally plan the optimal course of action. In this section, we are emphasizing a social workprocess that stresses reflection-action-reflection in which the social worker continually thinks thingsthrough while acting on the problem at hand. He or she adapts the intervention based on dialogueand reflection on experiences of and feelings about past actions. Assessment is both a process and aproduct of understanding on which action is based (Siporin 1975,219). It involves gathering relevantinformation and developing an understanding. How a social worker selects information and how heor she analyzes it is accomplished with reference to the assumptions that underlie a particular socialwork model, and by one’s own experience of the world. In order to form a plan in the assessmentphase, the social worker also relies on other people who know the client personally. For example, incases in which a client is provided with social services as a result of an involuntary intervention, thesocial worker may initially rely on information provided by a teacher, doctor or police officer (or,for example, an elder in a First Nations community).During assessment and planning, the worker and client identify problems and a set of actionsneeded to reach the desired goals. The skill set for direct intervention would include the followingitems: Validating feelings. The social worker validates the client’s feelings by conveying anunderstanding of them. This builds a rapport and helps the client to identify and sortout a variety of feelings. The social worker must also consider non-verbal emotionalresponses in developing this understanding. Interview questioning. Open-ended and closed-ended questions are used in aninterview to elaborate information. Open-ended questions give the client theopportunity to discuss aspects of the problem that they see as important in more depth.The questions often begin with “how” or “what.” Closed-ended questions give thesocial worker the opportunity to clarify details of the client’s narrative. They are oftenused late in a session to check for accuracy.
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành10 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng Paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is a basic social work communication skill. Withparaphrasing the social worker re-states what the client has said in her or his ownwords. Social workers use paraphrasing to confirm that the meaning the worker hasattached to a client message is indeed the meaning intended by the client. It alsoprovides feedback to the client that the worker has grasped what he or she is saying.Beginning social workers need to be aware that overuse of paraphrasing can give theclient the impression of being mimicked. Clarification. This skill is used to determine if the worker and client are on the same“wavelength.” It is often used to probe an issue that is not understood by the socialworker. It involves asking for specific details about an event. Clarification oftenbecomes a reciprocal process between the social worker and client as each tries tounderstand the true meaning of what the other is saying. Summarizing. This is skill is used in attempts to capture or pull together the mostimportant aspects of the problem or situation. It provides focus for the next interviewand can assist in planning. Both the feelings and content of the client’s messageshould be used. It is also useful when the social worker believes that it is time to moveon to another topic. Information giving. Without overwhelming people with too much information at onetime, the social worker often shares information about resources in the community(e.g., women’s shelters) or information that shows that the client is not alone inexperiencing the problem. Be sure the client realizes that they can refuse theinformation, and provide pamphlets or brochures where possible. Interpretation. This skill enables the social worker to delve into the presented problemand “read between the lines.” The worker’s insights may help the client develop adeeper understanding of what is really going on, and not just what appears to behappening. It may provide an alternative way of looking at the problem or a newframe of reference. Always check both verbal and non-verbal responses of the clientto your interpretation. Consensus building. Consensus building attempts to work out agreement on whatshould be done to address the problem. It may be easily attained or there may bediscrepancies between what a client says they want and their behaviour, or betweenseparate messages given by a client. Confrontation may be used to challenge a clientto examine such discrepancies. It should be non-adversarial and respectful and usedonly when a safe and trusting relationship has developed.Planning is based on sets of decisions made by the worker and the client that are shaped bythe worker’s analysis of the information collected in the assessment phase. The planned actions maybe at a wide variety of levels: individual, environmental, multi-person, systemic or structural. Forexample, they might involve therapeutic, educational and social action-oriented approaches. Whatfrequently varies between practice models is the focus of attention. A behaviour therapy approachwould tend to focus on changing individual behaviours, whereas a social action or structuralapproach may focus on changing systems or structures in society in order to shift power relations. Inany event, the social worker assesses the client’s problem with the client and negotiates a plan withthe client that includes: the type of actions or interventions; the length of the interventions;
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành11 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng the frequency of their meetings; desired effects; and the intervention plan (where a contract is made with the client).The next step, following assessment and planning, is intervention. InterventionThe worker, the client or both may undertake the intervention stage. The actions taken maybe directed at the client, other individuals, groups, communities, institutions, social policies orpolitical and social structures or systems. In other words, intervention can include a wide variety ofactions, tactics and techniques that are not always directed at the treatment of the individual alone.For example, where the social worker is using a structural or feminist approach to practice, theintervention will usually include some kind of organization, community or social action measures.It is though the process of intervention that the worker and client implement the assessmentand plans. The intervention undertaken is directed at meeting the client’s needs as determined by theworker and client. In the intervention stage of social work with individuals, the client shares withthe social worker any information regarding what progress has been made in resolving the problemor situation. During this step, the social worker: establishes a rapport with the client; accompanies the client in the intervention; provides advice and support to the client; adjusts the intervention based on the client’s information; and helps the client to resolve the problem or situation by providing new knowledge andskills that assist in solving the problem.The intervention phase should focus on creating a dialogue between the client and workerand perhaps others who are implicated in the situation being addressed. There will always be jumps,hesitations, uncertainties and half-formed ideas. In situation where the uncertainties are large ornumerous, it would be advisable to take small cautious steps and then reflect on the experience. Thisopens up the possibility of enhancing an understanding of the important elements in the situationand altering the course of action. Evaluation and TerminationIn this final step, evaluation and termination, the client and the social worker together toassist the client to achieve a resolution to the original problem or situation, and to prevent thesituation from occurring again. In this step, the social worker evaluates the following elements ofthe intervention with the client and the social work supervisor: the choice of the intervention; the length of the intervention; the frequency of their meetings; the outcomes; the need for any follow-up; and
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành12 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng when to terminate the intervention - in most cases, the decision to terminate therelationship is mutually agreed upon by the client and the social worker.Evaluation is an ongoing part of the social work process, aimed at determining whether thegoals and needs of the client are being met. Evaluation should identify the rationale for the actionchosen, whether or not needs were met, the expected and unexpected effects and alternative coursesof action that may need to be taken.Clients are usually not involved in the evaluation process because it is believed that specificskills are required and evaluation is focused primarily on issues of accountability. Increasing,however, there is a recognition of the benefits of client participation: client have an insider’sperspective on agency functioning, information can be validated by clients, issues ofconfidentiality can be discussed, plans and contracts can be adjusted, knowledge and skills can begained, the client-worker relationship may be strengthened and clients can be empowered.Finally, in the termination stage essential records are organized and stored. The use ofrecords raises concerns about the confidentiality of sensitive information: what constitutes theethical disclosure of information about a client? In addressing this question, social workers areobligated to follow the guidelines of the agency or organization employing them. They must alsoobey legislation and association policy. The CASW Code of Ethics stipulates, at length, therequirements for collecting, recording, storing and accessibility of client records.
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành13 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngUNIT 4SOCIAL WORK WITH GROUPSSocial work with groups has its historical roots informal, recreational groups such as thoseorganized by the YWCA, the YMCA, settlement houses, scouting organizations, and more recently,in self-help groups. Settlement houses are frequently credited with providing the roots for groupwork. Today, most social agencies do some kind of group work, including recreation, education,socialization and therapy.When deciding between individual or group intervention, a social worker must considerwhich method would be most effective. In some cases, group work may be the most appropriate andleast costly mode of intervention. Group work may be more appropriate in cases where the problemlies within group systems, such as families or peer groups. In other cases, a problem may be dealtwith by a group of people experiencing a similar problem. For example, a group of abused womenmake be able to relate to one another and share a common experience, thereby overcoming feelingsthat the abuse was somehow their own fault. Group work may also be appropriate when addressingthe problems involved in the development of relationships between people.It can be more economical to work with people in a group. For example, it may be a moreefficient forum for sharing information, delivering education and providing support. A group mayalso be more effective in working to change the policy of an agency or advocating for particularbenefits, as a group generally has a stronger voice than any one individual. The choice of groupwork or individual work depends largely on the particular situation being addressed. Neither isnecessarily more effective than the other.Social work practice with groups occurs in hospitals, mental health settings, institutions forpersons with disabilities (which led to the popularity of self-help groups), prisons, halfway housesfor former prisoners (to prepare them for reintegration into the community), residential treatmentcentres, residential centres for adolescents in trouble with the law, education groups dealing withissues such as child rearing and violence, self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous, abusedwomen’s groups, and therapy groups dealing with emotional or personal problems and othersettings. Today, almost every social service agency has one or more such groups for their clients. Ingredients of Group WorkGroup social work involves several key elements: an agency, a group with membership, agroup consensus and a contract. An agency has social workers that have an interest in particularissues and the expertise to deal with them in a group situation. The group work experience alsorequires individuals who need each other in order to work towards the goals they have set forthemselves. These members must hold a degree of consensus on the issues with which they willdeal. Finally, a contract must exist that outlines an understanding between the potential groupmembers and the social worker (agency) and the terms and frames of reference for the group workexperience.For the purposes of social group work, group can be classified in a variety of ways.Generally groups are classified according to the purpose that brings the group together. Forexample, Mesber (Turner 1999, 213) describes two types of groups based on the purpose of the
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành14 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồnggroup: treatment groups and task groups. She also quotes Toseland and Rivas (1995,14) as theydifferentiate between the two types:The term treatment group is used to signify a group whose major purpose is to meet member’s socio-emotional needs … In contrast, the term task group is used to signify any group in which the majorpurpose is neither intrinsically nor immediately linked to the needs of the members of the group. Intask groups, the overriding purpose is to accomplish a mandate and complete the work for which thegroup was convened.Treatment groups gather for the purpose of meeting the therapeutic objectives of the groupmembers. Individuals work as a group to address problems that they experience personally. Thethree types of treatment groups are family or household groups, therapy groups and self-help or peergroups. Family or household groups consist of family or household members. They may bemembers of the opposite or same sex, with or without children. Family group work orcounselling is most effective when the issues that need to be addressed requireinteraction between family members. Therapy groups consist of individuals who do not share a household together or haveany kind of relationship with one another outside the group setting. They are peopleseeking individual assistance. Interaction in a group environment is merely part of thetherapy for the individual members. The group has no purpose outside of itstherapeutic objectives. Self-help or peer groups consist of people who have similar problems or interestsand believe that working and interacting together will provide opportunities for all thegroup members to grow and change. A social worker may or may not guide the group. Group Work Intervention: Tasks and Group PhasesSuccessful group work intervention involves an understanding of group intervention tasksand the stages of group development. Group workers need to be aware of the group interventiontasks necessary to help maintain and guide a group. In a group, the tasks take place in a groupcontext and therefore generally pass through identifiable stages of development. Often the specificsocial work interventions or tasks are most effective at particular group development stages.For successful group work intervention, it is also important to know how to identify thestages of group development. The intervention tasks for group work will be quite differentdepending on the type of group (e.g., self-help or treatment), but the stages of group developmentwill often be the same for each type of group. By identifying the group’s stage of development,workers can better help the group meet its needs and goals.The stages of group development are:1. Orientation stage. Group members commit to the group and task roles begin to emerge.2. Authority stage. Members challenge each other and there is often conflict over power andcontrol issues. Although conflicts are usually resolved through the sharing of feelings,members frequently drop out at this stage.3. Negotiation stage. Group norms and task roles are designated and accepted and groupcohesion and increases.
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành15 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng4. Functional stage. Integration enables group to implement plans and accomplish tasks.Few groups reach the end of this stage.5. Disintegration stage. Groups may fall apart during any of the stages, but once the groupfeels that its goals have been accomplished, groups often disband. Social workers mayalso bring a treatment group to an end to enable the members to move on.Throughout these stages, workers will undertake specific tasks. Depending on the type ofgroup, social workers will take on any or all of the following tasks: Facilitation. This is the most frequent role for social workers in non-treatment groups.The goal is to enable the group to function smoothly by asking questions, helping thegroup stay on topic, summarizing decisions and being supportive of members. Co-ordination. This more administrative task involves monitoring the task completionby group members, and helping the group plan future activities. Therapy. This is a broad task category and can include any of the skills discussedpreviously in the discussion of intervention with individuals. Often, social workers areworking with “the multi-person client,” such as a family. The focus is often on issuesaround group interaction and communication. Conflict resolution. While not always identified as a group work task, conflictresolution is increasingly a task of social workers (especially in child welfare, familytherapy and international human rights work). The core elements include defining it asa group (rather than an individual) problem, listening to the different points of viewand seeking to draw out common ground. The aim is to create a “win-win” situationand encourage co-operation. Group Work Intervention StepsThe steps for social work with groups are similar to those for work with individuals exceptthat they involve groups of people. Intake. During intake, the social worker acknowledges the client’s need, collectsinformation from the client (for example, self-referral or referral by someone in thecommunity), assesses the client’s situation and his or her capacity and motivation tochange, and determines the agency’s capacity to help the client by using any type ofgroup that it has available. Assessment and planning. The worker completes preliminary assessment of theclient’s situation or problem, provides a potential group process intervention plan andproposes a potential group to the client or adds the client’s name to a waiting list. Group intervention. In working with groups, the social worker may do any of thefollowing:- help the group to find common ground in terms of the issues they wish to dealwith;- anticipate obstacles to the group work experience and bring them to thegroup’s attention;- educate the group, providing information and support thought to be useful tothe group;
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành16 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng- contribute thoughts, feelings, ideas and concerns regarding the group workexperience (drawing upon insights derived from similar group workexperience);- define the needs and limitations of the group-social worker relationship; and- monitor the group’s progress and provide ongoing evaluation of the groupexperience. Evaluation and termination. The final stage deals with issues that arise fromterminating the group experience, such as evaluating the group process with the groupand the social work supervisor. The worker may terminate the relationship with thegroup or mutually agree with the group members to end the group process.
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành17 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngUNIT 5SOCIAL WORK WITH COMMUNITIESSocial work with a community (or community work, as it is usually called) is often either notaddressed in social work texts or is limited to a few pages at the back. Students are left with littleknowledge of what community work is and often feel that it is too complex or too abstract for themto learn. They end up deciding that they would rather work directly with people or that communitywork is for social activists only. In this book, community work is given equal treatment.Community work can be thought of in different ways. It may be a geographic community asdefined by a specific neighbourhood, city district or local ward, with specific geographicalboundaries. It might also be a membership community as defined by a sense of belonging to aspecific group; for example, the gay and lesbian community, the black community, the Nativecommunity and so on. Or, it may be a self-help community consisting of persons with similarproblems or difficulties; for example, those living with addiction, disability or unemployment, orcoping with illness or the death of a loved one. Community work is frequently a central part ofinternational social work or social work in developing countries. ( This type of community work isdiscussed in more detail in Chapter 13, which deals with international social work.) Four Models of Community WorkThe nature of community work differs depending on the perspective informing one’spractice. A useful approach is Rothman’s model of community development, which allows one tosee the differences between the various forms of community development discussed and debated inCanada today. Rothman’s typology regards community work as a continuous process and one thatincludes the staff who sustain and plan the process (Rothman 1970, 474). To this model, we wouldadd a fourth component, “participatory action research” ( PAR).Community social work can therefore be seen as consisting of the following four types: Locality development. Community action for change involves the participation of abroad range of people in the community who focus on goal determination and action.This model emphasizes community building to enable people to solve their ownproblems. It is closely associated with adult education and self-help. Within thismodel, the primary problems are identified as anomie ( disorganization), lack ofcommunication and lack of problem-solving capacities. The basic strategy is toinvolve a broad cross-section of people in determining and solving their ownproblems, with the aim of achieving consensus and increasing communication amongthe various groups. Members of the local power structure are encouraged to becomeinvolved as well and are seen as potential collaborators in a mutual venture. Thedefinition of community in locality development is geographic; that is, the communityis composed of people in a specific geographic area who share common interests orreconcilable differences. Organizations involved in locality development may includeoverseas development programs, neighbourhood workers and consultants tocommunity development teams. Historically, settlement houses were of this type.
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành18 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng Social planning. When individuals plan and gather data about problems in order tochoose the most rational course of action, they are engaged in social planning. Thefocus is on rational, deliberately planned and controlled change. Social planninginvolves people in the community to varying degrees, depending on the nature of theproblem. The approach focuses on gathering information about problems and makingrational decisions for change. The change strategy may seek consensus of mayacknowledge conflict. Social planning focuses more heavily on gathering informationthan on changing the system. This model’s definition of community is functional andmay include a segment of a community in which the people are clients of particularproblem. The client population are considered to be consumers or recipients. Typicalorganizations may include social planning councils, welfare groups of government-sponsored organizations. Social action. Social action organizes disadvantaged groups in the community to re-distribute power, resources decision making. It involves the disadvantaged segmentsof a community, those in need of more resources or improved facilities, in accord withsocial justice or democracy. The change strategy is to work with a community toinvestigate and identify issues and to organize people to take action against groupswho are exploiting or oppressing the disadvantaged groups. It can involve conflict,confrontation, direct action or negotiation. Social action is concerned with the shiftingof power relationships and resources and sees issues as revolving around conflictinginterests, which may not easily reconciled. Typical social action initiatives includepoverty activists, peace groups, civil rights groups, welfare right groups, trade unions,partisans and liberation movements. Participatory action research. Research that is directed towards changing thestructures that promote inequality is called participatory research. Participatoryresearch is similar to the social action model, but emphasizes the direct participationof the disadvantaged segment of the community in the entire research and actionprocess. This emphasis is based on the belief that people must produce their own bodyof knowledge, representing their own history and lived experience, in order to redresssocial inequality. The basic change strategy for social workers is to help identify localsocial problems, to design action research in collaboration with local people, to collectinformation and use that information to confront power structures with the need forstructural change. Participatory researchers are critical of the standard social planningmodel. They argue that, when doing “social planning,” researchers more often thannot work for the existing power structure-outsiders design the studies, and the resultsof their studies primarily benefit people in power. The plan, therefore, ignores thecapability of local residents to form their own questions, design their own studies,collect their own information and, most importantly, use the knowledge gained fortheir own benefit. The results are then subject to market forces and tend to benefit thepowerful over the powerless. ( PAR is discussed further in Chapter 13, page 246.)Every practising social worker will at some point become involved in community work ofsome kind or other. This is particularly true for those who emphasize changing social structures orchanging the client’s immediate social environment. Like individual work and group work, socialwork with communities is a challenging area. It involves working with individuals and groups intandem, and therefore it requires a unique set of skills. Students sometimes see community work asan optional field of knowledge, one in which they are unlikely to be involved. In fact, community
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành19 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngwork can be immensely satisfying as a main area of work, and a working knowledge of it isessential for anyone who wishes to become a well-rounded and effective social work practitioner. Virtual community workToday, the Internet makes it possible of community workers and activists to expand theirnetworks by identifying and contacting people in other communities who have similar interests andconcerns. This could be loosely referred to as a kind of virtual community work. Its importanceshould not be minimized.By joining the appropriate Internet-based discussion lists and news groups, social workerscan identify and communicate with people in other communities who are working on similar issues.By sharing information, strategies and advice, the effectiveness of efforts may be enhanced. Forexample, human rights workers have dramatically improved the effectiveness of Urgent Actionwork to call attention to human rights violations by spreading the news via the Internet. As well,Jubilee 2000, a global movement for Third World debt relief was organized primarily using Internetcommunication. A social worker in the community work field can be certain that there is a group onthe Internet with similar interests. And, as globalization increasingly affects our economy and thenature of social issues, there is growing importance in connecting with other groups and individuals.Social workers worldwide are beginning to use the Internet to organize and mobilize onbehalf of disadvantaged groups in society. These individuals are turning to the Internet as a way toconnect with each other, learn from each other and challenge what they see as injustices in society.Grassroots activists are finding that they can interact on the Internet without the restrictionsnormally associated with official social services agencies. Social workers are using the Internet toconnect not only with those in distant areas of Canada but with like-minded people in othercountries. The new communications technology has opened up possibilities for conducting socialwork more effectively, and knowledge of this technology will be increasingly important to socialworkers in the future. Community Work Intervention StepsThe worker will take the following steps for social work with a community EntryThe entry step is comparable to the intake step of the social work relationship withindividuals. In this step the community usually consults a community worker about itsparticular problem. The social worker acknowledges and responds to the community’s needor is hired by someone to help the community. For example, the Canadian InternationalDevelopment Agency (CIDA) might hire a social worker to go to Kenya to assist acommunity in organizing to meet their health needs.The worker needs to start slowly by getting to know the local contacts and developingan understanding of the power relations in the community. The community leaders need to beinformed about what the worker intends to do. If the community feels that what is beingproposed is not valuable, then it is best to know this at the outset-and perhaps leave, ratherthan wasting the time of the worker and the community.Bill Lee, an accomplished community organizer in Canada, believes three primaryprinciples must be adhered to at this stage: (1) the organizer must begin where the people areand respect their value system; (2) his or her contacts must be broad (and include not only the
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành20 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngelite or powerful); and (3) he or she should attempt to find out who in that particular contexthas the power and credibility to mobilize and organize others into action (Lee 1996, 60). Data Collection and AnalysisIt is important that the social worker work with key members of the community todetermine what information and efforts are required. One of the common goals of communitywork is to increase self-reliance within the community. This goal will be hampered if thesocial worker enters the community as an expert and undertakes top-down social action.Development goals can also be negatively affected when only the elite, or people with highsocial status, are participating. It is critical that power be equally distributed informationdecision making.The social worker and members of the community- collect information from interviews, questionnaires and observation (individuals andgroups);- document and analyze the community in order to determine who the stakeholders areor what the distribution of power is (major/minor stakeholders/powerholders);- determine how community needs can be met;- ask how the community will evaluate the intervention; and- propose a plan and ask how the community will react to the proposed interventionplanIn recent years, community social workers have become somewhat concerned withresearch itself as a social process and have begun to question the role of the “independent”researcher. In this context, some social workers have found the idea of participatory researchto be useful (see the discussion on participatory action research above, on page 83). Here,research is conducted not only by the social worker but includes the direct participation ofthe community members. Certainly this can be an effective way to do research informationcommunities, and it may, in some cases, be the only way.As with other aspects of community work, the type of research that would work bestin any particular situation needs to be evaluated and discussed with the community. In somecases, the best arrangement might be a conventional study; in others, a participatory model;and in still others, some combination of the two. Goal SettingThe social worker brainstorms with the community to establish goals, evaluates thegoals in terms of their feasibility, sets priorities with the community and provides educationto community members. Again, the maximum participation of community members from allsocial levels is critical. Action PlanningThe social worker, working with members of the community, creates an action plan.The plan will include action steps, implementation steps, monitoring and evaluation steps,and re-planning steps. Generally the plan should be a participatory process and may include:- what action or change will occur;- who will carry it out;
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành21 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng- when it will take place, and for how long;- what resources (i.e., money, staff) are needed to carry out the change;- communication (who should know what). Action TakingIn its simplest terms, this step involves the implementation of the action plan on thepart of the social worker and the community. However, “action taking” is not a separateactivity; the worker and people in the community have been taking action throughout theentire process.What most clearly distinguishes this stage is that action is being taken more by themembers of the community than by the social worker. Seeing a self-reliant community beginto improve its situation is one of the most rewarding aspects of being and community socialworker. Evaluation and Termination/Re-planningIn the evaluation stage, the social worker and the community evaluate the interventionand re-plan in the light of its effectiveness. Evaluations in community work increasinglyinvolve the direct and active participation of the community’s members.Evaluating the success of the intervention and planned activities is a critical part ofany organizing effort, and it is important not to wait until the completion of the organizingeffort to evaluate its effectiveness. The following questions provide a basic framework for amore extensive evaluation. Try discussing these questions at an early stage.1. Are we moving closer to achieving our intended objectives?2. What other unintended impacts and effects have resulted?3. What activities in particular are contributing to the achievement of our objectives?4. Are there better ways to achieve the desired results?5. Are our actions and work helping us to gain support in the community?An evaluation of results might reveal that the reason objectives have not been met isthat the strategy was correct but not implemented effectively. For example, the actions mayhave been timed inappropriately or the actions were too infrequent or not carried throughthoroughly. Revisions to strategy are frequently necessary. Action-evaluation-action is acycle that allows the worker and the community to change tactics. The central indicator forevaluating success is, of course, whether your efforts have created the change you desired.
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành22 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngUNIT 6SOCIAL WELFARE: PROMOTING CHANGEINTRODUCTIONThe primary of all social welfare programs is to change conditions that threaten individual and/ orsocial functioning. To achieve this goal, a type of intervention must be applied. In the social welfarecontext, the tem intervention refers to strategies, techniques, and methods that are used to helpindividuals, families, communities, or other social sytems change. Interventions vary depending onthe nature of the problem and size of the sytem that needs to be changed. The change process mayinvolve either (1) helping people change or adapt to their environment; or (2) changing theenvironment so that it is more conducive to meeting human needs. Example of interventions includesupporting an individual through the grieving process, teaching a family to listen to and showrespect for its members, and helping a community adjust to a large influx of immigrants.Many social welfare programs that focus on changing people have their origins in theEnglish Poor Laws. In the early days of social welfare, “change” was primarily in the from ofimposed work. Herded into workhouses or “houses of industry”, the able-bodied unemployed wereput to work in the hope that they would “learn or retain the habits of industry and help to offset thecost of their keep” (Guest, 1980,10).Social welfare’s interest in changing people’s environment can be traced to the social reformmovements of the late 1800s and early 1900s, Social activists in the urban reform movement, forexample, sought changes in housing and health legislation that would reduce poverty and humansuflering for city dwellers. Similarly, supporters of the women’s rights movement advocated forchanges in the social, political, and economic environment that would improve living conditions forwomen and their children.In the post-World War I period, a growing amount of research in the helping professionspaved the way fof a more professional, systematic, and “scientific” approach to changing peopleand their environments. It was no longer enough for practitioners to simply “mean well”; instead,those working in social welfare were required to obtain formal training in the social sciences and todraw upon a recognized repertoire of technologies in their practice. Until the 1930s, thosetechnologies were based primarily on Freudian principles and the diagnostic school of social work,including formal interviewing skills, procedures for assessing or “diagnosing” human problems, andpsychoanalytic strategies or “treatments.” Accompanying the emergence of these and subsequenttechnologies was a recognition of three distinct levels of change, which are described below: Micro-level change involves face-to-face interactions with individuals, families, andsmall groups. The primary goal of micro-level change is to help people obtain theresources and skills they require to become self-sufficient. This type of intervention isoften referred to as direct service or clinical practice. Mezzo-level change generaly occurs at the organizational level of social agencies andinvolves little direct contact with service users. The focus is on changing systems thatdirectly affect clients, such as social service prgrams, agency policies and procedures, andthe delivery of service.
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành23 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng Macro-level change takes place at the community level and seeks to change socialconditions. Collective action is uasualy required at this level of change, since the systemsfor which change is sought are typically complex and well-established.Exhibit 8.1 illustrates the relationship between the three levels and gives examples of interventionsfor each level.This chapter examines social welfare programs and services that are designed to promotechange at the micro and macro levels. Mezzo-level change was covered in the discussion ofintraorganizational change in Chapter 6.CHANGE AT THE MICRO LEVEL: PROGRAMS AND SERVICESTHE NATURE OF MICRO-LEVEL CHANGESocial welfare services that focus on micro-level change are aimed at helping individuals, families,and small groups to obtain “the basics they need to survive, subsist, develop, and even flourishwithin society” (Kahn, 1995, 571). One advantage of such programs is that their limited focusincreases the likelihood that needs will be successfully identified and met. One disadvantage is thatchange at the micro level rarely addresses the root causes of social problems. For example, as Kahn(1995, 571) points out, a food bank that provides food for hungry individuals will.ensure that, on a given day, a given number of people are fed. But it cannot and does notaddress the question of why these people are hungry. If the soup kitchen closes, the people itserves will again be hungry.Despite their limitations, programs that attempt to effect change at the micro level are neededcontinue to be a primary emphasis of many socialwelfare agencies.PROGRAMS FOR INDIVIDUALSPrograms that are designed for individual are rooted in the social casework approach, whichemerged during the organized charity movement in the late 1800s. The casework method prompteda step-by-step approach to counselling and was used by “friendship visitors” – volunteers whovisited the poor and provided friendship and support as opposed to financial relief. These visitorswere primarily from middle-and upper-class circles and were expected to be role models for thepoor (Germain and Gitterman, 1980). Under the influence of the American social worker MaryRichmond,casework eventually became more scientific – as, for example, when it adopted amedical model to explain individual dysfunction. This model required practitioners to conduct athoruough and systematic exploration of an individual’s social environment (Johnson, 1998).Most present-day social agencies that provide direct client services have programs forindividual, Examples include mental-health counselling, alcohol and drug counselling, home-support services for elderly persons, adaptation programs for immigrants, support services forabused women, and victim-assistance programs. Social welfare programs and services deigned forindividuals are justified on the basis that communities and sociey in general suffer if individualneeds are not sufficiently met. Social worker and other professional helpers also recognize thatproviding services on a one-to-one basis can be effective in helping people change their behaviour,learn new coping strategies, and either adapt to or change their environment (Fischer, 1978).
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành24 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngEach individual who seeks help from a social agency has a unique set of needs, issues, andconcerns. However, most requests for services by individuals ralate to one or more of the followingareas:1) interpersonal conflict – overt conflict between two or more persons who agree that theproblems exists, such as marital conflict, parent – child conflict.2) dissatisfaction in social relations – deficiencies or excesses that the client perceives asproblems in interactions with others, such as dissatisfaction in a marriage, with a childor parent, with peers;3) problems with formal organizations – problems occurring between the client and anorganization, such as a school, court, welfare department;4) difficulties in role performance – problems in carrying out a particular social role,such as that of spouse, parent, student, employee, patien;5) decision problems – problems of uncertainty, such as what to do in a particularsituation;6) reactive emotional distress – conditons in which the client’s major concern is withfeelings, such as anxiety and depression, rather than with the situation that may havegiven riseto them.7) inadequate resources - lack of tangible resources, such as money, housing, food,transportation, child care, a job. (Epstein, 1980, 178 – 179)Depending on their particular discipline, service providers use a variety of techniques to helpindividuals deal with these and other issues. Interventions that focus on changing individuals maybe based on one or more of a wide range of counselling models, including psychoanalysis, client-centred therapy, gestalt therapy, transactional analysis, behaviour therapy, feminist therapy, rationaltherapy, feminist therapy, rational therapy, and reality therapy.FAMILY SERVICESAs a primary social unit, the family is responsible for procreating, nurturing, and protectingchildren, socializing individual members into the larger society, and linking its members to othersocial institutions. If a family is unableto complete these tasks adequately, its members may seekhelp from family service agencies.The origin of family services in Canada can be traced in part to the development of theCanadian Patriotic Fund (CPF) during World War 1. To achieve its goal of “maintaining the homelife” CPF workers provided support and supervision for large numbers of families who weretemporarily without fathers because of the war. Strong-Boag (1979, 25) comments on the likelyeffect to the CPF: “It seems very probable that the good results that the CPF demonstrated inimproved school attendance, better housekeeping, lessened mortality and increased family stabilityhelped further other efforts to shore up the nuclear family as the best guarantor of social order.In the 1920s and 1930s, family casework emerged as a more scientific approach to helpingfamilies. In their provision of services, family caseworkers set out “to reinforce and strengthen theendangered family, by drawing in the community’s resources, not only in materrial relief, but inchatacter and spiritual strength as well” (McGill University, 1931).
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành25 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồngThe needs and problems of families today are diverseand often complex. However, Janzenand Harris (1986, 41 – 42) suggest that most concerns bringing families to social agencies arerelated to one or more of the following events:1) Addition to the family. Families seek guidance when the family structure changes, aswhen a member gets married or remarried, is pregnant, has a new baby, becoms astepparent, fosters or adopts a child, or takes in an elderly family member.2) Separation or lot. Family support service are often helpul when family member dies,a marriage breaks down, a family member is institutionalized (e.g., in a hospital, jail,long-term care), a working member loses a job, a child, a child leaves home, or thereis suicide in the family.3) Demoralization.Familiesmayu seek helpwhen they feel demoralized or dishearteneddue to income loss, adddiction, infidelity, victimization, delinquence, or familyviolencde.4) Change in status or role. Some families need supportive to help them get through amember’s development crisis, or, old age), cope with the loss of the parent role (e.g.,when the last child leaves home), or adjust to a change in social staus (e.g, a movefrom “worker” to “retiree”).Exhibit 8.2 lists some of the services that family resource programs in the Canada offerfamilies with young children.SOCIAL WELFARE: FROMOTING CHANGE AT THE MICRO AND MACRO LEVELSExhibit 8.2FAMILY RESOURCE PROGRAMDid you know that across Canada family resource program offer: support groups of parents prenatal programs well-baby programs drop-in programs playgroups toy-lending programs clothing, toy, and equiqment exchanges resource library materials “warm-liens” (telephone service offering noncrisis support and information) referrals and liaison with other community services peer counselling and professional counselling crisis intervention
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành26 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng support groups for family violence victims/survivors health-related information life-skills courses employment counselling or training courses community kitchen programs literacy programs including ESL (English as a Second Language)source: Canadian Association of Family Resource Programs (Ottawa, n.d.).A practitioner who works with family systems may be trained in a variety ofdiscipliens, including social work, psychology, and family therapy. Regardless of theireducational background, family service workers generally focus on helping family accessresource and fulfil their roles (e.g., as parent, spouse, or provider) more effectively. Thisfocus underlies a broad range of family-orientend programs, such as child protection,family planning child development, family violence treatment, and family maintenance.SOCIAL GROUP WORKA social agency may provide group programs as a more affordable and less time-consuming alternative to individual service. Another advantage of group programs is thatthey may meet certain client goals – such as the attainment of appropriate social skills –more effectively than one-to-one sessions. socialzation groups (e.g., an anger management group consisting of adolescentboy); support group (e.g., a parent support group that encourages parents to sharechild-raising experiences and parenting tips); educational skill-enhancement groups (e.g., a group that teaches life skills topeople with severe disabilities); and therapy groups (e.g., a groups that helps teenage girls with eating disorders).Exhibit 8.3 profiles some of the social groups at Catholic community Services in Montreal.Social group work originated in the 1800s in settlement houses – large, privately run houseslocated in city slums. Middle-class facilitators attempted to “use the power of groupassociations to educate, reform, and organize neighborhoods; to preserve religious andcultural identities; and to give emotional support and assistance to newcomers both from thefarm and abroad” (Zastrow, 1996, 590). The techniques used in early social groups werepoorly defined; such definition; group leaders claimed, would interfere with the spontaneousnature of the group process.Grace Coyle, an American settlement house worker, later laid the foundation for modernsocial group work. Her development of a theoretical framework introduced a strategie orscientific approach to working with small groups; this process emphasized the developmentof common group goals and democratic decision-making (Tropp, 1977). Coyle (1959)identified three ways by which small groups can meet members’ personal and social needs:
    • Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành27 Khoa Công tác Xã hội – Phát triển Cộng đồng The intimate face-to-face interactions afforded by small groups can facilitate theemotional maturity of members. Relationships formed within the group can be effective supplements to outsiderelationships.Exhibit 8.3SOCIAL GROUPS AT MONTREAL’S CATHOLIC COMMUNITY SERVICESINGLE AGAINA discussion group for separated or divorced women and men that deals with topics likenew lifestyle, loneliness, anger, chidren, and new relationships.This program will offer you a chanceto share concerns with others in similar situations. Itwill also help you develop insights and learn new ways of coping.SELF-ESTEEM THROUGH ASSERTIVENESSDiscover your inner strengths. An 8-week program for men and women offered threetimes a year.Join a discussion group to explore: New ways of building self-confidence; Assertive communication; Your view of the world around you and how it affects you; The way you think about yourself.STRAIGHT PARTNERS OF GAYSFor men and women who are presently, or have been, in a mixed sexualorientationrelationship. A support group, A discussion group A drop-in centre.An ongoing group for those who have experienced the pain of a partner’s “coming out of thecloset.” Intended to help heal the hurt, channel the anger, an help you cope, this group cangive you hope and offer moral support by listening, sharing, and answering some of the mostpressing problems that ralate to your situation. Question regarding sexuality, children, health,and other important and relevant issues are addressed. An experienced animator leads thegroup. Members of the group who understand and can appreciate your dilemma play animportant part in the life of the group. Group experience can help prepare members for more active participation in societyas the individual learns to restrain his or her own inappropriate behaviour, the group