Gross structure of the brain

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Gross structure of the brain

  1. 1. Gross Structure of the Brain TJ del Mundo, MD, DPBO College of Optometry CEU
  2. 2. Nervous System  CNS (central nervous system) Brain Spinal Cord  PNS (peripheral nervous system) Peripheral Nerve Ganglion
  3. 3. Central Nervous System - Brain
  4. 4. Gross Divisions of the Brain  Cerebrum (cerebral hemisphere)  Diencephalon  Cerebellum  Brainstem
  5. 5. Embryonic (developmental) divisions of the Brain telencephalon Cerebral cortex Cerebral white matter Basal ganglia metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Primary vesicle Secondary vesicle Derivatives Prosencephalon diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Subthalamus Epithalamus Mesencephalon mesencephalon Midbrain Rhombencephalon myelencephalon Medulla oblongata
  6. 7. Inner Structures of the Brain <ul><li>Basal ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata </li></ul>
  7. 8. Cerebrum – Cerebral Hemisphere <ul><li>Cerebral Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>- lobes, gyrus & sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cerebral White Matter </li></ul><ul><li>(medullary center) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Basal Ganglia </li></ul>Telencephalic structure –lateral ventricles
  8. 9. Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (lateral surface) <ul><li>Frontal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Limbic lobe </li></ul>
  9. 10. Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (medial surface) <ul><li>Frontal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Limbic lobe </li></ul>
  10. 11. Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface) <ul><li>Frontal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Limbic lobe </li></ul>
  11. 12. Lateral Surface Precentral Gyrus --- primary motor area Superior Frontal Gyrus Middle Frontal Gyrus Inferior Frontal Gyrus Pars Opercularis Pars Triangularis Pars Orbitalis Medial Surface Medial Frontal Gyrus Paracentral Lobule Basal Surface Rectus Gyrus Orbital Gyrus Inferior Frontal Gyrus Gyri of the Frontal Lobe ] Broca’s area (dominant hemisphere)
  12. 13. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Lateral Surface)
  13. 14. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Lateral Surface) Broca’s area Pars Opercularis Pars Triangularis Pars Orbitalis
  14. 15. Motor Homunculus
  15. 16. Photograph of the brain of Broca’s patient called “Tan” (real name is Leborgne). Broca’s Area Pars triangularis and pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus of dominant hemisphere.
  16. 17. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Medial Surface)
  17. 18. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface)
  18. 19. Gyri of the Parietal Lobe Lateral Surface Postcentral Gyrus ---- primary somesthetic area Superior Parietal Lobule Inferior Parietal Lobule ---- Wernicke’s area Supramarginal Gyrus Angular Gyrus Medial Surface Paracentral Lobule Precuneus
  19. 20. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Lateral Surface)
  20. 21. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Medial Surface)
  21. 22. Sensory Homunculus
  22. 23. Gyri of the Occipital Lobe Lateral Surface Lateral Occipital Gyrus Superior Occipital Gyrus Inferior Occipital Gyrus Medial Surface Cuneus Lingual Gyrus Basal Surface Lingual Gyrus Occipitotemporal Gyrus
  23. 24. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Lateral Surface)
  24. 25. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Medial Surface)
  25. 26. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface)
  26. 27. Gyri of the Temporal Lobe Lateral Surface Superior Temporal Gyrus Middle Temporal Gyrus Inferior Temporal Gyrus Basal Surface Lingual Gyrus Occipitotemporal Gyrus Medial Occipitotemporal Gyrus Lateral Occipitotemporal Gyrus
  27. 28. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Lateral Surface)
  28. 29. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface)
  29. 30. PET (positron emission tomography) scan
  30. 31. Gyri of the Limbic Lobe Outer Ring Cingulate Gyrus Isthmus of Cingulate Gyrus Parahippocampal Gyrus Uncus, Uncinate Gyrus Inner Ring Hippocampal Formation Hippocampus, Ammon's Horn Dentate Gyrus Fasciolar Gyrus Indusium Griseum (Supracallosal Gyrus) Paraterminal Gyrus (Subcallosal Gyrus) Subcallosal Area (Parolfactory Area)
  31. 32. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Medial Surface)
  32. 33. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface)
  33. 34. Structures of the Lateral Surface of the Brain 1 2 3 4 5
  34. 35. Structures of the Medial Surface of the Brain 1 2 3 4
  35. 36. Structures of the Basal Surface of the Brain 1 2
  36. 37. Insula of Reil
  37. 38. Structures around the Limbic Lobe 1 2 3
  38. 39. Structures of the Limbic Lobe 1 2 3
  39. 40. Structures of the Limbic Lobe 1 2 3
  40. 41. Structures of Fornix <ul><li>Uncus </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Fimbria </li></ul><ul><li>Crus </li></ul><ul><li>Commissure </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus </li></ul><ul><li>Column </li></ul><ul><li>Mammillary body </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  41. 42. Cerebral White Matter Projection fiber Corona radiata Commissural fiber Corpus callosum rostrum, genu, trunk, splenium Anterior commissure Commissure of fornix Association fiber Short association fiber Long association fiber
  42. 43. Fibers of Cerebral White Matter (coronal section) 1. Corpus callosum 2. Internal capsule 3. Superior occipitofrontal fasciculus 4. Superior longitudinal fasciculus 5. Inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus 6. Cingulum 7. Uncinate fasciculus 8. Inferior longitudinal fasciculus
  43. 44. Basal Ganglia (traditional concept) Corpus striatum lenticular nucleus putamen globus pallidus caudate nucleus Amygdaloid body
  44. 45. Basal Ganglia 1 2 3 1 2 4 3
  45. 46. Basal Ganglia 1 2 3 1 2 3
  46. 47. Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Epithalamus Subthalamus 3 rd ventricle and tela choroidea
  47. 48. Diencephalon 1 2 3 4 5 1 3 2
  48. 49. Ventral Surface of Diencephalon 1 2 3 4 5 5 6
  49. 50. Cerebellum Anterior Lobe Posterior Lobe Flocculonodular Lobe flocculus, nodulus Vermis Paravermal Region Cerebellar Hemisphere
  50. 51. Cerebellum (posterosuperior view) 1 2 3
  51. 52. Cerebellum (posteroinferior view) flocculus
  52. 53. Cerebellum (anterior view) 1 2 3
  53. 54. Cerebellum (medial view)
  54. 55. Brain Stem Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata 4 th Ventricle Rhomboid Fossa
  55. 56. Brain Stem Anterior surface 1 2 3 4 III VI V VII VIII 5 IX X XI XII
  56. 57. Brain Stem Posterior surface IV 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  57. 58. Rhomboid Fossa 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3
  58. 59. Roof of the 4 th Ventricle 1 2
  59. 60. Embryonic (developmental) divisions of the Brain telencephalon Cerebral cortex Cerebral white matter Basal ganglia metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Primary vesicle Secondary vesicle Derivatives Prosencephalon diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Subthalamus Epithalamus Mesencephalon mesencephalon Midbrain Rhombencephalon myelencephalon Medulla oblongata

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