Special topics in computing gamification


Published on

Gamification presentation made by group of students.

Published in: Data & Analytics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Special topics in computing gamification

  1. 1. Gamification Members: 1. James Gatuna 2. Preston Kamau 3. Esadia Benard 4. Wilfred Kipkulei 5. Sammy Cheruiyot 6. Pius Cheruiyot
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO GAMIFICATION What is gamification?  The field of gamification is still young and rapidly developing, so there are numerous opinions as to what gamification exactly is. a popular – and striking – definition is:  Gamification is the use of game elements and game thinking in non-game environment's to increase target behavior and engagement.
  3. 3. Gamification is about using:  Game elements (not full-games)  and Game thinking (this doesn’t need to involve game technique, it’s more about the way games are designed and the idea behind games)  in a non-game environment (commercial as well as not-for- profit environments)  to increase target behaviour and engagement (target behaviour is central to this definition)  Gamification engages users and changes behavior with the best ideas from games, loyalty programs and behavioral economics Motivation Positively Changing Behavior Engagement
  4. 4. A brief history of gamification Part I - The Origin The concept behind what become known as gamification in recent years was already known almost one hundred years ago. . Part I – The Name  About the concept’s name, several authors claim that the term gamification, a neologism, was created in 2002 (marczewski, 2012; penenberg, 2013), (rughinis 2013) by Nick pelling, a british programmer and video game designer.  In fact, according to this alleged author, the word was created in 2002 (pelling, 2011) and became public in 2003 in pelling website company
  5. 5.  1980s American airlines, holiday inn and national car rental, among others, introduce various frequent flier or loyalty and reward programs.  1990s Games such as math blaster and the incredible machine are introduced to children.  2002 The serious games initiative is launched, a group that plays a key role in the creation of several games for the U.S. Military. British computer programmer nick pelling coins the term “gamification.” First gamification consulting firm, conundra, is formed. While it didn’t last long, it was the first of its kind to offer a service that gamified consumer products and incorporated enterprise gamification.  2004 the games for change (g4c) initiative is launched, specializing in using games for social impact. The most famous example is g4c’s peacemaker, which allowed players to take a side in the arab-israeli conflict to show the difficulty from both perspectives.  2007 bunchball creates dunder mifflin infinity, a gamified website for the tv show, “the office.” It receives over 8 million pageviews in six weeks.  2010 gamification becomes a popular term.  2011 first gamification summit is held in san francisco, attracting nearly 400 attendees
  6. 6. The ten rules of gamification So as you set out to “gamify” your business, what are the cardinal rules of gamification? 1. You’re not making a game. Gamification is not the same as game-making but it is about using game-like mechanics to improve a business process, or customer experience, or profits. Game-making is about fun and wonder and challenge and art. So stop thinking about how you can build a real-time strategy game with resources allocated according to your customers needs and start focusing on tweaks and behavioural changes that improve your users’ experience and your bottom line.
  7. 7. 2. Know what you are trying to achieve See #1 above. You’re not trying to make a game. What is the point of your game? To increase consumer engagement? How will you measure it? How will you know if you have succeeded? Write down three things that you want “gamification” to achieve. Make them measurable. Now hand it to whoever is gamifying your service and say “this is what I want to achieve. Please help me do it.” 3. Games are rubbish at customer acquisition Gamification is not a way of acquiring an audience it won’t work, and will be a total waste of money. Gamify to encourage behaviors amongst your users, to keep them engaged with your brand or to spread a message. Don’t do it to get customers in the first place.
  8. 8. 4. Retention is crucial  Whatever your objective from gamifying, you will achieve it better if you keep customers coming back regularly.  If you want to make money from selling stuff, it’s easier if your customers value what you do – and show that by coming back regularly rather than just once.  If you want to spread your brand message, they’re more likely to remember it if they come back every day for seven days.  If you want them to share with their friends, they need to spend some time to feel that is useful, fun or rewarding. Sure, it’s possible to covert prospects to customers with a brilliant experience when they first visit. But if you focus on retention you stand a much better chance of success than relying on endlessly acquiring new customers
  9. 9. 6. no, games are not just about competition The first thing I hear when talking to people about “gamification” is “we’ll just add some points, and a leaderboard, and the natural desire for people to be at the top of the leaderboard will do the rest.” No, it won’t. Humans are complex beasts and are classified as gamers into four types. Everyone is a combination of all these types,  Killers want to beat other people  Achievers want to beat themselves  Explorers want to go places and find out stuff  Socialisers don’t care what they do as long as they are doing it with their friends
  10. 10. 7. Make it personal The most powerful rewards are intrinsic, not extrinsic. That which motivates us is personal, not predictable. Broadly (and these are generalisations, not hard-and-fast rules):  Avoid cash rewards.  Allow people to show status (through achievements, aesthetics, personalisation, even leaderboards).  Gamify in a persistent world, expect users to progress over time.  Have some profile or personal page, however minimal, to share with the wider world.
  11. 11. Elements of a Gamification
  12. 12. Pyramid of Gamification Elements Dynamics Mechanics Components Big Picture Grammar: Narrative, Progression, RelationshipsChallenges, Cooperation, Feedback, Rewards Achievements, Avatars, Badges, Collections, Content Unlocking, Leaderboards, Levels, Points, Quests, Social Graph, Werbach, K. (2013, April). The pyramid of elements [Lecture 4.2]. Coursera. Retrieved from https://class.coursera.org/gamification- 002/lecture/41
  13. 13.  Games are everywhere.  More and more businesses are using gamification to create brand awareness and drive user engagement. What follows is an A-Z guide of 26 elements you should be aware of when you consider a gamification marketing strategy for your business
  14. 14. #1: Achievers (Bartle’s Types)  Understanding the ways in which people may interact with a game can be essential information for designers.  Many discussions of gamification include references to Richard Bartle‘s four player types: Achievers, Explorers, Killers and Socialites.
  15. 15. #2: Badges as a Reward  Kevin Warhus writes,  “Since the dawn of Foursquare and a variety of other social check-ins, rewards and badges have become all the rage… Companies big and small have long ago realized that it is a great way to connect with customers and reward them for the use of their service… people naturally enjoy being praised for their actions and collecting proof of their invested time and energy to show off to their friends.”  Think about it: What badges have you earned via social games? Why have they mattered to you?
  16. 16. #3: Challenges  A recent gamification study conducted by Stephanie Hermann found that game challenges must be tailor-made to address desired target groups.  “One must consider the context of the underlying application and the user’s state within the player life cycle to sustain user engagement.”  Furthermore, her research suggests that challenges within gamified applications cannot be generalized and no one-size-fits-all exists. The challenge setup must be tailor-made depending on the context and the target audience and should involve diverse challenges.
  17. 17. #4: Demographics  An important consideration for businesses as they think about integrating games into their brand experiences is to know the demographics of gamers.  Statistics from the 2011 Los Angeles Games Conference revealed that:  “50% of gamers are reported as being female, 30% are over 45, and in the U.S. there are 40 million active social gamers (who play at least 1 hour a week), and there are over 200 million gamers on Facebook.”
  18. 18. #7: Gifts (Game Mechanics)  Gifts are one of several types of mechanics used in games to motivate users.  While some games may utilize real- world gifts in the form of money, gift cards, etc., many games motivate players with virtual gifts; e.g., flowers, badges.  According to Nicholas Yee, “Killers use the virtual construct to cause distress on other players, and gain satisfaction from inflicting anxiety and pain on others.” #10: Killers (Bartle’s Type)
  19. 19. #12: Leaderboards  Leaderboards are one of the major features of games. They are defined on the Gamification Wiki as:  “A means by which users can track their performance subjective to others. Leaderboards visually display where a user stands in regards to other users. They are implemented on sites to show which players have unlocked the most achievements. The desire to appear on the Leaderboards drives players to earn more achievements, in turn fueling deep engagement.”  It’s essential to consider what motivates players when you think about creating an effective and successful design for a game.  Gabe Zichermann writes, “Good gamification design seeks to understand and align an organization’s objectives with a player’s intrinsic motivation (an innate drive to do something, or your pursuit of activities that are rewarding in and of themselves). Then, through the use of extrinsic rewards and intrinsically satisfying design, move the player through their journey of mastery. This journey requires elements such as desire, incentive, challenge, reward and feedback to create engagement.” #13: Motivational Design
  20. 20. #14: Progress Bar (Game Mechanics)  Believe it or not, the profile completeness bar on LinkedIn can be seen as an example of game mechanics. By seeing how much more complete the profile needs to be, many people will be driven to take steps to 100% completion with the promise of being able to take advantage of LinkedIn’s more advanced features.  Linkedin progress bar  LinkedIn gamifies profile completion.  Kris Duggan has some important insights into rewards. He writes,  “Status and virtual rewards are only as valuable as the community in which they are awarded and displayed. Smart gamification requires a deep integration of a rewards program across a brand’s entire user experience, whether that be on its main homepage, mobile app, community, blog or any other digital touchpoint with the brand.”  Make your community a valuable user experience where users will be proud to participate and as a result will be more inclined to value your rewards. #15: Rewards
  21. 21. Other Examples  Website Invigoration  Virtual Environments and Engagement  Users’ Needs and Goals  Motivational Design  Socialites (Bartle’s Type)
  22. 22. Examples of 15 brands using gamification and the specific mechanisms they use to engage users: Brands Mechanisms 1. Xbox Live achievements, leaderboards 2.CheckPoints virtual currency, rewards 3. Foursquare badges, rewards 4.LinkedIn progress bar 5.SalesForce leaderboard, achievements, leveling 6.Mint achievements, progress bar 7.CheckPoints virtual currency, rewards 8.ShopKick virtual currency, rewards, contests 9.Starbucks leveling, rewards 10.Nike achievements, badges, challenges, rewards
  23. 23. Advantages of Gamification in Education  Gamification aids in cognitive development in adolescents - Using gamification to aid in cognitive development will allow an increase in the activity of the regions of the brain to allow for adequate development. Games that are produced specifically for enhancing cognitive development are often referred to as “brain games.”  In some cases, it aids in physical development - Exercising with an interactive game is just as effective as normal exercise. This form of exercise will be very beneficial in adolescents that enjoy playing video games but are not currently physically active.  Gamification increases level of engagement in classrooms - Game- like atmosphere are favorable in the classroom and increased productivity.
  24. 24.  Gamification aids in accessibility in the classroom - Gamification can be used as a teaching tool to educate adolescents of all needs. Scientists studied the effectiveness of using gamification in the form of a video game to teach students diagnosed with autism.  Gamification isn’t limited to the classroom - Gamification is not limited to the classroom but can be used in learning outside the classroom.
  25. 25. Advantages in Marketing  Collect Powerful Customer Data - Most gamification platforms require users to log in with a valid email address or social media credentials. From that point on, your company is able to gather data on that person and see what they do on your website.  Crowdsourcing Helps You Solve Complex Business Problems - Another benefit to having customers log in and participate on your website is that it allows you to use them as a sounding board. Companies like Allstate and GE have turned to crowdsourcing to help them come up with answers to complex business questions.  Gamification Can Be an Educational Tool - Gamification is a creative and useful way to introduce customers to a new product you may be launching. Similar to giving a free trial of your product, you can let users test out your product in the form of a game designed to teach them how to use it.
  26. 26.  Gamification Offers a Way to Give Back to the Community - Rather than just benefitting themselves and solving their business problems, some companies are giving back to the communities connected to their industry by using games for the greater good.  Stay Relevant With Your Customers - Gamification can help you remind your customers that you are present and engaged with them.
  27. 27. Advantages in Work Flow  Entertaining - Gamification approach, you make routine tasks or learning a bit more enjoyable. If users want to play the game you’ve created, then you’ll keep their attention and interest while reminding them of what they learned and how to apply it.  Managerial Insights - When your employees are participating in a gamified learning experience, managers can observe how often sales reps are playing and how successful they are. You can quickly identify those who are struggling and not advancing at the expected pace, those who aren’t playing at all, and those who are excelling at it. This enables managers to know where to spend their time in helping some while appreciating experts.  Rewards - The only thing sales reps might like more than a good competition is a valued reward. A key ingredient of any game is a reward, not only for finishing or winning, but also for achieving higher levels and making progress.
  28. 28. Disadvantages of Gamification  Lack of planning and strategy. Gamification is only effective when it encourages specific behaviors to achieve specific goals. Too many business gamification implementations don't identify success factors and therefore don't incentivize the right behaviors. Additionally, game mechanics must be designed to engage a specific audience.  Bad processes. Game mechanics can motivate people to operate in accordance with specific goals when those goals are well defined. But even if the goals are clear, they might not align with business objectives. Gamifying bad goals can be just as destructive as ignoring goals altogether.  Poor design. Expectations for games have never been higher. Points and badges alone won't hold users' attention if the underlying game design doesn't motivate people to play.  Unrealistic expectations. Business gamification can be effective when it's directed at a specific audience, supported with specific, effective goals, and built professionally to ensure engagement. But of course it has limitations.
  29. 29. Application areas of Gamification.  Education.  Marketing.  Sales  Customer service.  Future Trends and Research Areas of Gamification  Conclusion
  30. 30. LinkedIn  A business-oriented social networking service. Founded in December 2002 and launched on May 5, 2003, it is mainly used for professional networking. In 2006, LinkedIn increased to 20 million viewers.  Ever since the company rolled out Endorsements, networking with colleagues on the site is more like playing a game of “Snood” by yourself.  LinkedIn added Notifications to members’ homepages in September. In November, the company reported in a third quarter earnings call that members had posted four times as many comments on other people’s updates.  The profile completeness bar on LinkedIn can be seen as an example of game mechanics. By seeing how much more complete the profile needs to be, many people will be driven to take steps to 100% completion with the promise of being able to take advantage of LinkedIn’s more advanced features.
  31. 31. 3.LinkedIn  When you visit LinkedIn, one of the most ominous features encouraging profile completion is the progress bar telling you that your profile has a long way to go before you’re complete.  This very basic example of “gamification” has helped LinkedIn efficiently grow its global user base with relevant, accurate and high-value data. In simple terms, Gamification means to use game theory or game mechanics in non-game situations to manipulate and reward behavior.
  32. 32. Real Application of Gamification 1.Foursquare Collecting badges in Foursquare (Game Mechanic: Collection, Achievement)  Foursquare is both a way to collect and record locations that you’ve visited, but has layered on mayorship and badge collection.  Through Foursquare, checking in the most in the last month for a restaurant can make you mayor of that location.  A contender for the position can trigger a competition for mayorship. Foursquare also allows their users to unlock badges based on their check- in activity.
  33. 33. Zynga A company that develops games for use on social networking websites such as Facebook and Google+, as well developing games for Apple iOS and Android Over the course of just a few years, Zynga has built a company valued at over 15 billion USD with over 200 million monthly active users (MAU) of their games. Zynga’s games are a success because. i. Zynga’s games are free-to-play. They require no payment by the player to access and participate in the main features of the game. ii. Zynga’s games are social. Players perform social interactions as a core part of their playing experience. Therefore, many believe that “. . . the runaway success of the online games from Zynga can largely be attributed to how they bring together acquaintances who otherwise wouldn’t have much to say to one another . . .” iii. Zynga’s games offer a continuous stream of engaging gameplay. The game environment Zynga provides engages players by offering them “new and exciting game content”
  34. 34. Zynga (Farmville game)  The most successful example of gamification to date is Farmville. Farmville is a game played online via Facebook and has arguably set the standard for all other meta games.  The premise of Farmville is very simple. Players must run a virtual farm in which the usual farm activities must be completed such as growing crops and raising animals. However, Zynga have incorporated a number of particularly clever aspects which have enabled Farmville to boom in the extraordinary fashion it has done  This viral element helps spread the use of Farmville dramatically as people are actively encouraged to invite friends and provide gifts. Other than this method, items in the game can either be purchased through virtual cash or players  The other key element to the gamification of Farmville is the way it coaxes players .  Meta games need to provide a reason for players to come back in order to promote long term business and Farmville does this by ensuring that if players do not actively return to their virtual farms frequently their crops will begin to die and their farm will fall apart. Therefore money, points and status are lost.
  35. 35. 2.Starbucks Leveling Up in My Starbucks Rewards (Game Mechanic: Points, Achievement, Leveling, Rewards)  Starbucks has a rewards program called My Starbucks Rewards. Basically, it starts with a Starbucks gift card pre- loaded with cash, but the game mechanics kick in as soon as you’ve registered your card.  After registration, Starbucks shows a progress bar and points in the form of stars to track your progress. Stars are earned for every purchase with your registered Starbucks card.
  36. 36. Continuation  Farmville is able to attract over 30 million users every day, illustrating it is a reliable blueprint for companies that wish to follow in their footsteps. The company that created Farmville, Zynga, which is based in California, is now estimated to be worth nearly $4 billion due to the success of the game and other meta games like it which have also reached vast audiences via Facebook.
  37. 37. 4.Dropbox  Cloud storage supplier Dropbox has included an element of gamification in its platform by offering additional storage space if users complete certain tasks.  A free account gives you access to 2GB of storage, but you can earn an extra 250MB just by taking a tour of Dropbox’s services.  There’s also 125MB up for grabs for connecting your account to either Twitter or Facebook, following Dropbox on Twitter or leaving feedback.
  38. 38. Future Trend of Gamification -Gamefication have become interested in harnessing the potential of gaming mechanics and sensibilities as tools for advancing learning. A “serious gaming” movement has arisen to apply gaming techniques to such realms as military and corporate and first-responder training programs. civilization and environmental ecology simulations news events and public policy campaigns problem-solving strategies in the natural sciences
  39. 39. CONT . Based on Brian Burke’s research, future scenarios ere projected where Gamification is combined with other emerging trends and technologies, may result in significant change on different areas of business and society, including:  An explosion of innovation  The design of employee performance  The globalization of advanced education  The gamification of personal development  The emergence of customer engagement platforms
  40. 40. “The future of eLearning cannot be boring courses lacking engagement or emotional response…the future of eLearning must include games and gamification.” ~ Karl Kapp
  41. 41. Conclusion  "Gamification has nothing to do with computer games," says Ira Winkler, president of Secure Mentem, a computer security firm in Annapolis, Md. "Rather, it's the application of gaming principles to a business problem.“  But gamification is not a term that has been embraced widely in the business world. "As soon as you use the word 'game' in a corporate environment, there tends to be a lot of pushback, as work is supposed to be serious and games are not," says Jordan Schroeder, IT security administrator.  Alongside the rising trend of "gamification," or the application of game mechanics to tasks that are not traditionally associated with play, a transreality approach to gaming incorporates mechanics that extend over time and space, effectively playing through a players day-to-day interactions and Gamification is a trending technology that we all should embrace in that its a great link to human computer relationship and thus creating a free thinking, exciting and very friendly working environment .
  42. 42. References  http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/26-elements-of-a-gamification- marketing-strategy/.  https://econsultancy.com/blog/61912-six-interesting-examples-of- gamification-in-ecommerce#i.g0vqtxkabd0uyn.  http://www.collthings.co.uk/2011/10/what-is-gamification-and-cool- examples.html#.U8prMob5vtQ.  http://playgen.com/gamification-case-studies-and-examples/.