Brad lewis managing western pecan insects

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  • 81000
  • Western and Southeastern, relevant for more than geographical differences, differences in pest management practices.
  • Three pecan aphid species
    2. Damage is different
    3. Population dynamics different
    4. Control practices may be different
  • Blackmargined aphid 125 young over 33 days. Increase more visible with respect to blackmargined aphid due to production of off spring, black pecan aphid live for approximately 10 days with 35 offspring produced. Blackmargined 150 or so and over a period of 30 days.
  • Remove pho
  • Live for 10 days, 35 young produced, insert damage picture in this slide, visible stress
  • Brachonid
  • Syngenta fulfill, movento bayer,
  • POTENTIALLY ECONOMIC
    WHAT WE DO WITH ONE GENERATION HAS THE POTENTIAL TO EFFECT SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS
  • Reduce errors in PNC management by understanding what is going on.
    Determine if an application is required, when to apply simple, why do we have problems.
  • Broad spectrum older chemistries
  • 1998/2002
  • Brad lewis managing western pecan insects

    1. 1. PRIMARY WESTERN PECAN INSECT PESTS New Mexico Pecan Short Course September 8-10, 2010
    2. 2. Outline • Background • Aphid Complex – Species – Biology – Management Considerations • Pecan Nut Casebearer – Biology – Management Considerations • Pecan Weevil – Current Status – Prevention
    3. 3. Two Distinct Pecan Growing Regions
    4. 4. Regionalization of Pecan Pest Management Practices 1. Yield 2. Profitability 3. Pest Pressure 4. Primary vs. Secondary Pest 5. Cultivar
    5. 5. Pecan Leaf vs. Leaflet Leaf/Compound Leaf Leaflet
    6. 6. Pecan Aphid Complex Black Pecan Aphid Yellow Pecan Aphid Complex Blackmargined Pecan Aphid Yellow Pecan Aphid
    7. 7. Pecan Aphid Biology Overwinter in bark as eggs IJ. Park Spring-eggs hatch, stem- mothers arise Populations build and decrease over the season, winged and non- winged females produces Fall-males produced and mate with wingless (apterous) females eggs produced No alternate-host in the area
    8. 8. Aphid Feeding 1. Aphid manipulates stylet between cells to find sieve elements 2. Remove products produced by photosynthesis 3. May compete with other tree “sinks” for these products • Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati –Photo Credit
    9. 9. Black Pecan Aphid 1. Adults dark black, nymphs dark grey 2. Wings extend past abdomen 3. Approximately 15 day lifespan 4. Produce approximately 35 offspring 5. Populations tend to be “clumped” 6. Little “honeydew” produced 7. Feed both sides of leaflet Louis Tedders
    10. 10. Black Pecan Aphid Damage 1. Interveinal necrosis/defoliation - Reductions in photosynthesis 2. May reduce nut quality* 3. Possible reductions in fruiting sites (following year)* 4. Historically considered economic 5. Damage is visible
    11. 11. Yellow Aphid Complex 1. Yellow Pecan Aphid Present in western orchards, low populations 1. Blackmargined Pecan Aphid Dominate species throughout the season Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org Mike Quinn
    12. 12. Blackmargined Aphids I.J. Park Aphid Skins Parasitized blackmargined aphid (do not mistake for black pecan aphid) Mike Quinn Non-Winged Female “apterous” stem mother Winged Female “alate”
    13. 13. Blackmargined Aphid 1. Adult females both winged and non-winged 2. Characteristic “black band” on wings 3. All forms “lime green” 4. Lifespan approximately 30 days 5. Produce approximately 150 offspring 6. Populations tend to be uniform across the orchard 7. Feed primarily on underside of the leaflet
    14. 14. Blackmargined Aphid Damage 1. Compete with the tree for photosynthates “sinks”* 2. May reduce nut quality* 3. May reduce # flowers (next year)* 4. Historically considered “secondary pest” in other pecan growing regions 5. Provide a food source for sooty mold* (honeydew) 6. Damage not visible 7. Premature defoliation
    15. 15. Quick Summary 1. Aphid species 2. Damage differences 3. Difference in fecundity rates
    16. 16. Pecan Production Basics (Aphid Control Considerations) 1. Pecans alternate between “heavy” and “light” production years. 2. Number and location of flowers are determined the previous year. 3. Pecans are considered a “high value” crop.
    17. 17. Aphid Control Considerations I. Economic Threshold Levels (internet) • Black pecan aphid 1-3 per leaf • Blackmargined aphid 10 per leaf II. Yield reductions (regional) • Approximately 2%+ reduction in meat (“heavy” production year) • Reduce number of flowers following year (“light” production year) • Increase in “husk retention” at harvest (“heavy production” year)
    18. 18. Aphid Control Considerations (Treat or No-Treat) I. Scout (insect) - Species - Density - Location (within, proximity to neighboring orchards) - Aphid forms (winged, stem, nymphs) - Damage (black) - Honeydew production (blackmargined) - History (how many, how long)
    19. 19. Aphid Control Considerations (Treat or No-Treat) II. Scout (orchard information) - Yield estimate - Overall orchard condition - Foliar requirements (zinc) - Soil moisture III. Equipment availability IV. Dollars - Expected market price - Application costs (chemical, labor) V. Climate (treatment, honeydew, sooty mold)
    20. 20. Insecticide Selection & Application • Number of insecticide active ingredients and activity for aphid control – Foliar trans-laminar systemics (neonicitinoids) – Foliar true systemics (Movento*) – Soil applied systemics (neonicitinoids) – Contact (organophosphate, pyrethroids) • Restricted vs. non-restricted • Costs $5/acre to $30+/acre • Resistance issues • Adjuvants • Application (coverage, air vs. ground, speed)
    21. 21. Status of Conventional Insecticides Used to Control Pecan Aphids I. Foliar •1) Pyrethroids (co-packs) •2 ) Non-specific feeding blockers (Fulfill) •3) Neonicotinoids •4) Chlorpyriphos (Lorsban 4E to Lorsban Advanced) •5) Pyriproxyfen (Knack) •6) Spirotetramat (Movento) •7) 2012 ?? II. Systemic (soil applied) Carbamates (Aldicarb removed 2010) Neonicotinoids
    22. 22. OMRI Approved Insecticides for Aphids • Sulfur • Pyrethrin • Potassium salts of fatty acids • Aromatic Oils (i.e. rosemary, peppermint) • Azadiachtin • Plant Growth Regulator
    23. 23. Decisions
    24. 24. Pecan Nut Casebearer Basics • Most recent pest introduced into western area* • Overwinter as a diapaused larvae in the base of pecan bud • Emerge in spring • Normally three generations throughout the growing season • Larvae feed on developing pecan nuts (direct impact), or buds • Smaller the nuts, more nuts damaged by larval feeding • Populations monitored with pheromone traps and scouting for eggs and damage • Economic threshold levels dependent on yield
    25. 25. Pecan Nut Casebearer Basics
    26. 26. PNC Life Stages STAGE LOCATION APPROX DURATION (days) Egg Nutlet, Bud 5 - 10 Larvae Nutlet, Base of Bud (overwintering) 25 - 30 Pupae Nutlet, Base of Bud 10 – 15 Adult (100-150 eggs) Omnipresent 7-10
    27. 27. Pecan Nut Casebearer (Western Region) PNC Infested Pecan Growing, PNC Uninfested
    28. 28. Three Pecan Nut Casebearer Generations (Moth activity) 10 16 20 DAYS
    29. 29. Detecting PNC Adult Populations (Pheromone Traps) 10 16 20
    30. 30. Placement of Pheromone Traps Wind 1. Location 2. Minimum of two traps 3. Record moths and # nights since last count 4. Used to time egg scouting 5. Replace pheromone every month 6. Consider access A
    31. 31. PNC Economic Decisions • Economic Threshold Levels: (Internet) – 1% egg infested clusters for 1st generation – 2% egg infested clusters for 2nd and 3rd generation ON-YEAR 1st GENERATION -2,500 Lbs/Acre -65 Nuts/Lb -$1.80/Lb Market -40,000 clusters/Acre -At 1% infested = 400 Clusters/acre -3 damaged nuts/cluster =1200 nuts or 18 lbs or $32 Loss OFF-YEAR 1st GENERATION -1,500 Lbs/Acre -60 Nuts/Lb -$1.80/Lb Market -26,000 clusters/Acre -At 1% infested = 260 Clusters/acre -3 damaged nuts/cluster =780 nuts or 13 lbs or $23 Loss Western PNC may have a high egg mortality (up to 80%) Used to thin crop load?
    32. 32. Pecan Nut Casebearer Management A. Timing Insecticide Application 1) Field Scouting 2) Modified Degree-Day Models (1st gen. only) a. Biofix (Texas A&M) b. Traditional (egg survey) c. Forecast Model 3) Calendar Based a. 12 days following accumulation of 25 moths* Egg Egg Hatch, Larvae and Nut Entry Treatment Decision MothCatches TIME
    33. 33. PNC Insecticides (General Characteristics) Broad Spectrum • Older chemistries, less expensive, residual less than 10 days, high degree of familiarity, reduce moth population, tend to increase aphid density Narrower Spectrum • Newer chemistries, more expensive, primarily target larvae, conserve beneficials, longer residual (some), good OMRI approved products
    34. 34. Alternative PNC Management Strategy
    35. 35. PNC Adult Suppression Program No Eggs Countable Moths Spray Countable Moths Spray 1. Not considered IPM 2. Can treat every other row 3. Inexpensive 4. No investment in scouting
    36. 36. Addition of Pecan IPM PIPE Website • Maintained by Texas A&M • Information contributions by all pecan belt entomology researchers • Early development phase • www.pecan.ipmpipe.org • Caution: recommendations may not be appropriate for all growing regions
    37. 37. Pecan Weevil Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org H C Ellis, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org Texas A&M
    38. 38. Recently Infested 1998/2002 1999/2003 2000/2003 Weevil Infested Pecan Weevil (1st trapped/Last trapped) 2008
    39. 39. Pecan Weevil Prevention • Restrict the movement of in-shell pecan and potted pecan nursery stock from pecan weevil infested areas. • NMDA , WPGA, NMPG, WTPGA, APGA support statewide cleaning plant and buying station inspection programs. • NMDA, NMSU, WPGA, NMPG support pecan weevil eradication programs.
    40. 40. Primary pest objective is to prevent the movement of pecan weevil into, and eradicate establishing populations in New Mexico
    41. 41. Call

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