1.Introduction to Culture: Definitions of Culture and Why do cultures
2.Types of Cultural Communication
3. What is Intercultural Communication?
4. Importance of Intercultural Communication
5. Examples for Cultural Differences in the Business World
6. Need for Intercultural Communication
7. Two Trends of Intercultural Communication: Globalisation and
8. Factors playing roles in bringing cultures together
9. Do’s of Intercultural Communication
10. Don’ts of Intercultural Communication
11. Various Cultures, Various Dining Etiquette
Introduction to Culture
What is ‘culture’? Culture is the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from
language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts. Today, in the United States as in other countries populated
largely by immigrants, the culture is influenced by the many groups of people that now make up the country. (Kim Ann
Why do cultures differ? :
Types of Cultural Communication
Cross cultural communication
What is Intercultural Communication in terms of Business Actions?
The term "intercultural communication" is often used to refer to the wide range of communication issues that inevitably arise within an organization com
of individuals from a variety of religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. Each of these individuals brings a unique set of experiences
and values to the workplace, many of which can be traced to the culture in which they grew up and now operate.
Businesses that are able to facilitate effective communication—both written and verbal—between the members of these various cultural groups will
be far better equipped to succeed than will those organizations that allow conflicts that arise from internal cultural differences to fester and harden.
The failure to address and resolve culturally based conflicts and tensions will inevitably show up in the form of diminished performance
and decreased productivity.
Significance of Intercultural Communication in terms of Business Actions
Effective intercultural communication helps to eliminate
communication obstacles like language barriers and
stereotypes from international business . Effective global
communication can be achieved through learning about other
cultures and implementing communication strategies such as
reflective listening and being open-minded.
(Importance of Intercultural Communication in Business |
Examples for cultural differences in the
Masculinity & Feminity
Seperation of Power
Examples for Cultural differences
In America, people shake
hands ,and even hug each
other. But in India, for
example, hands are joined
to say namaskar.
Need for Intercultural Communication
Success of any International business
Allows workers from different cultures to work
together as a group.
Worldwide marketing campaign.
An increase in international business.
Two trends of Intercultural Communication
Globalization refers to the
reduction and removal of barriers
between national borders in order
to facilitate the flow of goods,
capital, services and labour
The term “globalization” is widely used in various sources of literature. Many authors refer to it in different ways.
Croucher (2004) defines globalization as a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political
forces. Friedman (2008) has an opinion that globalized trade, outsourcing, supply-chaining, and political forces
have changed the world permanently, for both better and worse. The author states that the pace of globalization is
quickening and will continue to have a growing impact on business organization and practice. Palmer (2004)
defines globalization as "the elimination of state-enforced restrictions on exchanges across borders and the
increasingly integrated and complex global system of production and exchange that has emerged as a result.
Scholars Held and McGrew (1999) state that Globalization is „...a widening, deepening and speeding up of
interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social life from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to the
The phrase "multicultural workforce"
refers to the changing age, gender,
ethnicity, physical ability, and race, of
employees across all types and places of
Impact of Globalization- business sector
e.g., Import and Export of food,
electronic goods, etc. to other
Building a business friendly
environment with other nations.
Impact of Globalization-Advancement in
Spreading of multiculturalism,
For example: Endhiran Film was
persuaded by animatronic technicians
from other countries also.
Increase in international travel and tourism
Greater international travel and
tourism help cultures come closer to
For example: In 2004, there were over
17 million international tourist arrivals
to Turkey, with a rapid growth as in
2008 the number increased to 26
Global sporting events
Worldwide sporting events
such as World Cup , ICC world
cup and the Olympic Games.
DO’S OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
Avoid Assumptions, jokes which are misunderstood
Use symbols, diagrams and pictures.
Avoid using slang and idioms, choosing words that will
convey only the most specific meaning;
Investigate their culture's perception
Take cultural and local differences into account.
Say what you do and do what you say. Make sure that your
communication is line with the audience; use
Find out what cultural factors may hinder effective
DONT’S OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
Use the same approach world-wide.
Consider traditional knowledge and practices as
Let cultural differences become a source of
conflict that hinder the process or work.
Fail to ignore culturally-dependent enabling and
Fail to take language barriers into account.
DON’T’S OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
-North Americans view direct
eye contact as a sign of
-Asians view direct eye
contact as a form of disrespect
DON’T’S OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
The thumbs up sign in
America and most of Europe
means that something is good,
or that you approve. This sign
is considered rude in many
Asian and Islamic countries.
Raising your hand up means
stop in America or England. In
some Asian countries this
gesture is used when asking for
permission to speak.
VARIOUS CULTURES, VARIOUS DINING ETIQUETTES
To put into a nutshell, Intercultural
communication has existed since the
earliest times of history
and civilization of mankind, and if at first
the means of communication involves a
small number of people present, due to large
developments and discoveries in
science and technology, the evolution of
media , the Internet has made it
possible to access and create social networks
and links between people from all over the
Not practicing effective intercultural communication can lead to accidentally
offending another individual. An organization dedicated to improving
business between cultures, the consequences for such an accident can range
from an embarrassing moment to the collapse of an entire business deal.
Croucher, Sh. L. (2004). Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World. Rowman & Littlefield.,10.
Friedman T.L. (2008). The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention. Boston: Bedford, St. Martins, 49.
Globalisation (2001). Retrieved March 5, 2012 from http://www1.worldbank.org/economicpolicy/globalization/index.html
Gestures, Touch, Masculinity and Feminity and Separetion of Power. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/info.8020031_cultural-differences-business
-communication-styles.html. On 2 April, 2013
Held, D., A. McGrew, D. Goldblatt, and J. Perraton. (1999). Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture. Polity and Stanford University Press.
Kim Ann Zimmermann. What is culture? Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/21478-what-is-culture-definition-of-culture.html on March 4 , 2012
Palmer T.G. (2004). Globalization Is Grrrreat!. Cato Institute, 14-16.
Stanford University Press. Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture.
Intercultural communication. Retrieved from http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/intercultural-communication.html on 8 April,2013
Inercultural communicaiton in the business world. Retrieved from http//www.inc.com/encyclopedia/intercultural-communicaiton.html on 8 April,2013
Multicultural workforce. Retrieved from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Mor-Off/Multicultural-Workforce.html on 9 April, 2013
Say hello in different languages. Retrieved from http://www.wikihow.com/Say-Hello-in-Different-Languages on 9 April, 2013
What is Crosscultural communication? Retrieved from http://www. Ewbs.com on 17 April, 2013
What is Intercultural communication? Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles on 8 April, 2013
What is International communication? Retrieved from http://www.ewb.mit.edu on 8 April, 2013