Genetics; Nucleic acids, their structures, and functions constitute the core of Genetics.
Physiology; Biochemistry overlaps almost completely with physiology (the study of biological processes and functions).
Immunology; a science that deals with defense mechanisms against diseases, is considered a branch of Biochemistry.
Pathology; Biochemistry explains, at the molecular level, the symptoms and pathogenesis of diseases.
Pharmacology and Toxicology; advances in these sciences depend primarily on knowledge gained from Biochemistry as drugs and poisons are metabolized inside the body in enzyme-catalyzed biochemical reactions.
Biological Sciences (microbiology, Botany and Zoology) use biochemical approaches in the study of different aspects of these sciences.
Biochemical unity underlies the common features at the biochemical level of the greatly diverse biological world.
Examples include DNA, a type of macromolecule that stores genetic information in all cellular organisms. It consists of the same 4 building units in all living cellular organisms. Another example is represented by proteins, another type of macromolecules that are key participants in most biological processes. Proteins are built from a set of 20 building blocks that are the same in all organisms.
Key metabolic processes, such as the chemical conversion of glucose and oxygen to CO2 and water as part of energy production mechanism in living organisms, are essentially the same in all living organisms from bacteria through human.
Normal Biochemical Processes are the basis of health.
Any deviation from normal biochemical processes results in a disease condition. In addition, biochemical investigations and laboratory tests contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases.
Eukaryotes include unicellular organisms such as yeast in addition to all multi-cellular organisms. They are characterized by the presence of a well-defined nucleus within each cell.
On the other hand, bacteria (also known as prokaryotes) are unicellular organisms that lack nuclei.
Archaea constitute a separate group between the two classes, resembling bacteria in many aspects of cellular structure and metabolic processes, while follow the path of eukaryotes in the processes dealing with the flow of genetic information through generations.
A large central vacuole (enclosed by a membrane, the tonoplast ), which maintains the cell's turgor and controls movement of molecules between the cytosol and sap
A cell wall made up of cellulose and protein , and in many cases lignin , and deposited by the protoplast on the outside of the cell membrane ; this contrasts with the cell walls of fungi , which are made of chitin , and prokaryotes , which are made of peptidoglycan
The plasmodesmata , linking pores in the cell wall that allow each plant cell to communicate with other adjacent cells; this is different from the network of hyphae used by fungi
Plastids , especially chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll , the pigment that gives plants their green color and allows them to perform photosynthesis
Plant groups without flagella (including conifers and flowering plants ) also lack centrioles that are present in animal cells .