LEC- 2


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  • This slide is perhaps the most important slide of the set because it shows what constraints students are under as they begin writing a scientific document. In other words, this slide tells students where they should begin the writing process (an assumption here is that the students understand the content of their document and now must communicate that content). The constraints of audience, purpose, and occasion are discussed in Chapter 1. The aspect of format is also discussed in Chapter 16 and in the “Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students.” The aspect of process refers to how the student actually puts words onto paper. Will the student write as an individual or part of a group? Does the student have a fixed deadline? Chapter 17 discusses this aspect in more detail. Formality refers to the expectations that the audience has as far as mechanics, which is also discussed in Chapter 1, Appendix A, and Appendix B. Interactive exercises for mechanics can be found in the “Writing Exercises for Engineers and Scientists.” On this slide, you should make it clear to the students that no simple recipes exist for the challenging documents that they will have to write. Students should assess the audience, format, formality, and other constraints of the situation before committing words to paper. The slides that follow elaborate on each of the constraints.
  • One problem that many students have is that they don’t have a sense of hierarchy about aspects of writing. These students might equate a small aspect of form such as using a contraction with a serious mistake in content such as leaving out important information, or style, such as not emphasizing the most important result. With this slide, I try to distinguish these three terms. While there certainly is overlap among these terms, their definitions are distinct. Content is the message given, style is the way that message is presented (structure, language, and illustration), and form is the appearance of the message (grammar, punctuation, usage, spelling, and format). (Chapter 1)
  • If the constraints are what the engineer or scientist does not control in the writing process, then style is what the engineer or scientist does control. Style comprises three perspectives: structure, language, and illustration (all three are defined in Chapter 1). Students should note that unlike most terms in engineering and science, most terms in writing do not have universal definitions. For that reason, you and your students should agree upon a few definitions so that your discussions about writing make sense. So often, I have seen discussions about writing become unproductive because people invoke terms that others either do not understand or have different definitions for. Terms often used in discussions of writing, but not often understood by students, are format, style, structure, language, illustration, tone, active voice , passive voice, past tense, and the major parts of speech. These are defined in the textbook’s glossary. Reference for parachute photo: Peterson, C.W., and D.W. Johnson, Advanced Parachute Design , SAND86-8006 (Albuquerque: Sandia National Laboratories, 1986).
  • Information about the format of scientific writing can be found on pages 6-7 and in Chapter 16. Information about the mechanics of scientific writing can be found in Appendices A and B (and in The Craft of Editing (Springer-Verlag, 2000). Both of these subjects are discussed in separate presentations.
  • LEC- 2

    1. 1. Presented by: Dr/ Hanaa Talha 1
    2. 2. Presenter Info. Who Am I? – Prof. in computer science, faculty of computer and information science.• What Do I Know? – Image and pattern recognition, computation and programming 2 techniques, artificial intelligent techniques. What Do I Do? Vice dean faculty of computer and information sciences, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt 2
    3. 3. Course Objectives• Prepare the students for writing their assignments work in report form.• To know the possible organization of reports.• To be able to organize and write correctly the contents of a report sections.• To improve the writing style of a report.• To practices preparing and analysis the contents of a report. 3
    4. 4. (Additional related objectives)• To get the concepts of improving the writing skills is a part of the communication skills.• To implement the logical thinking through the writing process.• To know some advanced methods for search digital resources online. 4
    5. 5. Assignments1- Collect specific parts of reports papers, such as abstracts, introductions, conclusions2- Start to get resources to write a report and to present it, in any subject related to writing report field. The report should be ready after 2 weeks from now, with the presentation.3- Write an analysis report on one of your colleges reports. To be submitted after the mid term. 5
    6. 6. Related topics- Types of reports- Critical and logic thinking- Reading skills- Searching online- Soft skills- Typing & word processors- Terminology & plain language- Scientific writing- Writing style 6
    7. 7. The Lectures topics• 1- Introduction• 2- Report sections-1• 3- Report sections-2• 4- Writing style-1• 5- Writing style-2• 6- Letters writing• 7- Searching for online resources• 8- Communications skills (presentation) 7
    8. 8. 8
    9. 9. 9
    10. 10. Chinese Wisdom• I Read I Forget• I Write I Remember (Summaries & Mind-Maps)• I Do I Understand (Problem Solving ..) 10
    11. 11. Defining “Soft Skills”Soft skills (or employability skills) can best bedefined as skills which allow students to becomemore effective learners and workers. They caninclude:x communication skillsx time managementx organizational skillsx analytical, problem solving, and reflective thinking 11
    12. 12. Communication SkillsThese skills can include:x listening, speakingx reading, written,x Non verbal languagex presentation skillsx documentationx teamworkx customer servicex professional behavior 12
    13. 13. Why Do We Care?x These skills are key to succeedingx Many students have no idea how to function in the real worldx Many computer science students mistakenly believe that technical skills are the only skills that are importantx It makes life in the classroom more civilized and you can get more of the curriculum covered! 13
    14. 14. Writing is learned by writing• Practice, practice, practice• Choose good role models• Study good examples• But there are also techniques and rules to learn 14
    15. 15. Listening, Speaking, Reading, and WritingCommunicators are paired:• speaker-listener• writer-reader•If only half the pair operates effectively,something is lost in the communication process. 15
    16. 16. Critical Thinking & Writing• To develop your critical written analysis, remember the following strategies:• Question or “interview” the idea or topic.• Use an outline, a cluster, or flowchart to organize your analysis.• • Use appropriate diction & academic tone. 16
    17. 17. 17
    18. 18. 18
    19. 19. How to be a good writer- Search and learn how to find resources for your topic.- Read as you can in the interested and related fields of the selected subject.- Use the critical thinking if you are looking for improve the knowledge.- Focus on the style of sentences and the common terminologies of the subject.- Write down short notes for the coming idea during reading, as well as guided paragraph.-Begin writing before the research is finished. Writing should force you to strengthen your arguments. 19
    20. 20. Characteristics of Good Writing• Completeness: all information needed is provided• Correctness: relevant and precise information• Credibility‫ : مصداقية‬support your argument• Clarity: reader decides what is vague, confusing, ambiguous• Conciseness ‫ايجاز‬get to the point :• Consideration: anticipate the reader’s reaction 20
    21. 21. The essential steps before start writing• 1- Gathering the Basic information & Data• 2- Analyzing and Sorting the Results• 3- Outlining the Report 21
    22. 22. The Writing Process• Planning: – Keep objectives in mind and research the topic – Think about the audience – Outlining helps organize thoughts• Writing: – Follow your outline, use your handbook – Inspiration is acceptable but must be carefully reviewed – Use the interview approach to supplement the outline who, what, where, when, how)• Quality control: – Reread your work – Be critical of your own work 22
    23. 23. Tell a Story• Humans communicate through storytelling• We are fascinated by stories• Pose the problem, ask a question, pose a solution, note problems that arise, address them. 23
    24. 24. Scientific writing differs from other kinds of writing Subject Matter Writing Constraints audience occasion purpose [Franklin, 1952] Purpose of Writing Writing Style To inform To persuade 24 [Peterson, 1987]
    25. 25. You should begin the writing process byanalyzing your constraints Who they are Audience What they know Why they will read How they will read Format Formality Occasion Politics and ethics Process and deadline Purpose To inform 25 To persuade
    26. 26. Three aspects of writing affect the way that readers assess your documents Content Style Form 26
    27. 27. Style is the way you communicate the content to the audience [Peterson, 1987] words Illustration wordswords wordswordswords wordswordswordswords wordswordswords wordswordswords wordswordswords wordswordswordsStructure Language style 27
    28. 28. Form embodies the format and mechanics of the writing mechanicsformat grammar typography usage layout punctuation spelling 28
    29. 29. Types of Writing• E-mail• Letters and Memos ‫مذكرات‬• Agendas• Reports• Academic Documents• Research (scientific) manuscripts• Continuing education papers 29
    30. 30. Report writing• Reports communicate information which has been compiled as a result of research and analysis of data and of issues.• Reports can cover a wide range of topics, but usually focus on transmitting information with a clear purpose, to a specific audience. 30
    31. 31. 31
    32. 32. • Good reports are documents that are accurate, objective and complete.• They should also be well-written, clearly structured and expressed in a way that holds the readers attention and meets their expectations. 32
    33. 33. Different types of report• Scientific/lab• Technical• Business• Research• Academic overviewAll vary slightly in their purpose & structure. What kind of report are you writing? 33
    34. 34. Types of reports• At university, you may be required to write several different types of reports:• Technical and Business disciplines with an applied focus such as Engineering, Information Technology, Commerce, Accounting and Finance, will set report writing assignments that simulate the process of report writing in industry.• Assignments are set in the form of a problem or a case study. The students research the problem, and present the results of the research in a report format to an imaginary client. 34
    35. 35. Sample 35
    36. 36. In scientific writing, formats vary considerablyto serve different situations The most effective combustion method is an atmospheric fluidized bed clean ed exhau st • 90% removal capability sep arator • low capital cost—able to use in existing equipment • high operating cost • ability to use different grades of coal grid air inlet Formal Journal Presentation Reports Articles Slides 36
    37. 37. Writing stagesWriting is a staged process 1. Review/design/planning (prewriting) 2. Experimenting/research 3. Writing 4. RewritingEasy to emphasize writing stage & de-emphasize other stages Leads to poor communication 37
    38. 38. Key components of effective writing/ presenting• The structure and content• – Is it focused?• – Is it logical? Is the thinking clear and concise?• – Does it answer the question (s) in the reader’s mind?• – Is it easy for the reader to understand?• The ‘look’ of the document• – Does it look professional?• – Has consideration been given to highlighting structure?• – Is the document well referenced?• The style of writing and presenting• – Type of introduction and conclusion• – Use of stories, open questions• – Use of visuals, supporting documentation 38
    39. 39. Improve your technology skills (Word processor skills)• One of the important issues for writing a report by your own , is knowing how to use the whole features of the used word processor, e.g. insert equations, objects, page format, as well as have a appropriate typing skills in the both languages (Arabic/English).• (office 2007 tutorials)• http://www.fgcu.edu/support/ 39