William Dwight Whitney (1827- 1894) Antoine Meillet (1866- 1936) André Martinet (1908- 1999) Uriel Weinreich 1926- 1967 William Labov 1927 Among others, he reacted against the view that linguistics was to be ranked among the natural, not the social, siences. « Speech is not a personal possession, but a social; it belongs, not to the individual, but to the member of the society » (Saussure quoting Witney) During his years in Paris, Saussure’s most distinguished student was Antoine Meillet . Meillet had Martinet as his student. In USA, Martinet had Weinreich as his student (1948- 1955) Labov was much indebted and influenced by his teacher Weinreich
“ For this island, the rapidly changing social scene allowed social divisions to drive differentiation of sociolinguistic variants. The native up-islanders resented the outsiders for overshadowing the traditional industry of fishing, in contrast to the down-islanders who supported the tourists. Labov implemented the apparent-time construct, assessing the percentage of raised, centralized variants against age groups.»
Hypothesis : “salespeople in the highest ranked store will have the highest values of (r); those in the middle ranked store will have intermediate values of (r); and those in the lowest ranked store will show the lowest values ”. (Labov 2006: 42).
Method : He decided to do his studies in three New York department stores which could be easily differentiated by their different social status and social stratification of their clients:
Highest-ranking: Saks Fifth Avenue
He elicited the answer: « the fourth floor ». He conducted 264 interviews; 68 in Saks, 125 in Macy’s and 71 in Kleins. The interviewing time was about 6.5 hours.
These elements are not necessarily present in all narratives.
These elements are not distributed in the same way in all narratives.
The Element Explanation Abstract The introductory part of the narrative A brief summary of the event to spark attention. Orientation Description ofthe people or characters who will interact in the story. Complication Action The actual events of the narrative. The occurrences that move it ahead. Evaluation The point, or reason, the narrative is being told. Resolution Conclusion; end of the narrative Coda Relevance of the narrative to every-day life
a . When I was in fourth grade- no , in third grade-This boy he stole my glove. c. He took my glove d. and said that his father found it downtown on the ground. (And you fight him?) e. I told him that it was impossible for him to find downtown ‘cause all those people were walking by and just his father was the only one that found it? f. So he got all (mad). g. Then I fought him. h. I knocked him all out in the street. i. So he say he give. j. and I kept on hitting him. k. Then he started crying l. and ran home to his father. m. And the father told him n. that he ain’t find no glove. Evaluation is present in every line in the narrative. Evaluation= self-aggrandizement. Norris = Good / This boy= bad. (Labov 1972) Evaluation: Self-aggrandizement Resolution
“ In 1987,… a number of bomb threats were made in repeated telephone calls to the Pan American counter at the Los Angeles airport. Paul Prinzivalli, a cargo handler who was thought by Pan American to be a “disgruntled employee,” was accused of the crime, and he was jailed. The evidence was that his voice sounded like the tape recordings of the bomb threat caller. The defense sent me the tapes because Prinzivalli was a New Yorker, and they thought I might be able to distinguish two different kinds of New York City accents. The moment I heard the recordings I was sure that he was innocent; the man who made the bomb threats plainly did not come from New York at all, but from the Boston area of Eastern New England. .. Afterwards, Prinzivalli sent me a card saying that he had spent fifteen months in jail waiting for someone to separate fact from fiction.” ( http://www.pbs.org)
Thanks to Labov, linguistics is no longer that useless knowledge; it has become useful enough to save an innocent prisoner.