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  • Just like the project itself, project team is also temporary. Most often project teams are established for the sole purpose of the project. Unique outcome means that the project is designed to produce a new product or a new capability - for example, establishing of TQM to improve service standards. Similarly, a project could also be designed to produce research work.Progressive elaboration means that the project is constantly changing work in progress. The initially identified scope hardly ever remains the same as the project reaches its maturity. It also means that any project starts off with a simpler plan or idea which continues to become more and more elaborated as the work continues.
  • Examples of projects include but are not limited to: Developing a new product or service Resulting a change in culture, staffing or style of an organzation Acquiring a new system or set of processes Establishing or constructing a new facility Organizing an event Running a campaign Implementing a new business process Preparing to design a sales proposal / business development effort
  • PMs often talk abt the ‘Triple Constraint” - Project scope, cost and time. Project quality is affected by balancing these three factors. High quality projects deliver the project as per the planned scope, time and cost.
  • Pros of being a project managerSteppingstone to recognition and promotion Lots of variety - no two days are alike Gives a strong sense of accomplishment - IF the project is successfully completed These is significant freedom of choice - as you are in charge of making decisions and setting policies that other will follow It is a great leadership opportunityCons of being a PMRequires significant people skills - might have to deal with lots of politics Requires tolerance of ambiguity and uncertainty - since the project is constantly experiencing changes There is a lot of responsibility - but not enough authorit with respect to changing scope, time or cost of the project If you are a techie, you may feel disconnected from your main line of expertise You may be perceived by some as not having a “read job” :)
  • Exercise: Let’s suppose you are in charge of establishing a new territorial sales office / branch for your organization. Who all can be stakeholders in this project?Who all can be stakeholders?
  • Show a different presentation on how to use CPM


  • 1. Manage Projects Professionally
    Project Management Toolkit
  • 2. Important Stuff
    Setting Standards
    What setting you want today?
    Formal or Informal?
    What learning environment would you prefer?
    Lecture-based or interactive?
    Would you like others to talk on the phone during the program?
    Would you like to receive rewards for good performance?
  • 3. Important Stuff
    Setting Standards
    Not a training program
    This is an EXPERIENCE – Learning Experience for ALL of us
    Be ready to give and receive constructive criticism
  • 4. Learning Contract
    A contract between YOU and YOURSELF
    Write ONLY what you want to remember later
    Not more than 10 points
    “The Only Barrier to Learning the Truth is to Assume You Already Know It”
  • 5. Why perform Project Management
  • 6. Understanding the Expectation Game
    Project Intro
  • 7. What is a Project
    Project Definition : "A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result"
    Temporary: Has a finite duration, project ceases when its objective is achieved. Does not mean short duration. Normally, the product/service will outlive the project
    Unique : Doing something that has not been done earlier
    Progressive Elaboration: "Developing in steps, and continuing in increments". Development of details progressively
    Constantly changing
    Building and Dismantling
    Precedes Operations
  • 8. What is a Project
    Projects and Operations
    Performed by people
    Constrained by limited resources
    Planned, executed and controlled
    Operations: Ongoing, repetitive, necessary for sustaining the business
    Projects: Temporary, unique.
    Projects and Strategic Planning
    Projects are used to achieve strategic plans
    In response to market demands, customer requests, organizational needs, technological advances, legal requirements.
  • 9. What is Project Management
    Application of
    Knowledge (e.g. Domain areas - Pharmaceutical, construction, etc.)
    Skills (Managing)
    Tools & Techniques (Software)
    Project activities (e.g Time Management, Cost Management, etc.)
    The GOAL
    Project objectives
    PM is accomplished through processes
    Prepare – Plan – Execute - Close
    Project work typically involves
    Identifying requirements
    Defining objectives
    Balancing the competing demands for Scope, Time, Cost, and Quality
    Managing stakeholders
  • 10. Why Project Management?
    To enhance the probability of project success
    To focus on objectives - Scope, Time, Cost, Quality & Risk
    For effective response to rapid changes
    To manage effective utilization of resources
    To address stakeholders interests
    To manage risks effectively
    Achieve Financial Efficiency
    Project Cost
    Project Time
    Project Quality
    Lessons Learnt
    Create re-usable data and information for future use
  • 11. Project Lifecycle
    No ‘ideal’ project lifecyle
    It defines
    What work to do in each phase
    What deliverables to be generated
    Who all are involved in each phase
    How to manage each phase
  • 12. Project Lifecycle
    Common characteristics
    Phases are generally sequential
    Cost and staffing are low at the start, peak in the middle and are low again
    Risk is high at the start and slowly declines
    Influence of stakeholders is highest at the start and declines slowly
  • 13. Project Phases
    Defines and authorizes the project or a project phase
    Defines and refines objectives, and plans the course of actions required to attain the objectives and scope that the project was undertaken to address
    Integrates people and other resources to carry out the project management plan for the project
    Regularly measures and monitors progress to identify variances from the project management plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to meet project objectives
    Formalizes the acceptance of the product, service or result, and brings the project or a project phase to an orderly end
  • 14. Project Charter
    The document that formally authorizes the project
    Authorizes Project Manager to apply organizational resources
    PM should be assigned at the earliest feasible, but should always be assigned before start of the planning phase, or during charter development
    The Initiator or Sponsor is external to the project organization at a level appropriate to funding the project
  • 15. Project Charter
    Project Charter should address the following
    Requirements of the customers, sponsors and other stakeholders
    Business needs, project justification, strategic plan
    Assigned PM and authority (some other resources may also be pre-assigned)
    Product description/deliverables
    Summary milestone schedule
    Stakeholder influences
    Functional organization and its participation
    Constraints and assumptions relating to organization, environment and external factorsSummary budget
    Any change in the Project Charter should question the continuance of the project
  • 16. Well planned is almost done
  • 17. Project Activity Planning
  • 18. The Columbus Disease
  • 19. Project Planning
    Planning is a process – not an outcome
    Planning should address
    Setting the boundaries | Scope statement
    Activity planning
    Activity schedule development
    Cost planning
    Risk planning
  • 20. Scope Statement
    Project scope statement should address the following areas:
    Project and product objectives
    Product/service requirements and characteristics
    Product acceptance criteria
    Project boundaries – What is included and what is not
    Project requirements and deliverables
    Project constraints
    Project assumptions
    Initial project organization
    Initial defined risks
    Schedule milestones
    Initial Work Breakdown Structure
  • 21. Project Activity Planning
    Steps to develop project activity schedule
    Specify the individual activities (WBS)
    Determine the sequence of these activities (Activity Table)
    Draw a sequence diagram (AON or AOA)
    Estimate the completion time for each activity (Activity Estimates)
    Identify the critical path (Using CPM)
    Create a schedule of activities
    Update the schedule / diagram as the project progresses
  • 22. Activity Identification Tool - WBS
    Deliverable-oriented hierarchical decompositions of project work
    Creates the required deliverables
    WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project
    Subdivides the project work into smaller, more manageable pieces of work
    Has descending levels with increasingly detailed definition of the project work
    Lowest level WBS components are called work packages; they can be scheduled, cost-estimated, monitored and controlled
  • 23. WBS
    Manageable (specific authority/responsibility assigned)
    Independent (with respect to other elements o( projects)
    Integrateable {so that the total package can be seen)
    Measurable (each deliverable)
    To simplify a complex project - it is a summation of elements
    Planning can be better performed
    Duration, cost and budget can be established
    Time, expenditure, and performance can be tracked
    Network and Control Planning can be initiated
    Responsibilities and Resources can be assigned
    Omission/duplication of tasks can be avoided
    Provide a common structure and coding system
  • 24. Creating WBS
    Subdivision of project deliverables into smaller chunks
    Goal : create work packages
    May not be possible for deliverables that are far into the future
    Different deliverables may have different levels
  • 25. Sample WBS
  • 26. Sample WBS
  • 27. Task Sequencing
    Identification of logical sequencing among schedule activities
    Allows for a smooth flow of project activities
    Helps to identify the most efficient way to reach project milestones
  • 28. Task Sequencing Tool - PDM
    Precedence Diagram Method
    Helps to develop project schedule
    Identifies dependencies of different activities to establish the fastest path to task completion
    Most useful for complex projects
    Visual display helps to communicate activity execution
    Identifies missing activities
    Also known as AON
  • 29. PDM
    Terms to remember
    Four types of dependencies
    Finish to Start (most common)
    Start to Start
    Finish to Finish
    Start to Finish (rarely used)
  • 30. Building a PDM
  • 31. Task Sequencing Tool - ADM
    Arrow Diagram Method
    Another way to create a schedule network diagram
    AOA – Activity on Arrow
    Activities are identified on arrows
    Activities connect on nodes to show dependencies
    Only has Finish to Start dependency
    Can also have dummy nodes
    Less commonly used in project planning
    Sample ADM
  • 32. Practice
    Perform Task Sequencing through
    Sample Project Activities
  • 33. Duration Estimate Tools
    Parametric Estimate
    Determined by multiplying the quantity of work by the productivity rate
    Construction work – per square foot
    Design work – labor hour per design
    Drilling – time taken per cubic inch
    Three-point Estimate
    Helps to consider the amount of risk in the initial estimate
    Considers 3 types of estimates
    Most likely
  • 34. Schedule Development
    Outlines the proposed timelines for the project activities
    Is an iterative process
    Is typically completed AFTER activity duration estimate
    Serves as the baseline against which project progress can be tracked
  • 35. Schedule Development Tool - CPM
    Dupont developed the concept in 1957 – to address the shutting of plants for maintenance
    Helps to identify the path of activities where any delay WILL cause a delay in the project timeline
    For activities outside the Critical Path, there is tolerance for
    Late start
    Late finish
    Early start
    Used to be carried out by hand – now there are software available
    MS Project
    Schedule activities on the Critical Path are called Critical Activities
  • 36. More on CPM
    Calculated by estimating the following 4 parameters for each activity
    ES - Earliest start time
    Earliest time at which the activity can start given that its precedent activities must be completed first
    EF - Earliest finish time
    Equal to the earliest start time for the activity plus the time required to complete the activity
    LS - Latest start time
    Equal to the latest finish time minus the time required to complete the activity
    LF - Latest finish time
    Latest time at which the activity can be completed without delaying the project
    Slack Time
    Time between its earliest and latest start time
    Amount of time that you can delay an activity without delaying the project schedule
    Critical Path
    A path in which all activities have ES = LS and EF = LF
  • 37. Why CPM
    CPM helps to identify
    Different activities that MUST be completed on time for the project to stay on schedule
    Which activities can be delayed and their resources can be reallocated
    Minimum duration of the project
    Early start and late start time for each activity in the schedule
  • 38. Schedule Compression Tools
    Schedule Compression
    Helps to shorten project schedule WITHOUT changing the project scope
    Compression techniques
    Cost and Time tradeoffs are analyzed to determine the greatest amount of project compression
    Often results in increased cost
    Fast Tracking
    Sequenced activities are performed in parallel
    E.g. – foundation work is started before detailed architecture drawings are complete
    Increases project risks
  • 39. Project Cost Planning
  • 40. Why Perform Cost Planning
    Helps to manage the cost of the resources needed to complete schedule activities
    Projects cash outflows at different stages of the project
    Helps to highlight the risk of major cost over-runs
    Establishes a baseline to compare with the actual project cost
    Helps the sponsors to decide whether to continue or shut the project
  • 41. Cost Planning Tools
    Bottom-up Estimating
    Starts from Work Packages – from bottom level activities
    Add up their costs and work upwards
    Aggregate the costs to reach a final figure
    Pros and Cons
    Upside – is more accurate, cost changes can be recorded easily
    Downside – takes more time, requires detailed knowledge
    Parametric Estimating (discussed earlier)
  • 42. Cost Planning Tools
    Top-down Estimating (Analogous Estimating)
    Takes cost inspiration from similar projects, tasks
    Starts from the top and work downwards
    Divide the cost figures among different sub-projects or tasks
    Pros and Cons
    Upside – quick and easy to use, good for early-stage planning
    Downside – often is very inaccurate, can mislead if used at a later stage
    Reserve Analysis
    Contingency factor – what-if scenario
    Downside – can over-state the cost estimate of schedule activity
    Remedy – aggregate reserves for a group of activity and assign it to a dummy task
  • 43. Inputs for Cost Planning
    Enterprise Environment Factors
    Organizational Process Assets
    Project Scope Statement
    Work Breakdown Structure
    WBS Dictionary
    Project Management Plan
    Schedule Management Plan
    Staffing Management Plan
    Risk Register
  • 44. Project Risk Planning
  • 45. What is Project Risk
    Probability of an uncertain event or condition with a positive or negative effect on any one of the following project objectives
    Probability of delay in acquiring a permit from the government for an aspect of the project
    Probability of unavailability of adequate resources assigned for a particular task
    Probability of increase in resource cost
  • 46. Understand Risk
    Types of risks
    Known risks – something we can plan for
    Unknown risks – we are caught off guard
    Risks – threats or opportunities?
    Taking risk against profitable gain
    Using Fast Tracking to shorten project timeline
    Risks that offer opportunities
    Lowering of taxes on project resources, brining cost down
    Attitude toward risk?
    Fear and avoid
    Accept and face
  • 47. Risk Planning Process
  • 48. Risk Identification
    Documenting which risks might affect the project
    Is an iterative process
    PM should decide the frequency of review
    Leads commonly to qualitative analysis
    Grouping of risks with respect
    How they relate to each other
    How they impact the project objectives
    Their probability
    Risk Register
    A collection of all types of risks and their characteristics
    This is the output of the process
  • 49. Risk Identification Tools
    Gather with different stakeholders in separate groups
    Collect the risks they identify
    Delphi Technique
    Asks a group of experts anonymously a set of questions about potential risks
    Consolidate data
    Send it to the experts again and seek comment
    Repeat 3-5 times
    SWOT Analysis
    Threats (these are your risks)
    Checklist Analysis
    Historical data
    Risk Register from another project
    Use the data gathered to prepare a checklist
  • 50. Sample Risk Register
  • 51. Risk Impact Scales
  • 52. Qualitative Risk Analysis
    Helps to prioritize project risks
    Sets you up for the next step
    Either quantitative risk analysis
    Or risk response planning
    Main ingredients
    Risk probability
    Risk impact
    Risk tolerance for Scope, Cost, Quality and Time
    Easy and simple to use
    Gives a ballpark figure of risk impact value
    Too simple for complex projects
    May be inaccurate
  • 53. Tool | Risk Matrix
    Helps you to
    Visualize the effect of different risks
    Gives you the ‘big’ picture
    Charts risks
    X-axis – Risk Impact
    Y-axis – Risk Probability
    Risk Matrix
  • 54. Tool | Probability-Impact Matrix
    Risk probability
    Likelihood that a certain probability will occur
    Risk impact
    Potential effect of a certain risk on any of the four project objectives: scope, time, quality and cost
    Assesses both positive as well as negative risk
    Positive risk – opportunities
    Negative risk – threats
    Risk Factor
    Result of multiplying risk probability with risk impact
    Gives the final impact of a certain risk
    Risk data quality
    Ask experts – avoid bias – look at historical data
  • 55. Sample | Probability-Impact Matrix
    Project Objective
    To establish a new territorial office
    Potential Risks
    Inflation higher than estimated
    Project team members leaving before project completion
    Changes in project scope
    Security situation of the area
  • 56. Qualitative Risk Analysis | Output
    Qualitative analysis results in
    Ranking of different risks
    Grouping of risks
    List of risks requiring response in the near-term / long-term
    List of risks for additional analysis
  • 57. Risk Response Planning
    Process of developing responses to
    Enhance opportunities
    Reduce threats
    Should address risks based on their Risk Factor or priority
    Helps to create some cushion by
    Allocating extra budget
    Allocating extra time
  • 58. Tools | Risk Response Strategies
    Responding to Threats
    Change the PM plan to avoid a risk
    Shifting the impact and ownership of risk to third party (insurance policy)
    Work to reduce the probability or impact of a risk (test marketing, prototyping)
    Proactive Vs Reactive
    Responding to Opportunities
    Seek to face the risk head on (assigning better talent to a task)
    Sharing the ownership with a third party (JVs)
    Seek to increase the probability or impact of the positive risk
  • 59. Executing to Perfection
  • 60. Communicating What Needs Execution
    Project Communication Management
  • 61. Communications Management
    To ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval and ultimate disposition of project information
    Processes for communication management
    Information distribution
    Performance reporting
    Stakeholder communication management
  • 62. Information Distribution
    Broad Strategy
    Need-to-know basis
    Restricts access – Keeps security intact – Maintains strong lines of separation – Keeps the focus of the members intact
    Want-to-know basis
    Opens access – Risks information proliferation – Allows for involvement – May increase distraction
  • 63. Information Distribution | Tools
    Distribution Triggers
    Time-based reports / meetings
    Event-based reports / meetings
    Event significance identification
    Standard templates
    No specific formats
    Isolated meetings
    Project team meetings
    E-sharing thru project management systems
    E-mails and file sharing systems
    Less details
    Focuses on output / deliverable
    More details
    Focuses on processes
  • 64. Performance Reporting
    To continuously assess current project performance against project estimated baselines related to
  • 65. Performance Reporting | Tool
    KPI – Key Performance Indicator
    “Numbers don’t lie”
    Helps to measure performance objectively
    Remember that KPIs should
    Connect with either one of the four project objectives (SCTQ)
    Measure live project performance
    Should be designed so they result in numbers or %
    Will measure the performance result against baseline estimates
  • 66. Stakeholder Communication Management
    To satisfy the needs of and resolve issues with project stakeholders
    Suggested Strategy
    “Need to know basis” – well-defined lines of communication separation
    Active engagement – answer before they question
  • 67. Communicating What Needs Execution
    Risk Management
  • 68. Risk Management
    Executing the risk plans and reassessing them to meet project objectives
    Risk Monitoring and Control
    Assess the assumption of earlier identified risks
    Monitor the progress of risk response execution
    Identify and analyze new risks
  • 69. Risk Management | Tool
    Risk Audit
    Examines and documents the risk responses and compares it against the established baselines
    Subjective activity – helps to see the trend and reassess the risk responses
    Variance Analysis
    Identifies how much the actual progress has deviated from the baseline estimates
    Statistical method
    Provides an objective analysis
    Reserve Analysis
    Risks will occur – your reserves will get consumed, but how much?
    Analyze the use of reserves consumption
  • 70. Quality Management
  • 71. Quality Management
    Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics meet requirements
    To ensure the baseline quality targets are met through
    Achieved through
    Quality Assurance
    To ensure that processes are being followed as planned and proposed
    Quality Control
    To ensure specific project deliverables meet the quality standard that was planned and proposed
  • 72. Quality Assurance
    Application of planned and systematic activities to ensure that processes are in line to meet the project objectives
    Negates “Don’t fix it if it isn’t broken” philosophy
    A separate designated team
    Quality Circles
    Members from within the team are assigned and rotated to perform QA
    Checks deviations before they result in bad quality deliverable
    Paves way for Continuous Improvement (Kaizen?)
    Helps to develop stronger standards for processes
  • 73. QA | Tools
    Quality Audits
    Structured review activity to check whether project processes comply with organizational / project policies and procedures
    Shouldn’t be announced – best when done without prior notice
    Conducted by trained in-house personnel
    Process Analysis
    A scheduled activity to systematically review processes in view of the deliverables and project objectives
    Feedback from project members
  • 74. Quality Control
    Monitoring of specific project deliverables to check whether they comply with planned / proposed quality standards
    An independent team performs quality checks
    Done through sampling
    Statistical analysis – to identify patterns and then identify root cause
    Keeps poor quality deliverables from reaching in the hands of the customer or sponsor
    Helps to identify poor inputs into activities
    Arrests trends that could lead to further deterioration in quality of the deliverables
  • 75. Change Management
  • 76. Change Management
    To assess, record and incorporate any changes to the project objectives mainly T-Q-S-C
    Is performed from inception to completion
    Is important as projects seldom get executed exactly as planned
    Is often a result of a risk being materialized
    Positive risk – positive change
    Negative risk – negative change
  • 77. Change Management
    Steps to perform control and manage changes
    Identify the need for a change in the project objectives
    Review request for changes
    Assessing the effects of proposed changes to SCTQ
    Inform and review the proposed changes with stakeholders
    If approved, document and update all SCTQ baselines
  • 78. The Destination
  • 79. Closing Project
  • 80. Closing Project
    Structured process
    Ensure that deliverables are handed over to project sponsors or customers
    Document and archive project records for future projects
    Ensure project deliverables are accepted by sponsors / customers
    Perform comparative analysis of initial baseline estimates and final output
  • 81. Documentation
    To ensure that all important activities, policies, processes and deliverables are documented for review
    Facilitates project performance analysis
    Allows for comparative analysis between projected and actual
    Makes templates available for future projects
    Some policies and processes can be utilized by other departments in organizations
    Provides important data for operations
  • 82. Thanks