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Theories of social work — presentation transcript

  1. 1. Theories of Social Work — Presentation Transcript1. Theories of Social Work S.Rengasamy Madurai Institute of Social Work Social WorkersCelebrating Community –Honouring Diversity2. Social Work is a practical job. It is about protecting people and changing their lives, notabout giving theoretical explanations of why they got into difficulties … Social work is aboutsocial change at the individual as well as at community level. Change is complex, diversifiedand risk prone. To understand it, social worker need knowledge. imagination, comprehension& creativity….in short, a radical shift in understanding “Knowledge as process” as opposed to“Knowledge as product” is needed. But our understanding of social work (especially with thefaculty and students of social work colleges in non metropolitan cities of India and studentswith low level mastery of English language) is frozen with the simple definition of social is the art and science of helping the people to help themselves. Compilation andinterpretation of social work definition accessible to the students (PD Mishra 1994) conveys ameaning that social work is a “helping” “assisting” „enabling” activity, which in turn suggestssocial work is seen as a benign and uncontentious activity, willingly accepted. Thisunderstanding fails to reflect the major transformations social work discipline has undergoneas well as its global outlook. There is nothing wrong in simplifying a concept, but if it ignoresthe complexities associated with the concept, that will end our further seeking. Whatever maybe a definition of social work, it is normally based on certain perspectives and understandingof that perspective / theory will help us to appreciate that definition. It is this clarity thatnormally make one to commit in his/ her professional responsibilities.3. To answer these questions one need to What is the need know why people are suffering.What is our of social work or responsibilities towards Why Social work? fellow humanbeings? How we gain knowledge about the human problems? What makes us perceive thehuman Definition of problems in a particular social work How social work way? Why wesubscribe generally convey is carried out? to certain methods of solving problems? …. Socialworkers need to answer these questions To whom social before addressing others work isgoing to problems. Theories & serve? or perspectives of social characteristics of work mayprovide some answers to these its cliens questions4. Why Social Work? Life means to face the demands of day to day life and realize the self.By life tasks we mean the responses people make as they face the demands made uponthem in various life situations, such is growing up in a family, entering school or work, raisinga family, earning their daily bread, working in the industry, problems relating to job or earning,facing illness, accidents and death. People are dependent on social systems to realize their
  2. 2. aspirations and to cope with their life tasks. In order to realize their life tasks people have tointeract with three kinds of resource systems in the social environment 1. Informal or naturalresource system consists of family, friends, neighbors, co workers, etc 2. Formal resourcesystem consists of membership in organizations, trade union organizations or other sociocultural organizations 3. Social resource system such as schools, hospitals, housingsocieties, police, banks etc Why people are unable to obtain the resources, services oropportunities in the resource systems, they need to cope with their life tasks and realize theiraspirations? 1. A needed resource or service may be scarce or may not exist or may notprovide appropriate help to people who need it. 2. People may not know the existence of aresource system or may be hesitant to turn it for help for several reasons like distance,corruption, delay or poor quality etc 3. The polices and procedures of the resource systemmay inhibit / prevent it access (eg. eligibility criteria, gender, etc) 4. Several resource systemmay be working at cross purposes The purpose of social work is to enable the people to usethe social resources to meet their life tasksIncreasing ones ability in discreet thinking to sort out right and wrong Increasing onespositive self-image and overcoming stigma Involving in the growth process and changes thatis never ending and self-initiated Ability to inform others‟ perceptions though exchange,education and engagement. Ability to learn and access skills for improvingpersonal/collective circumstance. Having positive-thinking about the ability to make change Ability to exercise assertiveness in collective decision making Ability to consider a range ofoptions from which to choose (not just yes/no, either/or.) The ability to access informationand resources for decision-making The ability to make decisions about personal/collectivecircumstances 5. What do we mean by helping people to help themselves? 1. Increasedunderstanding of oneself or a situation. 2. Being able to make a decision 3. Being able toconfirm a decision. 4. Being able to get a support for a decision. 5. Being able to change asituation 6. Adjusting to a situation that is not going to change 7. Being able to examineoptions and choosing one 8. Being able to discharge feelings Compare self help withempowerment Empowerment includes the following, or similar, capabilities:-6. Theory is an “attempt to retrospectively explain and to What is theory? It is important firstto be clear what the term theory means in an academic sense. Cottrell provides a usefulgeneral definition: A theory is a set of ideas that helps to explain why something happens orhappened in a particular way, and to predict likely prospectively predict” outcomes in thefuture. Theories are based on evidence and reasoning, but have not yet been conclusivelyproved. Thompson‟ s definition includes similar ideas: An attempt to explain…a frameworkfor understanding…a set of ideas linked together to help us make sense of a particular issue.Writing about social work theory, Beckett makes a connection with practice: …a set of ideas
  3. 3. or principles used to guide practice which are sufficiently coherent that they could ifnecessary be made explicit in a form which was open to challenge.7. It will be useful if we uTheories of personality (development) Theories of evolution, nderstand the different types of theories taught and the logic as why are these theoriesimparted to the students. It may be logical to group these theories in broader categories e.g.& Theories of social work (clinical practice) etc. Theories of economic growth anddevelopment, theories of group dynamics and leadership, Theories of deviance, crime andcorrection, Theories of individual and group behavior, Theories of social organization andsocial change, theories of social stratification, learning theories,8. Curriculum Development Centre in Social Work Education, University Grants Commission,India recognized three elements of social work curriculum 1. Values of the profession 2. Skillsand methods that are developed for the professional task 3. Major theories and conceptsObjectives of teaching theories 1. Refinement of practice 2. Provision of changing theoreticalinputs to the social work knowledge base 3. Building up of new theories from the practicedata The centre has recommended to include many different theories discretely anddispersaly but failed to do a wise selectivity of appropriate theories to be taught rationally andcoherently and imparting knowledge of these theories compactly as an independent coursethat are taught in other disciplines eg. Sociological Theories, Modern Economic Theories,Contemporary Political Theories, Psychological TheoriesMicro theories developed to explain very small-scale situations – for instance, relationshipsbetween staff and patients on a hospital ward. Middle-range theories which focus on alimited range of issues – for instance, labeling theory, which from a social integrationistperspective aims to explain deviance; Grand, macro-level or global theories (sometimesknown as meta-narratives), such as Marxism or Psychoanalysis, which claim to be able toexplain everything in society, or all human behavior; 9. Thompson explains that there aredifferent levels of theories. These are:10. The term theory is loosely used in social work profession. The use of social work theoriesin professional literature is rather ambiguous. Concepts, frames of reference, practice modelsand philosophical propositions have been termed as theories.11. How theories help social workers? Social workers might use theory to understand andexplain three main aspects of social work 1. The task and purpose of social work – the role ofsocial work in society; 2. Practice theories: sometimes called social work approaches ormethods – how to go about doing social work; 3. The world of service users, including theinternal (psychological) world and the external (social) world
  4. 4. 12. In social work, the term „theory‟ covers three different possibilities: Provable explanationswhy something happens (Explanatory Theory) Organized description of activity in astructured form (Models) Ways of conceptualizing the world or a particular subject(Perspective)13. Conceptual Frameworks Theories OF Social Work Theories FOR Social Work OrientingTheories Practice Frameworks Practice Perspectives Practice Theories Practice ModelsTheories of social work Focus on the profession and explain its purpose, domain, andcharacter within the society. They describe what the profession is all about and why itfunctions as it does. Theories for social work Focus on clients and helping activities. Theyexplain human behaviours, the social environment, how change occurs and how change canbe facilitated by the social worker in order to benefit14. Practice Frameworks Orienting Theories Practice Perspective Practice Theory Orientingtheories describe and This is a particular way of It offers both an explanation of explainbehaviour and how and viewing and thinking about certain behaviours or situations whycertain problems develop. practice. It is a conceptual lens and guidance on how they canThey provide important through which one views social be changed. A practice theorybackground knowledge and are functioning and it offers very serves as a road map forusually borrowed from other broad guidance on what may be bringing about a certain type ofdisciplines such as biology, important considerations in a change. Most practice theoriespsychology, sociology, practice situation. Like a camera are rooted in one or moreeconomics, cultural lens, a perspective serves to orienting theories. An exampleanthropology, and the like. focus on or magnify a particular is psychosocial therapy, which isExamples feature. Two perspectives, the based primarily on include the various theoriesgeneral systems perspective and psychodynamic theory and ego related to humandevelopment, the ecosystems perspective, are psychology. Another is personality, familysystems, commonly used in assessing behaviour therapy, which is socialization, relationshipsbetween people derived from the psychology of organizational functioning, and and theirenvironment. learning political power, as well as theories related to specific Practice Modeltypes of problems Practice Model is a set of concepts and principles used to guide such aspoverty, family intervention activities. The term model is also used when referring to violence,mental illness, teen a conceptual framework that is borrowed from one field and appliedpregnancy, crime and racial in another, for example, the medical model (study, diagnose,treat) discrimination. and the legal model (an approach to social action and client advocacy,involving competition and conflict among adversaries).The environment impacts the actions, beliefs, and choices of the individual The StrengthsPerspective This perspective is built on the assumption that every individual, family, group
  5. 5. and community has strengths and focusing on these strengths leads to growth andovercoming difficulties. Under this perspective, clients are generally the best experts aboutwhat types of helping strategies will be effective or ineffective. The Cultural CompetencePerspective This perspective is the understanding and approval of cultural distinctions, takinginto account the beliefs, values, activities, and customs of distinctive population groups. Manycultures have prescribed ways of talking about health and the human body and these factorsimpact a persons reaction and acceptance of health services. These perspectives areconsistent with a Family-Centered or Client-Centered approach, which is central to thestandards of best practice with persons with disabilities and consistent withsocial Individuals, families, and neighborhoods exist in a political, economic, and culturalenvironment Families exist within communities and neighborhoods Individuals exist withinfamilies 15. Framework for Social Work Practice Social work draws from many frameworksfor practice, but some of these frameworks have had more influence on the profession ofsocial work than others. The three influential frameworks are The Ecosystem PerspectiveThis perspective focuses on the interplay between the person and his or her environment. Tounderstand the functioning of the individual, we must understand his or her environmentalcontext:Description: theory provides a genera Observation: theory provides guidance on what asocial worker might need to look out for when meeting people who use services or carers andtheir families. 16. How might theory be of use to social workers? Social work, like allprofessions, uses theory to guide practice. Intervention: theory can provide ideas about whatmight bring about a change in the situation. Prediction: theory can indicate what mighthappen in the future. Explanation: theory can suggest how different observations might belinked in a framework that explains them. lly understood and shared language in whichthese observations can be organized and recorded.Theory provides a way of making sense of complexity and uncertainty Theory can help avoiddiscrimination; Theory can ensure accountability; Theory is the mark of a profession; 17.The importance of theory Theory is important, in social work and social work education for anumber of reasons because it:18. Why should Social Workers be concerned about theory? Observation: it tells us what tosee, what to look out for Description: it provides a conceptual vocabulary and frameworkwithin which observations can be arranged and organized. A clear theoretical perspectiveguides Explanation: it suggests how different observations and influences might be linkedand connected; it offers possible causal social work relationships between one event andanother practice in five key areas Prediction: it indicates what might happen nextIntervention: it suggests things to do to bring about change
  6. 6. 19. What do we mean by theory in social work? Payne (1991: 52) helps us by distinguishingfour types of theory 1. Theories about social work explain the nature and role of social workin society 2. Theories of social work describe which activities constitute social work, set aimsfor social work activities and explain why those activities are relevant and effective in meetingthe aims 3. Theories contributing to social work are the psychological, sociological and othertheories which explain or describe personal and social behaviour and are used to maketheories of social work systematic, related to general social science explanations and to givesupporting evidence for the social work theory‟s prescriptions 4. Theories of social workpractice and method prescribe in detail how the other theories so far outlined may be appliedin the interaction between workers and clients20. Is social work a teachable practice? Or does it come from experience and creativity?Some argue that Social work is less technical, more creative and intuitive. Both client andsocial worker are important when dealing with issues as the client is the expert of his ownpersonal life. The ideal theory for social work would therefore be one that encourages deepthinking and questioning, one that respects the inherent dignity of the client and complexity ofsocial problems... not one that categorizes People believe that science can furnish means,but not ends. Methods but not goals. So, Social workers must achieve something other thantechnical proficiency, i.e. Understanding the human condition, not science. Social workersuse contextual knowledge. Synthesis of knowledge from many sources, including personalexperience. Common sense and wisdom on the job21. Ecological System Theory 3 Crisis Theory 4 Urie Bronfenbrenner Empowerment TheoryKathleen Ell E. Cox & L. Gutierrez B. Gilliland & R. 8 J. Lee, E. Canada, James P. Chatterjee& S.P. Robbins L.G. & H. J. Parad Family Life Cycle Theory 5 Cognitive PsychodynamicTheory Humanistic (Existential/ Theories 6 Sigmund Freud, Eric Erickson Transpersonal)Alfred Adler 9 Abraham Maslow, 2 Jean Piaget Carl Rogers Family Systems Strategic CarlJung 1 Therapy Behavioral 7 (Model) 10 Theories Object Relations Theory B.F. SkinnerMargaret Mahlen, Otto Ivan Pavlov Social Work Theories Kernberg Social-Cultural TheoryLev Vygotsky: Solution Focused Therapy Structural Family Therapy Thomas Scheff: 11(Model) Murray Bowen, Virginia Satir 12 1322. Professional Research Knowledge from Values Methodology other DisciplinesRecognition & Knowledge about Raising Awareness Analyze of Different about Life LongLearning Social Theories regard to (Professional /Personal Processes DifferentDevelopment) Social Work Fields Knowledge & Skills to Work Understanding of Legal & withClients administration Learning about Procedures & Social Care Different TheoreticalInstitutions Functioning Approaches
  7. 7. 23. Social Work Practice Social Policy as theory Encounters pressing need Seeks culturalChange Needs personally left Requires social action Requires immediate action Calla forlong term strategy Focuses on interpersonal practice Stress on strategic planning/analysis24. Why do we need theories in social work? In order to see the beauty of one theory, Theuse of theories makes Social it‟s important to learn about many Workers feel more safe &competent theories. This is how we can prevent in their practice, reduces feelings of makingan ideology out of one theory helplessness & fear of unknown For social workers theory isimportant because it teaches social workers how to The more social workers use theories,perceive people through their resources, not less they use intuition, and it makes to classifythem according to their social work practice more professional‟s a shift fromcontrol to help. and efficient Theory, together with intuition is a way to develop personal styleof professional practice...without theory, just with intuition, social workers would feel like apuppet on strings.Eco-Systems Current Social Work Practice Models Problem Task- Solution NarrativeCognitive Crisis Solving Centered Focused Behavioral In brief, social work practice modelsare like recipes. They are step-by-step guides for client sessions. Perspectives representwhat aspects of the session are emphasized or highlighted in a session (i.e. questions askedor time spent). Theories are overall explanations of the person-in-environment configuration.Theories help explain why the problem is occurring and where the most efficient interventionshould take place. Feminist Strengths 25. Major Theories – Used in Social Work PracticeSystems Psychodynamic Social Learning Conflict Theory Theory Theory Theory PrimaryPerspectives26. Types of theory Formal written accounts Moral, political, cultural defining the nature andvalues drawn upon by Theories purposes of welfare (e.g. practitioners for defining explainingwhat upon by practitioners for „functions‟ of social work social work is defining personalpathology, liberal reform, Marxist, feminist) Formal written theories of Theories inductivelypractice (e.g. casework, derived from particular Theories family therapy, group work);situations; can be tested to explaining how applied deductively; general see if they apply to todo social ideas may be applied to particular situations; also work particular situationsunwritten practice theories constructed from experience Formal written social Practitioners‟use of science theories and experience and general Theories empirical data (e.g. on culturalmeanings (e.g. the explaining the personality, (e.g. the family as an institution, client worldmarriage, the family, race, normal behavior, good class, gender) parenting)27. Theory A general statement about the real world whose essential truth can be supportedby evidence obtained through the scientific method. – Must explain in a provable way whysomething happens. Ex: Learning theory explains behavior on the basis of what organisms
  8. 8. have learned from the environment. Model Is a blueprint for action. It describes whathappens in practice in a general way. Ex: The behavioral model (based on learning theory)gives specific guidelines to for how to effect change. If a parent complains that his child ishaving difficulty staying in his own bed at night and the parent has been allowing the child tosleep in his/her bed( thereby reinforcing the child‟ s difficulty) the practitioner would help theparent to extinguish the behavior by removing the reinforcement. Perspective A way ofperceiving the world flows from a value position. Note: The perspective will influence choiceof theory and model. Note: Payne (1997) argues that social work theory succeeds best whenit contains all three elements of perspective, theory and model. Example: Men who battertheir partners Theory: Social learning theory – men learn their violent behavior in their familyof origin, and from a culture that rewards anger and violence in men; cognitive theory – whatmen say to themselves in situations of stress increases their anger and their propensity to beviolent. Model: Cognitive-behavioral Perspective: Feminist28. Levels & Definitions of Social Economic Development Practice in Social Work Levels ofMajor Purposes, Outcomes, or Processes Practice Associated with Levels of Social WorkPractice Individual & Through "self help," "mutual aid," and "conscientization" strategiesindividuals and Group groups learn how to perceive and act upon the contradictions that existin the social, Empowerment political, and economic structures intrinsic to all societies.Conflict Efforts directed at reducing: (1) grievances between persons or groups; or, (2)Resolution asymmetric power relationships between members of more powerful and lesspowerful groups. Institution- Refers both to the process of "humanizing" existing socialinstitutions and that of Building establishing new institutions that respond more effectively tonew or emerg-ing social needs. Community- Through increased participation and "socialanimation" of the populace, the process Building through which communitys realize thefullness of their social, political, and economic potential; the process through whichcommunities respond more equitably to the social and material needs of their populations.Nation- The process of working toward the integration of a nations social, political, Buildingeconomic, and cultural institutions at all levels of political organization. Region- The processof working toward the integration of a geo-political regions social, Building political,economic, and cultural institutions at all levels of social organization. World-Building Theprocess of working toward the establishment of a new system of interna-tional relationshipsguided by the quest for world peace, increased social jus-tice, the universal satisfaction ofbasic human needs, and for the protection of the planets fragile eco-system.29. While considering a theory or theories, social workers also understand its limitations too:Recognise that no single theory can explain everything: When a person engages in an action(or inaction) the reason for their behaviour can be rooted in a range of causes or Limitationsof Theories motives. Related to the first point, recognise that some theoretical approaches
  9. 9. just dont work with some people. Applying Brief Solution Focused Therapy can be reallyeffective with some people. For other people, it leaves them cold. Always apply the valuebase to theory - much of the theory used in social care practice and social work is drawn fromoutside of the profession. Theory may have its roots in education, psychology ormanagement. As such, it may not incorporate social work values and you should takeresponsibility for applying these Never be intimidated by theory. You use it every day.30. Why do we need to apply social work theory to practice? 2 Whilst individual social workUsing theory can help to Theories can help us to theories have different justify actions andmake sense of a situation. purposes, using all kinds of explain practice to Using theory, wecan theory in our work offers us, service users, carers generate ideas about as socialworkers, some and society in general. what is going on, why important things. The aim is thatthis will 1 things are as they are etc. lead to social work For example the becoming morewidely In work with individuals, information obtained as accountable and making use of thetheories part of an assessment can ultimately more which may relate to their seem like ajumble of respected. information - applying 3 specific situation will give us more direction inour work theory can help "make with them. 4 sense" of the information. It is clear then, that 6theory is important in Using theory can give an explanation about why an action practice -both for work resulted in a particular consequence. This can help us with service users andreview and possibly change our practice in an attempt to for social work to be make theconsequences more effective. 5 more valued in society.31. The vast majority of Social Workers function within one of four basic models of practice:the Personal Social Services Model (PSSM); the Social Welfare Model (SWM), the SocialDevelopment Model (SDM), and the New World Order Model (NWOM). MODELS OFSOCIAL WORK PRACTICE The Personal Social Services Model The Personal SocialServices Model (PSSM) of social development practice seeks to extend to peopleeverywhere a range of basic social services that are needed to either restore or enhancetheir capacity for social functioning. The models primary goals are: 1) to provide remedialand preventive services to individuals, families, and groups whose optimal social functioningis either temporarily impaired or inter- rupted; and 2) to extend social protection to populationgroups that are threatened by exploitation or degradation. The PSSM also seeks to ensureincreased sensitivity and responsiveness on the part of human service providers to thespecial service needs of culturally diverse population groups. The Social Welfare Model TheSocial Welfare Model (SWM) of social work (development) practice is rooted in comparativesocial policy and comparative social research. The goals associated with the SWM include:1) self help; 2) mutual aid; 3) humanitarianism; and 4) the establishment of effective,preferably universal, systems of formal social provision. The SWM also views developmentalsocial welfare practice as part of the worldwide movement that seek to promote social
  10. 10. security and social justice for people everywhere The Social Development Model The SocialDevelopment Model (SDM) has its origins in community organization and communitydevelopment practice and does, therefore, promote the fullest possible participation of peoplein determining both the means and goals of social development. In doing so, the model seeksto provide a framework for understanding the underlying causes of human degradation,powerlessness, and social inequality every- where in the world. The ultimate goal of theSDM, however, is to guide collective action toward the elimination of all forms of violence andsocial oppression. The New World Order Model The New World Order Model (NWOM) ofsocial development practice is closely associated with the writings of "visionary" economists,political scientists, legal scholars, and environmentalists (Brandt Commission, 1981). Majorcomponents of the NWOM are reflected in the fundamental social, political, and economicreforms in the existing international "order" that are being sought by the United Nations (UN,1990; UN/ESCAP, 1992b), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP, 1997), WorldBank 1997) and other leading international development assistance organizations. Elementsof the NWOM also have been described by social work theoreticians. The NWOM assertsthat the most serious problems confronting humanity are rooted in the fundamentalinequalities that exist in the present world "order," i.e., in the system of international social,political, and economic institutions that govern relationships between nations and, withinnations, between groups of people. In promoting its social change objectives, the NWOMcalls for the creation of a "new world order" based on: 1) recognition of and respect for theunity of life on earth; 2) the minimization of violence; 3) the satisfaction of basic humanneeds; 4) the primacy of human dignity; 5) the retention of diversity and pluralism; and 6) theneed for universal participation in the process of attaining worldwide social transformation..32. Theory of Focus of Theory Main Concepts Regarding Human Behavior Human BehaviorSYSTEMS THEORY How persons *Persons are in continual transaction with theirenvironment Includes: interact with their *Systems are interrelated parts or subsystemsconstituting an ordered whole Ecological Systems environment. *Each subsystem impacts allother parts and whole system [Systems Perspective] How the family *Systems can haveclosed or open boundaries Includes: system affects the *Systems tend toward equilibriumFamily Systems individual and *Individual functioning shapes family functioning and familysystems can [Systems Perspective] family functioning create pathology within the individualacross the life- *Boundaries, roles, communication, family structure influence family spanfunctioning BEHAVIORISM & How individuals *Imitation & reaction to stimulation shapebehavioral learning SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY develop cognitive *Knowledge isconstructed through children physically and Includes: functioning and learn mentally actingon objects Cognitive theory, through acting on *Intelligence is an evolutionary, biologicaladaptation to Behavioral theory, their environment environment Social Learning theory
  11. 11. [Social *Cognitive structures enable adaptation & organization Behavioral perspective]PSYCHODYNAMIC How inner *Unconscious and conscious mental activity motivate humanTHEORY energies and behavior Includes: external forces *Ego functions mediate betweenindividual and environment Classical psychodynamic theory, interact to impact *Ego defensemechanisms protect individuals from becoming Ego-psychology, Object-relations emotionaloverwhelmed by unacceptable impulses and threats theory, development *Internalizedexperiences shape personality development and Self-psychology functioning[Psychodynamic Perspective] *Healing occurs through attention to transferences and thetreatment relationship33. Theory of Focus of Theory Main Concepts Regarding Human Behavior Human BehaviorPSYCHOSOCIAL How internal & external *Human development occurs in defined &qualitatively different stages that DEVELOPMENTAL forces shape life are sequential & maybe universal THEORY development, generally *Individual stages of development includespecific tasks to be completed & [Developmental by life stages crises to be managedPerspective] *Time & social context shape & individualize the meaning of life stagesTRANSPERSONAL How the spiritual and *Focuses on meaning, connection, and purposeTHEORY religious aspects of human *Some people achieve developmental level beyond thepersonal (ego- [Developmental existence can be based) level into transpersonal (beyond selfor ego) levels of Perspective; built upon understood consciousness and functioning.Humanistic Perspective] How spiritual *There is an inherent tendency to express innatepotentials for love, development builds upon creativity, and spirituality and goes beyond bio-*There is a difference between psychopathological phenomena and psychosocialdevelopment spiritual growth experiences SOCIAL EXCHANGE How persons *Antecedents,consequences, personal expectations, and interpretation shape and THEORY minimize costsmaintain behavior in the present [Rational Choice and maximize *Self-interest determinessocial exchange Perspective] rewards through *Unequal resources determine powerinequities and reciprocity is essential social exchange *Six propositions: --Successproposition --Stimulus proposition --Value proposition --Deprivation- satiation -- proposition --Aggression-approval proposition --Rationality proposition SOCIAL How socio cultural *Allexperience is subjective and human beings recreate themselves through anCONSTRUCTIONISM and historical on-going, never static process [Social Constructionistcontexts shape *Knowledge is created through an interplay of multiple social and historicalPerspective] individuals and the forces creation of *Social interaction is grounded inlanguage, customs, cultural and historical knowledge contexts How individuals *Allphenomenon, including the sciences, must be approached with doubt in create themselvesorder to understand how people construct reality *Humans are self-interpreting beings
  12. 12. 34. Theory of Focus of Theory Main Concepts Regarding Human Behavior Human BehaviorSYMBOLIC How the “self” is *Human action is caused by complex interaction between andwithin INTERACTIONISM influenced and shaped individuals [Social Constructionist by socialprocesses *Dynamic social activities take place among persons and we act according toPerspective] and the capacity to how we define our situation symbolize *We act in thepresent, not the past *Individuals are actors on the stage and take on roles, interacting withthe environment CONFLICT How power *All societies perpetuate some forms of oppression& injustice and structural inequity THEORY structures & power *Power is unequally divided &some groups dominate others [Conflict disparities impact *Social order is based onmanipulation and control by dominant groups Perspective] people‟ s lives *Social change isdriven by conflict, with periods of change interrupting periods of stability *Life is characterizedby conflict not consensus CONTINGENCY How individuals & *Groups are open, dynamicsystems with both change and conflict present THEORY groups gain power, *Groups arestratified, with different and unequal levels of power and control [Systems access toresources, *High discrimination and low privilege equals low opportunity Perspective] &control over their *Oppression occurs when upward mobility is systematically denied lives,often through *The social context must be critiqued and deconstructed collective action*Assumptions for analyzing organizations: --there is no best way to manage organizations --there must be a match between the environment and internal resources --the design of theorganization must fit with the environment