Starter• What does the following word mean?Ephebiphobia
Final ExamHow will I be assessed?• Media Studies Final Exam – 4th June 2013• Section B• 60 mins for Section B• Answer Topic: Media & Collective Identity• Answer 1 Question from a choice of 2• You MUST discuss at least 2 Different Media Forms• You MUST refer to historical, present and futurerepresentations
Marks AwardedHow will I be marked?• Total of 50 marks• Marks are given for 3 different areas1. Explaination/Analysis/Argument (max. 20)2. Use of Examples (max. 20)3. Terminology (max. 10)• Examiners will be looking to see how well you:– Answer the actual question asked – not just a general response!– Create an argument and structure your response using case studiesand theories– Apply theory you have learnt to the case studies– Triangulation – how have your brought it all together
What is Identity?• What do you understand by the term‘Identity’?• Spend 2 minutes discussing a definition withthe person sitting next to you• Now make a 4 and discuss your definitions –can you create a suitable group definition?
Tackling the QuestionRemember the basic rules• Always use at least 2 Media examples – 1 historic and 1current• Always use at least 2 theorists• Try to quote them correctly• All texts should be referenced like this:• Title (Director Surname, year)
Essay Structure• Two most important things to remember• Hi 5 your Essay!• Don’t forget to PEE!
PEEPoint• Young people today are dangerous to society as they do not respectsociety’s rulesEvidence• Films such as Kidulthood (Huda, 2006) show their teenage cast to all bedrug taking, violent characters with no respect to each other or adultsExplain• Giroux’s theory states that young people are empty vessels and willrespond to any input to create their identity. By viewing films such asKidulthood they are learning behaviours that they consider to becorrect., This is supported by Gerbeners cultivation theory. Gramsci’stheory of hegemony tells us that those in power dictate the way thatcertain ideals are created in society. By showing youth in this way thedominant social power, wealthy adults, ensure that young people lackinfluence in society.
Key Theories & Theorists• Remember you MUST refer to 2 mediaexamples and 2 theorists in your answer!• You can either write about the theorist or usetheir quotes to support your point or do both!
“IDENTITY IS COMPLICATED.EVERYONE THINKS THEY’VE GOTONE”(GAUNTLETT, 2007)
“A focus on Identity requires us to pay closer attentionto the ways in which media and technologies are used ineveryday life and their consequences for social groups”-David Buckingham
Collective Identity• ‘A collective identity may have been first constructed by outsiderswho may still enforce it, but depends on some acceptance bythose to whom it is applied. Collective identities are expressed incultural materials – names, narratives, symbols, verbalstyles, rituals, clothing.’ Francesca Poletta, James MJasper, Collective Identity and Social Movements• ‘Although there is no consensual definition of collectiveidentity, discussions of the concept invariably suggest that itsessence resides in a shared sense of ‘one-ness’ or ‘we-ness’anchored in real or imagined shared attributes and experiencesamong those who comprise the collectivity and in relation orcontrast to one or more actual imagined sets of ‘others’. DavidSnow, Collective Identity and Expressive Form
Representation – some definitions• Representation is the ability of texts to draw uponfeatures of the world and present them to theviewer, not simply as reflections, but more so, asconstructions (O‟Shaughnessy & Stadler 2002).• Hence, the images do not portray reality in anunbiased way with 100% accuracy, but rather,present „versions of reality‟ influenced by culture andpeople‟s habitual thoughts and actions(O‟Shaughnessy & Stadler 2002).
David Buckingham• “our identity is something we uniquelypossess: it is what distinguishes us from otherpeople. Yet on the other hand, identity alsoimplies a relationship with a broader collectiveor social group of some kind. When we talkabout national identity, cultural identity, orgender identity, for example, we imply thatour identity is partly a matter of what weshare with other people.” (Buckingham, 2008)
Erik Erikson• Concept– Stages of Development• Explanation– Humans develop at 8 stages throughout their lives.– Each of Eriksons stages of psychosocial developmentis marked by a conflict for which successful resolutionwill result in a favourable outcome, and by animportant event that this conflict resolves itselfaround.
Stages of Development1. Purpose - Initiative vs. Guilt - Preschool / 3–6 years - Does the child have the ability to or dothings on their own, such as dress him or herself? If "guilty" about making his or her ownchoices, the child will not function well. Erikson has a positive outlook on this stage, saying thatmost guilt is quickly compensated by a sense of accomplishment.2. Competence - Industry vs. Inferiority - School-age / 6-11. Child comparing self-worth to others(such as in a classroom environment). Child can recognize major disparities in personal abilitiesrelative to other children. Erikson places some emphasis on the teacher, who should ensure thatchildren do not feel inferior.3. Fidelity - Identity vs. Role Confusion - Adolescent / 12 years till 20. Questioning of self. Who amI, how do I fit in? Where am I going in life? Erikson believes, that if the parents allow the child toexplore, they will conclude their own identity. However, if the parents continually push him/herto conform to their views, the teen will face identity confusion.4. Intimacy vs. isolation - This is the first stage of adult development. This development usuallyhappens during young adulthood, which is between the ages of 20 to 24. Dating, marriage, familyand friendships are important during the stage in their life. By successfully forming lovingrelationships with other people, individuals are able to experience love and intimacy. Those whofail to form lasting relationships may feel isolated and alone.
Self-Identity and Social Identity• Self-identity refers to how we define ourselves. Self-identity forms thebasis of our self-esteem. In adolescence, the way we see ourselveschanges in response to peers, family, and school, among other socialenvironments. Our self-identities shape our perceptions of belonging. • Social identity is constructed by others, and may differ from self-identity.Typically, people categorize individuals according to broad, socially-defined labels. For example, if you have dark skin, you may be labelled"black" by others even though you may not have adopted that identity foryourself.• A positive self-identity is correlated with positive self-esteem [5, 6]. Allidentities are not equally valued by society, so some adolescents mayespecially need reinforcement to help them construct a positive sense ofself.
Tafjal & TurnerConcept• Social Identity TheoryExplanation• In the Social Identity Theory, a person has not one, “personalself”, but rather several selves that correspond to wideningcircles of group membership. Different social contexts maytrigger an individual to think, feel and act on basis of hispersonal, family or national “level of self”• Apart from the “level of self”, an individual has multiple“social identities”. Social identity is the individual’s self-concept derived from perceived membership of social groups
How is Youth Identity Constructed?Shared Experiences: • Adolescence – physically and emotionallymaturing • School/ Education • Finding work - Choosing a career • Finding love/friendship/acceptance • Creating an identity that isn’t created byschool/parents/authority • Experimentation – drugs, culture, crime • Leaving home CAN YOU ADD TO THE LIST?Shared attributes:• Innocence • Frustration • Enthusiasm • Awkwardness • Hope • Anger Powerlessness • Stress CAN YOU ADD TO THE LIST?
Henry GirouxConcepts• Youth as empty category• ExplanationGirouxs theory addresses the medias influence onyouths. He believes that youths act as a sort vesselopen to influences of adult culture and how themedia chooses to represent them, thereforeshaping the youths cultural contexts.
Henry GirouxConcepts• Youth as empty category• ExplanationThe media chooses the way they represent race, class, gender,ethnicity, sexuality, occupation, age and so on, therefore leaving aninfluence on the youths that are not necessarily true. The media actsupon what its audience wants. When appealing to a adult audience,the media will reflect fears and anxieties that adults may findentertaining, therefore giving an unrealistic view on youths.Giroux suggests that the media influences them in a certain way asyouths are so impressionable, for example, if they are represented asloud and abusive in films, they will act on this because they are beingtold to act in such a way.
Henry GirouxConcepts• Youth as empty category• Quote“Youth as a complex, shifting, and contradictory category is rarelynarrated in the dominant public sphere through the diverse voices ofthe young. Prohibited from speaking as moral and political agents,youth become an empty category inhabited by the desires, fantasies,and interests of the adult world. This is not to suggest that youth dontspeak, they are simply restricted from speaking in those spheres wherepublic conversation shapes social policy and refused the power to makeknowledge consequential with respect to their own individual andcollective needs.” (Giroux, 1998)
Subcultures“Subcultures try to compensate for the failureof the larger culture to provide adequatestatus, acceptance and identity. In the youthsubculture, youth find their age-related needsmet.”(Tittley, p.2).
Subcultures• Thrasher (1927) studied gangs in the jails and on the streets ofChicago. He found various reasons for young people joininggangs, including:1. A sense of family – mostly from broken homes so desired a groupof people to feel part of.2. Guidance – again, because of lack of family guidance they seeksomeone to teach them and to help structure their belief system.3. Solidarity – giving them the self-esteem and security that theylonged for.• Gangs were forming in Chicago as a result of urban neglect. Theseyoung people represented the “inner cracks of identity that occurin the turbulent years of adolescence”.
Subcultures• Jordaan & Jordaan (1993) gathered informationfrom lots of other studies of youth subculturesand found, among other things, the followingspecial characteristics which the collection ofpeople share, including:– An awareness of membership/a sense ofbelonging, i.e. shared interests etc.– A reason for being in the group/an internalmotive, i.e. hippies spreading the message of peaceand love and punks spreading anarchy.– Pressure to conform, i.e. Jimmy not wanting to talkto his old friend who is now a rocker.
Subcultures• A group of people within a larger culture who differentiate themselves from that culture.• Ken Gelder’s provides 6 key ways to identify a Subculture:1. often negative relations to work (as idle, parasitic, at play or at leisure, etc.);2. negative or ambivalent relation to class (since subcultures are not class-conscious and dontconform to traditional class definitions);3. association with territory (the street, the hood, the club, etc.), rather than property;4. movement out of the home and into non-domestic forms of belonging (i.e. social groups otherthan the family);5. stylistic ties to excess and exaggeration (with some exceptions);6. refusal of the banalities of ordinary life and massification
McMillan & Chavis• ConceptsSense of Community• ExplainationMcMillan & Chavis (1986) define sense ofcommunity as "a feeling that members have ofbelonging, a feeling that members matter to oneanother and to the group, and a shared faith thatmembers needs will be met through theircommitment to be together."
McMillan & Chavis• ConceptsSense of Community• ExplainationMcMillan & Chaviss (1986) theory (and instrument) are the most broadly validated and widelyutilized in this area in the psychological literature. They prefer the abbreviated label "sense ofcommunity", and propose that sense of community is composed of four elements.Four elements of sense of communityThere are four elements of "sense of community" according to the McMillan & Chavis theory:MembershipMembership includes five attributes:boundariesemotional safetya sense of belonging and identificationpersonal investmenta common symbol system
McMillan & Chavis• ConceptsSense of Community• ExplainationInfluenceInfluence works both ways: members need to feel that they have some influence in the group,and some influence by the group on its members is needed for group cohesion.Integration and fulfillment of needsMembers feel rewarded in some way for their participation in the community.Shared emotional connectionThe "definitive element for true community" (1986, p. 14), it includes shared history and sharedparticipation (or at least identification with the history).
Some Dominant Ideologies• Capitalism. The production of capital andconsumption of surplus value as a life goal.• Patriotism. To love, support and protectone‟s country and its people.• Marriage and family. The “right way” to liveis to marry an opposite-sex partner andhave children.• Male superiority. Men are more suited topositions of power, and more suited todecision-making at work and at home.
Hegemony• Hegemony is the way inwhich those in powermaintain their control.• Dominant ideologies areconsidered hegemonic;power in society ismaintained byconstructing ideologieswhich are usuallypromoted by the massmedia.
Antonio GramsciConcepts• Cultural hegemonyExplanation• Gramsci developed the idea of "cultural hegemony". As I mentionedbefore, this is the idea that one social class within a culturedominates society, therefore making their views and valuesacceptable and "normal" behaviour.• Gramsci believes hegemony is constantly causing problems withinsocieties arguing what is actually a "normal" way of life. Forexample, this arguing is shown through negative and positiverepresentation of youths from different classes, most commonlyunderclass
Antonio GramsciConcepts• Cultural hegemonyQuote• So one could say that each one of us changeshimself, modifies himself to the extent that hechanges the complex relations of which he is thehub... If ones own individuality means to acquireconsciousness of them and to modify ones ownpersonality means to modify the ensemble ofthese relations. (Gramsci)
"We will call young any individual, no matter what hisage, who does not yet coincide with the functionwhich has been planned for him... The young, whohave nothing to lose, are the attack. They are theadventure!”» Isidore Isou, 1949
Stanley CohenConcepts• Moral panicExplanation• He argues that occasionally what he calls "folk devils" emergewithin society, reflecting the anxieties and fears of adult culture."Moral Panic" emerges when exaggerated media coverage appearsof these "folk devils" leading to politicians and police to act. Whenthis occurs, the aim is to return the social values of hegemony,clearly stating what is not a socially acceptable way to behave.• Cohens theory suggest that youths have become a cultural "folkdevil" leading media to exaggerate their behaviour.
George Gerbner• ConceptsCultivation Theory• ExplanationGerbner studies the effect of television on the audiences perceptionof crime. His theory suggests that people who watch a large amount oftelevision have an over exaggerated opinion on crime and how much itoccurs as well as how severe the crimes actually are. He called this"mean world syndrome". His theory states that because media formssuch as news reports, television programmes and films contain overexaggerated representations of crimes, mostly negative, peoplesperceptions are dramatically influenced. The term used by Gerbner todescribe this is "cultivation theory".
George Gerbner• ConceptsCultivation Theory• QuotesFearful people are more dependent, more easily manipulated andcontrolled, more susceptible to deceptively simple, strong, toughmeasures and hard-line postures... They may accept and even welcomerepression if it promises to relieve their insecurities. (Gerbner)Who tells the stories of a culture really governs human behavior. Itused to be the parent, the school, the church, the community. Now it’sa handful of global conglomerates that have nothing to tell, but a greatdeal to sell. (Gerbner)
Charles R AclandConcepts• Ideology of protection; deviant youth and reproduction of socialorderExplanation• Acland argues in his theory that the representation of deviantyouths reinforces hegemony, the idea that a culture is ruled by onesocial class. Media creates the image of "normal" youth and adults,then contrasting this with behaviour that contrasts against what wedeem to be socially acceptable. This is what the audience findsentertaining and interesting, as it is going against these "normal"views of society. Acland also makes the point that by the mediarepresenting youths in such a way, it allows the state to have morecontrol over them.
Charles R AclandConcepts• Ideology of protection; deviant youth and reproduction of socialorderExplanation• For example, the mass of media reports about negative youthbehaviour led to the introduction of ASBOs, which then led to evenmore media coverage. Acland calls this "ideology of protection"which is the idea that youths need this constant surveillance andmonitoring in order to "protect" them. Similar to Girouxs theory,youths are impressionable it is a time in their life when they learnabout roles and values from adult culture. Media coverage ofnegative behaviour allows the state to reinforce hegemonic valuesand tell youths what is wrong and socially unacceptable.
Charles R AclandConcepts• Ideology of protection; deviant youth andreproduction of social orderExplanation• For example, the idea in "hoodie horrors" thatyouths are like monsters often included in horrorthemes leads some youths to relate theserepresentations to things they fear, such asdemons, which moves them in the oppositedirection of this sort of behaviour.
Henry Jenkins• ConceptsParticipatory Culture• Explanation• As technology continues to enable new avenues for communication, collaboration, and circulation ofideas, it has also given rise to new opportunities for consumers to create their own content. Barriers liketime and money are beginning to become less significant to large groups of consumers.• For example, the creation of movies once required large amounts of expensive equipment, but now movieclips can be made with equipment that is affordable to a growing number of people. The ease with whichconsumers create new material has also grown. Extensive knowledge of computer programming is nolonger necessary to create content on the internet.• Media sharing over the Internet acts as a platform to invite users to participate and create communitiesthat share similar interests through duplicated sources, original content, and repurposed material
Henry Jenkins• Affiliations — memberships, formal and informal, in online communitiescentered around various forms of media, such as Friendster, Facebook,message boards, metagaming, game clans, or MySpace).• Expressions — producing new creative forms, such as digital sampling,skinning and modding, fan videomaking, fan fiction writing, zines, mash-ups).• Collaborative Problem-solving — working together in teams, formal andinformal, to complete tasks and develop new knowledge (such as throughWikipedia, alternative reality gaming, spoiling).• Circulations — Shaping the flow of media (such as podcasting, blogging)
Galtung & RugeConcept• Information is filtered by those who deem itworthyExplanation• Selective Gatekeeping.• Galtung and Ruge selective gatekeeping theorysuggests that news from around the world areevaluated using news values to determine theirnewsworthiness.
Hyperdermic Needle TheoryConcept• Audience is passive. They receive information and react toit with no influence from other sources.Explanation• This approach focuses on content. The audience receivesthe information directly. The "Hypodermic Needle Model”suggests that the media injects its messages straight intothe passive audience. This passive audience is immediatelyaffected by these messages. The public essentially cannotescape from the medias influence, and is thereforeconsidered a "sitting duck”.
Bulmer & KatzConcept• Uses and Gratifications. Audience is active. Audiencechooses media for different reasons which effects howthey respond to textExplanation• This approach focuses on why people use particularmedia rather than on content. In contrast to theconcern of the media effects tradition (HyperdermicNeedle), it focuses on what people do with media,allowing for a variety of responses and interpretations.
Bulmer & KatzInformation• finding out about relevant events and conditions inimmediate surroundings, society and the world,seeking advice on practical matters or opinion anddecision choices, satisfying curiosity and generalinterest, learning; self-education, gaining a sense ofsecurity through knowledgePersonal Identity• finding reinforcement for personal values, findingmodels of behavior, identifying with valued other(in the media), gaining insight into ones self
Bulmer and KatzIntegration and Social Interaction• gaining insight into circumstances of others; socialempathy, identifying with others and gaining a sense ofbelonging, finding a basis for conversation and socialinteraction, having a substitute for real-lifecompanionship, helping to carry out social roles,enabling one to connect with family, friends and societyEntertainment• escaping, or being diverted, from problems, relaxing,getting intrinsic cultural or aesthetic enjoyment, fillingtime, emotional release
Stuart HallConcept• Active audiences interpret texts in different ways depending on theirneedsExplanation• This theory points out that meaning of any text is created by the audience- not the producer. Meaning is encoded into the text but it is up to theaudience what they take from it depending how they decode the signswithin the text. Encoding-decoding is an active audience theory whichexamines the relationships between text and its audience• Encoding is a process by which a text is constructed by its producers• Decoding is the process by which the audience reads, understands andinterprets text• Hall states that texts are polysemic, meaning they may be read differentlyby different people, depending on their identity, cultural knowledge andopinions
Stuart HallConcept• Active audiences interpret texts in different waysdepending on their needsExplanation• Preffered Reading• When an audience interprets the message as it was meantto be understood, they are operating in dominant code.• The position of professional broadcasters and mediaproducers is that the messages are already signified withinthe hegmonic manner to which they are accustomed.• The producers and the audience are in harmony
Stuart HallConcept• Active audiences interpret texts in different ways depending ontheir needsExplanation• Negotiated reading• Not all audience may underatand what media producers take forgranted. There may be some acknowlwedgment of differences inunderstanding.• Decoding within the negotiated version contains a mixture odadaptive and oppositional elements: it acknowledges the legitimacyof the hegemonic definitions to make the grand significations(abstract) while at the more restricted situational (situated) level itmakes it own ground rules
Stuart HallConcept• Active audiences interpret texts in different waysdepending on their needsExplanation• Oppositional Reading• When media consumers understand thecontextual and literary infections of a text yetdecode the message by a completelyoppositiional means.