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 narrative narrative Presentation Transcript

  • Narrative Theory
  • Tzvetan Todorov • Bulgarian literary theorist • Suggests most narratives start with a state of equilibrium in which life is ‘normal’ and protagonists happy. • This state of normality is disrupted by an outside force, which has to be fought against in order to return to a state of equilibrium. • This model can easily be applied to a wide range of films.
  • Equilibrium > Disruption > Recognition of disruption> Attempt to repair disruption > New Equilibrium.
  • Claude Levi-Strauss Binary opposition • Social Anthropologist. • Studied myths of tribal cultures. • Examined how stories unconsciously reflect the values, beliefs and myths of a culture. • These are usually expressed in the form of binary oppositions. • His research has been adapted by media theorists to reveal underlying themes and symbolic oppositions in media texts.
  • Binary Oppositions • A conflict between two qualities or terms. • For example 1970’s Western films: Homesteaders Native Americans christian pagan domestic savage weak strong garden wilderness inside society outside society
  • Roland Barthes • French semiologist. • Suggested that narrative works with five different codes which activate the reader to make sense of it. (also used the terms denotation and connotation to analyse images)
  • Barthes’ Codes • Action – a narrative device by which a resolution is produced through action, e.g. a shoot-out. • Enigma – a narrative device that teases the audience by presenting a puzzle or riddle to be solved. Works to delay the story’s ending pleasurably. • Symbolic – (connotation) • Semic – (denotation) • Cultural – a narrative device which the audience can recognise as being part of a culture e.g. a “made man” in a gangster film is part of the mafia culture.
  • Enigma Codes • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e2qdvELqskc Film trailers often use enigma codes. The film maker carefully chooses what footage they will show you from the film without giving away the answers. You are left wanting to know the answer to these enigmas. What questions (or enigmas) are created in this trailer?
  • In pairs rearrange the film synopsis into an appropriate order.
  • What is the correct order? Share your ideas.
  • ANSWER There isn’t a correct order! Question: Do narratives have to be constructed in chronological order? Although most TV dramas and films are edited into the order that things happen, it does not have to be done this way!
  • What is this called? When a narrative is constructed in the order of events it is called LINEAR When a narrative is constructed out of order (it may go back and forward in time or have flash backs) this is called NON-LINEAR Make a note of this in your books
  • How does the editing of this film trailer create an enigma code? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXO0he1W
  • What is the effect of the storytelling sequence chosen in this short film? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uR_PzFZgsHU
  • MontageMontage a. A relatively rapid succession of different shots in a movie. b. a segment of film that summarizes a topic or compresses a passage of time into brief symbolic or typical image. Frequently, dissolves, fades, superimpositions, and wipes are used to link the images in a montage sequence. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bu00RiPjaa4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b7D8E-zvZew
  • Other narratives... • Flashback • Flash forward • POV (restricted view, (Vantage point trailer) • Use of a narrator • Parallel narrative