Hasnain Zafar       hasnainzafar@ieee.org           Supervisions :AP Dr. Azizah and Dr. Noorminshah
Content Introduction Research Background Problem Statement, Research Questions, & Objectives Scope & Significance of S...
Mobile LearningMobile                       MobileLearner                      Device          A      B       C           ...
Learning Object (LO) Introduced Gerard (1967); Electronically applied  Wayne Hogins (1994) A learning object is "a colle...
Example of LO              Content          Chicken Curry RecipeIngredients                                               ...
Zonal Proximal Development (ZPD)                                        Things                                        I ca...
Problem statement back ground Real    challenge for the educators, instructional  designers, and technology developers of...
Components of Learning LandscapeLearning            Landscape             Context             Technical toolsFeaturesActin...
“How to design informal mobile learning objectusing mobile smart devices in HE institutions?”       Research Question     ...
Significance of Research                                 Extend the theories of learning and          Utilization of      ...
Scope of the study•Development of MCL Object to support Informal learning     •Informal learning service provider and supp...
Literature Review                                                                 Mobile                                  ...
Author ; Year                Instrument /Method            Brief explanationEngestrom                    AT               ...
Mobile Learning Objects success factorsDiana                             René Cruz (2008)                     (Jones, Issr...
Adaptation of Engestrom’s (1987-2002) model
Multi activity ,Multi role , MultiContext                    O1        O2       Activity          O3              Activity...
Research Design  Research Paradiagm  Desgin Paradiagm – Post Positivists  Research Approach  Quntitative and Qualitative R...
Objective1 Objective2   Objective 3  Objective4  Objective5
(Tools)Instruction,                           training ,community                         knowledge & experience,         ...
(Tools)Technological,                        Mobile phone/Pocket                        PC/Notebook/PDAs                  ...
Framework                      Interaction                    FacilitatorLearner                                      Mobi...
MCILO Framework
Preliminary Study Objective 1:To explore the                               Activity Theory Framework current status of Inf...
Conclusion Current status of MCIL is less collaborative  , interactive and situated. Design the MCIL from the first obje...
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  • Mlearning: Mobile learning, as defined by the researcher, involves the use of wireless enabled mobile digital devices (Wireless Mobile Devices or WMD’s) within and between pedagogically designed learning environments or contexts. MLearning: Why? What? Where? How?A: Lerner Centric ….AthelicThere are more than 100 million active users currently accessing Facebook through their mobile devices.People that use Facebook on their mobile devices are twice more active on Facebook than non-mobile users.There are more than 200 mobile operators in 60 countries working to deploy and promote Facebook mobile productsSource: Tech CrunchDetails: http://thetechjournal.com/internet/social-community/people-use-facebook-44-and-twitter-29-for-social-sharing.xhtml#ixzz1eS6ax2aGC: Device centric …….class room learning B: Blended.
  • Recipe garlic, spinach, and chickpea soup…………..if just the list of components even with quantity still its not learning object once we add the directions it becomes learning object…..can be used for cooking class , Can use as measurement exercise, Nutrition and language teacher can use it as reading lesson. Multimedia learning objectChunk of educational content
  • Make it statement not questions Daniel research question” How can we design new learning experiences supported by mobile and ubiquitous technologies?Need to design learning experiences…Using the theory and how to design the learning activities. Mlearning to go …..first project. Master and slaves ……….group collabotiveLocal communities treasure hunt games using mastery multi skillsQualitative data. Interaction of physical activity and education/learning activity.Reflection and running game project is great. Player and teacher able to review and track the tree. Library of scenarios. Enable teacher and student to pick some task on map. Post game visualization.Third project lets go….how this project is difference……Set of design and technical requirement to support emerge ring learning landscapes. Core activities/features are acting , reflecting and producing and sharing. How student learn once they throw into scenarios and how they cope once they are in the
  • Learning landscape how learners interact with technologies and artefacts they create offers a new perspective on how to better desing learning activities/objects ( Çakir, M. P., & Stahl, G. (2008)) Skipol2010Research will explore and identify current status of mobile informal learning using smart device in higher institution. Allow researchers to understand the key factors for Informal mobile collaborative learning objects.Research will reduce the pedagogical gap between learner, content and instructors by producing innovative and effective MCLO. Extend the theories of learning and model for implementation of Informal mobile collaborative learning.Introduce Quantitative instruments to identify the level of mobile learning in higher education institution.Research will provide new ways to integrate mobile smart devices to education and learning which will create more opportunities for mobile device manufacturers to invent new innovative devices.In addition this research contributes to literature exploring learners utilization of mobile smart devices to complete their learning activities in various context which is limited in the literature.
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    1. 1. Hasnain Zafar hasnainzafar@ieee.org Supervisions :AP Dr. Azizah and Dr. Noorminshah
    2. 2. Content Introduction Research Background Problem Statement, Research Questions, & Objectives Scope & Significance of Study Literature Review Conceptual Framework Research Design Preliminary Study Conclusion
    3. 3. Mobile LearningMobile MobileLearner Device A B C Learning
    4. 4. Learning Object (LO) Introduced Gerard (1967); Electronically applied Wayne Hogins (1994) A learning object is "a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective". Beck, Robert J. (2009) "any digital resource that can be reused to support learning" David A. Wiley (2000) "any entity, digital or non-digital, that may be used for learning, education or training". (IEEE) Learning Activities content context LO
    5. 5. Example of LO Content Chicken Curry RecipeIngredients LA½ kg chicken Instructions100 ml onion paste Fry onion paste in oil to light brown. Add50 ml. yogurt Ginger (Adrak), Garlic (Lehsan)1 tsp. coriander (Dhaniya) powder paste, yogurt, Coriander Seeds (Dhaniya)3 to 4 tsp salt (to taste)¼ tsp. turmeric (Haldi) powder Context powder, chili powder, Turmeric (Haldi) English class powder, tomato, and salt.1 tsp chili (Lal Mirch) powder Physic class Cooking class Mix and fry briefly and then add the chicken.1 tsp. garlic (Lehsan) paste Mix it and let it cook for 10-15 minutes till the1 tsp. ginger (Adrak) paste chicken becomes tender and the desired100 ml. oil consistency of curry is achieved. (add water1 to 1½ tsp. salt (as per taste) only to have the required consistency)100 ml. tomato - ground1-2 green chilies -chopped
    6. 6. Zonal Proximal Development (ZPD) Things I can’t do Things I Can do Things I can do with little support (Vygotsky 1920)
    7. 7. Problem statement back ground Real challenge for the educators, instructional designers, and technology developers of the future is to ensure that new learning should be highly situated, personal, collaborative, and long term; in other words, truly learner-centred learning. A substantial issue, including conflicts between informal learning with personal mobile devices and traditional classroom education. Emerging learning landscape.Naismith(2004), Lonsdale(2004), Vavoula & Sharples (2007, 2010), Skipol (2010)
    8. 8. Components of Learning LandscapeLearning Landscape Context Technical toolsFeaturesActing Thrown in task DevicesConceptualizing & Coping with Social Mobile phonesadaptingReflecting Projecting Class room Wiki , Google doc.Sharing and Spaces for outdoor etcProducing communicationetc etc etc Adapted from Spikol (2010)
    9. 9. “How to design informal mobile learning objectusing mobile smart devices in HE institutions?” Research Question Objective1. How informal MCL is being 1.To investigate the current status of practiced? Informal MCL.2. What are the appropriate 2. To identify appropriate learning learning activities/objects for activities/objects for informal informal MCL? MCL.3. What is the role of smart mobile 3. To design new learning activities device in informal CL? supported by mobile smart devices for Informal CL.4. How informal MCL will be 4. Develop framework for conducted in context of HE? conducting Informal MCL in HE.
    10. 10. Significance of Research Extend the theories of learning and Utilization of model for implementation of MSD for mobile Informal mobile collaborative informal learning learning. Handle the conflicts between informal learningwill reduce the with personal mobile devices and traditionalpedagogical gap classroom education. Conceptualization of context, LO, LA and MSD to informal learning and formal learning
    11. 11. Scope of the study•Development of MCL Object to support Informal learning •Informal learning service provider and support activities focus to current mode of learning to university pedagogy, Context and students. Which Complements the formal learning theory. learning. •To address new learningLandscape suitable for Mobile smart devices. •To deliver informal and life-long learning, alongside conventional structured formal learning. •Not looking into technical performance of mobile smart devices.
    12. 12. Literature Review Mobile CollaborativeMobile Smart Collaborative Mobile Mobile learning objectdevices learning learning learner (MCLO) Collaborative Hand held learning/Mobile Devices Learning Vygotsky (1978) ZPD Distance Mobile devices Memex (1945 Bush) education 1700 Communication Computer vanish into Open , collaboration (Klopfer background (weiser universities 2002) 1991) 1969 MLO (Quinn 2002) Tablets, Smart devices Formal CSCL (Zurita 2007; 2010) Informal Mobile Society (Sharple Mobile 2010) Mobility as new landscape (Skipol 2010)
    13. 13. Author ; Year Instrument /Method Brief explanationEngestrom AT Study AT organizational(1996,1987,2007,2010) activitiesEdwards, A. (2011) AT Work related learning, Expensive learning , learning ContextKurti, Spikol (2010) Learning Activities Indoor and outdoor LA, Serendipity , Learning landscape in SchoolSharple (2007,2010) AT , LO Language learning , HCIZurita (2010) MCSCL , AT Conceptual framework , MathsPark (2011) transactional distance (TD) Mobile learning link to theory distance learningSharples, Taylor, & Vavoula, AT,CT Mobile learning , CSCL(2005); Uden, (2007); Zurita &Nussbaum, (2007),Kukulska-Hulme & Traxler, Review of Mobile learning Mobile devices in Distance(2005) learning
    14. 14. Mobile Learning Objects success factorsDiana René Cruz (2008) (Jones, IssroffLaurillard CSCL LO Mobile et al., 2007;(2008) Sharples, 2007)Exploration Support activity Interoperability Personalization Collaboration groupInvestigation Face-to-face Reusability Adaptation Continuity communication between contextSharing Collaboration Accessibility Mobility control (over awareness goals)Recording, Mutual support Durability Portability learning-in-capturing data contextBuilding, making, Remote Granularity Wirelessmodeling communication connectionDiscussion Adaptability
    15. 15. Adaptation of Engestrom’s (1987-2002) model
    16. 16. Multi activity ,Multi role , MultiContext O1 O2 Activity O3 Activity 1 II Activity III
    17. 17. Research Design Research Paradiagm Desgin Paradiagm – Post Positivists Research Approach Quntitative and Qualitative Research Research Strategy Desing Sceince Research Method Survey, InterviewTheoritical Framework• Rresearch Method including : • Activity Theory accomplish Objective 2 ,3& 4 Research Design Details Next slide
    18. 18. Objective1 Objective2 Objective 3 Objective4 Objective5
    19. 19. (Tools)Instruction, training ,community knowledge & experience, other technologies To integrate New User New tool new tool to (Subjects) (objectives) other activities (outcome) Governing how new (Community) Provision oftool will be used; why Facilitator, other technology training; technology it was introduced users; technology support etc. (Rules) designers& implementers- (Division of labor) contribute to “narratives of use’ Waycott, 2004
    20. 20. (Tools)Technological, Mobile phone/Pocket PC/Notebook/PDAs Changed Technologica New LO object(Revised l Subjects (Technological knowledge & (User) object) skills) (outcome)Technological Control (Community) Technological(Usability of device; Search , Navigate , variety Communicationaccess to materials) of devices (Wifi, Chat etc) Technological LO Appropriation
    21. 21. Framework Interaction FacilitatorLearner Mobile Smart Device Mediates Learning Object Learning Mediates
    22. 22. MCILO Framework
    23. 23. Preliminary Study Objective 1:To explore the Activity Theory Framework current status of Informal Published three papers and CL book chapter on perception of E/Mobile learning Objective2:. To identify Conceptual Framework appropriate learning activities/learning Key Factors for MCILO objects for informal MCL Next Tasks: Objective3:. To design MCILO factors validity check new learning Design pilot study experiences supported by mobile smart Conducting the pilot study devices for Informal CL. Published article for sharing results.
    24. 24. Conclusion Current status of MCIL is less collaborative , interactive and situated. Design the MCIL from the first objective of research. Test MCILO in real situations.
    25. 25. Thank you
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