Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Chemistry
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Chemistry

791
views

Published on

Quick intro to chemistry

Quick intro to chemistry

Published in: Education

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
791
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
37
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chemistry Bonding
  • 2. Electron energy levels
    • Electrons travel around the nucleus in energy levels
    • Each level has a limited capacity for electrons
    • 1 st : 2 electrons
    • 2 nd : 8 electrons
    • 3 rd : 8 electrons
  • 3. Energy Levels Cont
    • Atoms are most stable “Happiest” when their outer energy levels is full of electrons
  • 4. Ions
    • An atom that has gained or lost an electron
      • Negative Ion
        • Gained an electron
      • Positive Ion
        • Lost an electron
    • ***ELECTRONS HAVE A NEGATIVE CHARGE***
  • 5. Isotopes
    • Atoms of the same element that have a different # of neutrons
      • Example: Carbon
        • Usually has 6 neutrons
        • Sometimes has 7 or 8
        • Known as Carbon-12, or Carbon-13, or Carbon-14
      • Useful in science, used to date fossils
  • 6. Physical Reaction
    • Where shape is changed
      • Liquid to solid
      • Liquid to gas
      • Crumpling paper
        • The elements did not change, just the physical state
  • 7. Chemical Reaction
    • Have a different end product after the reaction
    • Combine 2 compounds and end up with something completely different
      • CH 4 + 2O 2 = CO 2 + 2H 2 O
        • 1 methane molecule + 2 oxygen molecules = 1 carbon dioxide molecule + 2 water molecules
  • 8. Noble Gases
    • Don’t bond with anything because their outer energy level is full.
  • 9. Bonding
    • How compounds interact with each other
  • 10. Ionic Bonding
    • Bond that forms between 2 ions
    • Ions have a charge (either + or -)
    • The opposite charges attract each other, like magnets
    • Example: NaCl (sodium Chloride)
      • Na + + Cl - = NaCl
  • 11. Na Cl + - Transfer the electron NaCl
  • 12. Covalent Bonding
    • Bonding that occurs when electrons are shared, not gained or lost
    • Example: 2H
      • Because the outer level is “happy” with 2 electrons, and normally a H atom only has 1 electron in its outer energy level.
      • So 2 H atoms get together and share their one electron with each other. 
        • Aren’t they nice?
  • 13. Covalent Bonds
    • Nonmetals hold onto their valence electrons.
    • They can’t give away electrons to bond.
    • Still want noble gas configuration.
    • Get it by sharing valence electrons with each other.
    • By sharing both atoms get to count the electrons toward noble gas configuration.
  • 14. Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
    • A second atom also has seven
    By sharing electrons … both end with full orbitals 8 Valence electrons 8 Valence electrons F F
  • 15. Lewis Structures
    • 1) Count up total number of valence electrons
    • 2) Connect all atoms with single bonds
    • - “multiple” atoms usually on outside
    • - “single” atoms usually in center;
    • C always in center,
    • H always on outside.
    • 3) Complete octets on exterior atoms
    • (not H, though)
    • 4) Check
    • - valence electrons math with Step 1
    • - all atoms (except H) have an octet;
    • if not, try multiple bonds
    • - any extra electrons?
    • Put on central atom
  • 16. How to draw them
    • Add up all the valence electrons.
    • Count up the total number of electrons to make all atoms happy.
    • Subtract.
    • Divide by 2
    • Tells you how many bonds - draw them.
    • Fill in the rest of the valence electrons to fill atoms up.