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Quick intro to chemistry

Quick intro to chemistry

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Transcript

  • 1. Chemistry Bonding
  • 2. Electron energy levels
    • Electrons travel around the nucleus in energy levels
    • Each level has a limited capacity for electrons
    • 1 st : 2 electrons
    • 2 nd : 8 electrons
    • 3 rd : 8 electrons
  • 3. Energy Levels Cont
    • Atoms are most stable “Happiest” when their outer energy levels is full of electrons
  • 4. Ions
    • An atom that has gained or lost an electron
      • Negative Ion
        • Gained an electron
      • Positive Ion
        • Lost an electron
    • ***ELECTRONS HAVE A NEGATIVE CHARGE***
  • 5. Isotopes
    • Atoms of the same element that have a different # of neutrons
      • Example: Carbon
        • Usually has 6 neutrons
        • Sometimes has 7 or 8
        • Known as Carbon-12, or Carbon-13, or Carbon-14
      • Useful in science, used to date fossils
  • 6. Physical Reaction
    • Where shape is changed
      • Liquid to solid
      • Liquid to gas
      • Crumpling paper
        • The elements did not change, just the physical state
  • 7. Chemical Reaction
    • Have a different end product after the reaction
    • Combine 2 compounds and end up with something completely different
      • CH 4 + 2O 2 = CO 2 + 2H 2 O
        • 1 methane molecule + 2 oxygen molecules = 1 carbon dioxide molecule + 2 water molecules
  • 8. Noble Gases
    • Don’t bond with anything because their outer energy level is full.
  • 9. Bonding
    • How compounds interact with each other
  • 10. Ionic Bonding
    • Bond that forms between 2 ions
    • Ions have a charge (either + or -)
    • The opposite charges attract each other, like magnets
    • Example: NaCl (sodium Chloride)
      • Na + + Cl - = NaCl
  • 11. Na Cl + - Transfer the electron NaCl
  • 12. Covalent Bonding
    • Bonding that occurs when electrons are shared, not gained or lost
    • Example: 2H
      • Because the outer level is “happy” with 2 electrons, and normally a H atom only has 1 electron in its outer energy level.
      • So 2 H atoms get together and share their one electron with each other. 
        • Aren’t they nice?
  • 13. Covalent Bonds
    • Nonmetals hold onto their valence electrons.
    • They can’t give away electrons to bond.
    • Still want noble gas configuration.
    • Get it by sharing valence electrons with each other.
    • By sharing both atoms get to count the electrons toward noble gas configuration.
  • 14. Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
    • A second atom also has seven
    By sharing electrons … both end with full orbitals 8 Valence electrons 8 Valence electrons F F
  • 15. Lewis Structures
    • 1) Count up total number of valence electrons
    • 2) Connect all atoms with single bonds
    • - “multiple” atoms usually on outside
    • - “single” atoms usually in center;
    • C always in center,
    • H always on outside.
    • 3) Complete octets on exterior atoms
    • (not H, though)
    • 4) Check
    • - valence electrons math with Step 1
    • - all atoms (except H) have an octet;
    • if not, try multiple bonds
    • - any extra electrons?
    • Put on central atom
  • 16. How to draw them
    • Add up all the valence electrons.
    • Count up the total number of electrons to make all atoms happy.
    • Subtract.
    • Divide by 2
    • Tells you how many bonds - draw them.
    • Fill in the rest of the valence electrons to fill atoms up.