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HISTORY OF HORROR
EARLY YEARS
 In the early years horror
was inspired by art,
literature, ancient myth,
folklore and it also focused
on the...
GOTHIC NOVEL
 In the late 1700s, Gothic
Literature began to
emerge and became a
key influence.
 The ‘Gothic’ part of the...
FRANKENSTEIN
 Shelley’s Gothic novel Frankenstein (1819) Is
believed to be inspired by The Nightmare. It was
later made i...
 Frankenstein was well
received by audiences &
critics at the box office
which led to many sequels.
 It helped to establ...
DRACULA
 Dracula was a sophisticated vampire modern
fiction
 It was created in 1819 by John Polidori
 It influences cam...
NOSEFERATU
 The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia;
 The Ancient Greeks, and Romans had tales of
blood drinki...
GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM
 The Expressionist movement was largely
confined to Germany due to the isolation the
country during ...
GERMAN EXPRESSONISM
INFLUENCE IN HOLLYWOOD
 Two genres in Hollywood
clearly influenced by
Expressionism were horror &
fil...
 Stylistic elements taken from German Expressionism
are common today in films that do not need
reference to real places s...
UNIVERSAL’S 1930’S HORROR
 Universal Pictures made the first
cycle of horror films
 triggered in part by the coming
of s...
DRACULA
 James Whale continued the cycle with
Frankenstein with Boris Karloff also in
1931.
 Karl Freund even got a shot...
COLD WAR HORROR
 After the Supreme Court rulings of 1948 which
ripped apart the studio system & cut-throat
competition wi...
 Horror films began moving away from the dominant staple of
Monsters & the Supernatural
 It began to tap into the 1950’s...
PSYCHOLOGICAL SEX & GORE
 The 1960s herald an explosion of styles and cycles & sub-
genres in the genre as it gains in po...
PSYCHOLOGICAL HORROR
HITCOCK
 Hitchcock’s Psycho shocked
audiences & led
 to the view that Horror could
be more than B-m...
HAMMER FILM PRODUCTIONS
 In the late 50s Hammer Films Productions in
Britain began rebooting Universal’s Gothic
Monsters ...
THE OCCULT
 From the 60s Horror was being taken seriously by
critics & audiences. This set the stage for important
horror...
FILM SCHOOL GENERATION
 In the 70s a group of filmmakers The Film School
Generation who formally studied horror began to
...
THE SHINING
 Horror has been a staple of the low budget
film world since the 50s. As film production
technology has advan...
HALLOWEEN
 Produced on a budget of $325,000 &
grossing $240 million dollars, John
Carpenters 1978 hit Halloween is one
of...
TORTURE PORN
 There are three modern horror film
cycles which arose in late nineties &
2000s Torture Porn is the modern
r...
FOUND FOOTAGE
 The Blair Witch Project (1999)
Eduardo Sanchez & Daniel
Myrick represents the first major
film in the mode...
ZOMBIE APOCALYPSE
 With roots going back to George A Romero’s Night
of the Living Dead in 1968 the modern Zombie
Apocalyp...
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History of horror

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Transcript of "History of horror"

  1. 1. HISTORY OF HORROR
  2. 2. EARLY YEARS  In the early years horror was inspired by art, literature, ancient myth, folklore and it also focused on the supernatural  Henry Fuseli’s painting ‘TheNightmare (1781)’ is believed to have influenced Mary Shelley’s Gothic novel ‘Frankenstein’ and features a demon.
  3. 3. GOTHIC NOVEL  In the late 1700s, Gothic Literature began to emerge and became a key influence.  The ‘Gothic’ part of the name refers to puseduo medieval buildings that these stories took place in;  Old castles  Dark & stormy night  Gloomy forest  Dungeons  Secret passage ways
  4. 4. FRANKENSTEIN  Shelley’s Gothic novel Frankenstein (1819) Is believed to be inspired by The Nightmare. It was later made into a Hollywood film with Carl Laemmle’s Universal Pictures releasing it in 1931 (James Whale) starring Boris Karloff.
  5. 5.  Frankenstein was well received by audiences & critics at the box office which led to many sequels.  It helped to establish Dracula, the supernatural/monster genre  It was also an early example of science fiction.
  6. 6. DRACULA  Dracula was a sophisticated vampire modern fiction  It was created in 1819 by John Polidori  It influences came from the early 19th century  However it is Bram Stoker’s 1897 Gothic novel Dracula which it derived from.
  7. 7. NOSEFERATU  The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia;  The Ancient Greeks, and Romans had tales of blood drinking demons and spirits which were precursors to modern vampires.  Many myths emerge during the medieval period but the folklore for the modern vampire originates in the late 17th century in southeastern Europe.  These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany & England.
  8. 8. GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM  The Expressionist movement was largely confined to Germany due to the isolation the country during World War I.  The plots often dealt with madness, insanity, & betrayal  direct reaction against realism.  They used extreme distortions in expression to show an inner emotional reality rather than what is on the surface.  The first Expressionist films made up for a lack of lavish budgets by using set designs with wildly non-realistic, geometrically absurd sets,  along with designs painted on walls and floors to represent lights, shadows, and objects.  This dark, moody school of film making was brought to the United States when the Nazis gained power and a number of German filmmakers emigrated to Hollywood.
  9. 9. GERMAN EXPRESSONISM INFLUENCE IN HOLLYWOOD  Two genres in Hollywood clearly influenced by Expressionism were horror & film noir.  Carl Laemmle and Universal Studios had made a name for themselves producing such famous horrors of the silent era as The Phantom of the Opera.  Now German filmmakers such as Karl Freund ( cinematographer for Dracula 1931) set the style and mood of the Universal monster movies of the 1930s with their dark and artistically designed sets.
  10. 10.  Stylistic elements taken from German Expressionism are common today in films that do not need reference to real places such as science fiction films (eg, Ridley Scott's 1982 Blade Runner, which was itself influenced by Metropolis).
  11. 11. UNIVERSAL’S 1930’S HORROR  Universal Pictures made the first cycle of horror films  triggered in part by the coming of sound in 1927.  In the silent era, Universal had made The Phantom of the Opera & Hunchback of Notre Dame both starring Lon Chaney.  However in the 1930s, Universal sunk their teeth into horror, kicking off the Universal Gothic horror cycle with Dracula, 1931 starring Bela Lugosi.
  12. 12. DRACULA  James Whale continued the cycle with Frankenstein with Boris Karloff also in 1931.  Karl Freund even got a shot at the director’s chair with The Mummy in 1932.  Followed by James Whale again with the Invisible Man in 1933,  Stuart Walker’s Werewolf in London 1935  Hambert Hillyer’s Dracula’s Daughter in 1936.
  13. 13. COLD WAR HORROR  After the Supreme Court rulings of 1948 which ripped apart the studio system & cut-throat competition with tv for audiences, in the 1950s, Hollywood became increasingly desperate.  Horror films got relegated to B-film status & A- list talent was used for lavish epics.  However horror was popular with teens who wanted thrills even if the plot lines were becoming more ludicrous.
  14. 14.  Horror films began moving away from the dominant staple of Monsters & the Supernatural  It began to tap into the 1950’s cold war fear of invasion & nuclear annihilation.  This developed into a Pulp Science Fiction cycle with films like The Thing From Another World, The Day The Earth Stood Still (1951) & Forbidden Planet & Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956).
  15. 15. PSYCHOLOGICAL SEX & GORE  The 1960s herald an explosion of styles and cycles & sub- genres in the genre as it gains in popularity, prestige & freedom. (The restrictive censorship of the Production Code was abandoned in 1964). Advances in technology also allow for greater use of special effects & more gore.
  16. 16. PSYCHOLOGICAL HORROR HITCOCK  Hitchcock’s Psycho shocked audiences & led  to the view that Horror could be more than B-movie fare.  Unlike the monsters of previous horror cycles  be they supernatural, demonic, mutated or from  outer space, Norman Bates was rooted in reality.  Human on the outside but with the mind  of a monster.
  17. 17. HAMMER FILM PRODUCTIONS  In the late 50s Hammer Films Productions in Britain began rebooting Universal’s Gothic Monsters – but adding sex and gore. Shot in full color, Hammer’s first Gothic horror reboot was Terence Fisher’s The Curse of Frankenstein (1957)with Peter Cushing as Dr. Frankenstein & Christopher Lee as the monster. For the first time in a Frankenstein film, blood was shown on screen in full chilling color.
  18. 18. THE OCCULT  From the 60s Horror was being taken seriously by critics & audiences. This set the stage for important horror films sub-genres that developed in the following decades.  The Occult – films about Satan and the Supernatural – was a popular big budget subjects – notably Roman Polanski’s Rosemary’s Baby in 1968 & The Exorcist (1973) directed by William Friedkin, Richard Donnor’s The Omen (1976) & Stuart Rosenberg’s Amnityville Horror (1979).
  19. 19. FILM SCHOOL GENERATION  In the 70s a group of filmmakers The Film School Generation who formally studied horror began to make horror films or inject it into their filmmaking. Brian De Palma’s Carrie in 1976 set the stage for a Teen Horror cycle. 1979’s Alien by Ridley Scott successful remixed horror and science fiction as did John Carpenter’s remake of The Thing in 1982.
  20. 20. THE SHINING  Horror has been a staple of the low budget film world since the 50s. As film production technology has advanced & costs have steadily declined the rise of independent filmmakers has allowed for more & more new takes on horror. Films like Stanley Kubricks 1980s The Shining which fused the psychological and the supernatural & went on to become a classic.
  21. 21. HALLOWEEN  Produced on a budget of $325,000 & grossing $240 million dollars, John Carpenters 1978 hit Halloween is one of the most successful independent horror film to date. The first of it’s kind - a Hitchcock inspired slasher film- there is in fact very little gore; low budgets forced Carpenter to construct his horror inside everyday suburbia.
  22. 22. TORTURE PORN  There are three modern horror film cycles which arose in late nineties & 2000s Torture Porn is the modern reboot of the Splatter films going back to the Hammer Horror era. This latest cycle emphasizes intense gore, grunge and often tortuous violence. The Saw franchise, the most successful horror film franchise of all time, is considered the first in this latest crop of splatter films with it’s first installment in 2004 by James Wan.
  23. 23. FOUND FOOTAGE  The Blair Witch Project (1999) Eduardo Sanchez & Daniel Myrick represents the first major film in the modern found footage horror sub-genre. It pieces together first hand footage to reconstruct the last terrifying moments of the original eye witness. Blair Witch also one of the first films to be marketed through the internet.
  24. 24. ZOMBIE APOCALYPSE  With roots going back to George A Romero’s Night of the Living Dead in 1968 the modern Zombie Apocalypse Cycle began when Danny Boyle breathed a new life into the undead genre with 28 Days Later in 2002. Recent Zombie films feed on our fears of a medical pandemic and the break down of society.
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