Cma stella baru


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cma stella baru

  2. 2. You are the manager of a small but thriving natural wilderness area. Key species in thewilderness include snowshoe hare and lynx. Over the past several years, the two populationshave coexisted in peace, harmony and equilibrium. Lifes been good. Now, however, theres aproposal on the table from the Baffins Bay company to humanely harvest some portion of thelynx population. This is intended to be a one-time event. Youve been assured that nature willcompensate for this action to once again balance the populations. Use this simulation to testthis assertion. What really happens to the lynx and hare populations after a one-time harvest?1.0 IntroductionIn era globalization today, the world develops rapidly and has grown together with thedevelopment of education and technology. Focusing on a Malaysia, education has beenchallenged with the promise of educating all children. Fulfilling this promise may require moreinnovative use of computers. In fact, computers have been used in teaching and learning forseveral years. Teachers have been using them for many purposes beyond word processing.One type of computer application is simulations. Although the use of computer technologies inthe schools is still debated among scholars, computers can play important roles in theclassroom and laboratory science instruction (e.g., Lazarowitz and Huppert, 1993; Akpan andAndre, 1999). Before we elaborate in more details, we need to know what is actually meaning ofcomputer simulation and computer system. Have you even been hear before? Thompson,Simonson and Hargrave (1996) defined simulation as a representation or model of an event,object, or some phenomenon. In science education a computer simulation according to Akpanand Andre (1999) is the use of the computer to simulate dynamic systems of objects in a real orimagined world. A Simulation of a system is the operation of a model, which is a representationof that system. The model is amenable to manipulation which would be impossible, tooexpensive, or too impractical to perform on the system which it portrays. The operation of themodel can be studied, and, from this, properties concerning the behavior of the actual systemcan be inferred. Alassi and Trollip (1991) describe simulations in educational context that is :“Asimulation is a powerful technique that teaches about some aspect of the world by imitating orreplicating it. Students are not only motivated by simulations, but learn by interacting with themin a manner similar to the way they would react in real situations. In almost every instance, asimulation also simplifies reality by omitting or changing details. In this simplified world, the 2
  3. 3. student solves problems, learns procedures, comes to understand the characteristics ofphenomena and how to control them, or learns what actions to take in different situations.”Computer simulations give students the opportunity to observe a real world experience andinteract with it. Simulations are useful for simulating labs that are impractical, expensive,impossible, or too dangerous to run (Strauss and Kinzie,1994).2.0 Use of Computer simulation in teaching and learning process Have you ever been able to have your students vary the force of gravity and determinethe effects on an object’s motion? Explore nuclear fission at the molecular level and discoverwhether the daughter atoms are always the same? Move tectonic plates while investigating thedifferences between divergent and convergent boundaries? Computer simulations make thesetypes of interactive, authentic, meaningful learning opportunities possible. Learners canobserve, explore, recreate, and receive immediate feedback about real objects, phenomena,and processes that would otherwise be too complex, time-consuming, or dangerous. Broadly defined, computer simulations are computer-generated dynamic models thatpresent theoretical or simplified models of real-world components, phenomena, or processes.They can include animations, visualizations, and interactive laboratory experiences. In asimulated environment, time changes can be speed up or slowed down; abstract concepts canbe made concrete and tacit behaviors visible. Teachers can focus students’ attention onlearning objectives when real-world environments are simplified, causality of events is clearlyexplained, and unnecessary cognitive tasks are reduced through a simulation. Technologicaladvances have increasingly brought instructional digital technologies into the scienceclassroom. Teachers may have greater access to Internet connected classroom computers,wireless laptop carts, computer projectors, and interactive whiteboards than ever before. As youconsider how these resources can be used to enhance science teaching and learning, you mayfind yourself turning often to computer simulations, especially since they are tools frequentlyused by scientists in their daily work. Besides that, computer simulation also gives students to observe a real worldexperience and interact with it. In science classrooms, simulation can play an important role increating virtual experiments and inquiry. Problem based simulations allow students to monitorexperiments, test new models and improve their intuitive understanding of complex phenomena(Alessi and Trollip, 1985).Simulations are also potentially useful for simulating labs that are 3
  4. 4. impractical, expensive, impossible, or too dangerous to run (Strauss and Kinzie,1994).Simulations can contribute to conceptual change (Windschitl, 1995); provide open-endedexperiences for students (Sadler et al. 1999); provide tools for scientific inquiry (Mintz, 1993;White and Frederiksen, 2000; Windschitl, 2000;Dwyer & Lopez, 2001) and problem solvingexperiences (Woodward et al., 1988;Howse, 1998).An appropriate way for simulations inscience education is to use them as a supplementary material (McKinney, 1997). The combination of simulations and laboratory offers advantages in time so that thelaboratory portion can be reduced in length and students using the simulations have a slightlybetter knowledge of the practical aspects directly related to laboratory work. On the other handin some situations simulations are the only tools to use like experimenting for dangerous orlong-term situations. According to Mintz (1993) one of the most promising computer applicationsin science instruction is the use of simulations for teaching material, which cannot be taught byconventional laboratory experimentation But can a simulation be as effective as a conventionallaboratory or replace it? The answer would be that it depends on the concept or the situation. For example Choi & Gennaro (1987) compared the effectiveness of computer-simulatedexperiences with hands-on laboratory experiences for teaching the concept of prey predator onjunior high school students. They found that computer simulated experiences were as effectiveas hands-on laboratory experiences. This suggests that it may be possible to use a computersimulated experiment in place of a laboratory experience in the teaching of some topic. Forexamples in the topic prey predator between population Lynx and Snowshoes in one area. Thismay suggest that computer simulations may be used to replace those laboratory activities thatrequire cognitive interactions with the content rather than psychomotor interactions so that theynot require much physical (e.g., taste, smell, touch) interactions.3.0 Steps in Designing a System Dynamics Simulation.In designing this type of simulation, there are four steps that need to be done.1. Create a focus for the simulation consistent with district curriculum.2. Design and build the computer model.3. Choosing and programming (if necessary) the software that students will use.4. Design the activity that “wraps around” the simulation. 4
  5. 5. We used an example for explained the step in designing a simulation. Focusing on a topic preypredator, teacher wants to learn about prey predator between Lynx and Snowshoes in a class.As we know, it is difficult to give explanation between these interactions using the lecture. So itis easy for the teachers to learn by using the computer simulation. It might be some interestingteaching and learning process and easy to understand what we want to learnt. By choosing asuitable programming to illustrate this topic, it will easy and save time for doing experimentwithout going at that place. For examples, we choose to use STELLA software. This softwarewe need to download and install in the computer. After it is finished, it can used for teaching andlearning process on simulation topic in a class or laboratory. The last step is designing activitythat includes the simulations. For example prey predator of Lynx and Snowshoes population. We use simulation ofprey predator in a learning process to identify the result outcome of the population of Lynx andSnowshoes after one time of harvest by using the simulation, the students can adjust thereading of the size of one time Lynx harvest, run the experiment and give complete the graph.From the graph it can make prediction when from the experience before. So it might beinteresting for students to explore and take a time to predict the reading. At this stage, studentsmore motivated to explore and learn it by using simulation and can make prediction when theyrepeated the adjustment to the reading of size of the population. By doing this simulation, theymight more interesting and attractive learning process compared to the lecture style learning.Besides, they can see the relationship between Lynx and Snowshoes after the simulation finishup. It easy to the teacher to teach/demonstrate in the class to their student without goes tothose places. After finish up the simulation, finally we got the result. There are for graph that we get tosee the variation and make prediction about the relationship of the prey predator. By looking tothe graph, the students related to the topic that we want to learn in the class which is PreyPredator. 5
  6. 6. Figure 1 Figure 2 6
  7. 7. Figure 3Figure 4 7
  8. 8. 4.0 Discussion and Analysis of the Graph.Based on the graph 1, the population of hares and lynx is constant. That’s means there is nointeraction of prey predator. The number of hares and lynx shows same through the increasedof time. Based on figure 2,3, and 4 we can summarizes that, When the population size of thehare increases there is more food for the lynx to eat. As a result the lynx population alsoincreases. The large lynx population will kill more hares so the hare population decreases. Thiswill also cause the hare population to decrease. The population sizes for the lynx and harefluctuate every few years. Neither population gets too big as the predator and the prey keepeach population in balance. As a conclusion every point of the graph has their own reading.When we adjust the reading of the time, and run the data and finish. It showed a graph. Fromthe graph we can seen the pattern of the Lynx and Snowshoes and can make prediction for twoor three years ago. It encourages students to explore more detail to know and get information.So it will give motivated to the students to learn and difficult to forget what we have learn. Somescientist said that, when we do by itself, it is difficult to forget.5.0 Modeling and Simulation A predator-prey model proposed by Ward et al. in which the agent model is dedicated torepresent schooling behaviors and in teaching process. We are interested in analyzing the reallyhappens to the lynx, and hare populations after a one-time harvest. We choose to use Stellasoftware to test or make prediction to the population of Lynx and Snowshoes. Stella enabler’sstudents to make an make an assumption about the process that governs a particular dynamicphenomenon. As a result students can easy to build their understanding of how it works. This is the one from the others simulation suitable to use in a class to teach student.Actually simulation is a system is the operation of a model, which is a representation of thatsystem. Simulations are a useful teaching strategy for illustrating a complex and changingsituation. Simulations are (necessarily) less complex than the situations they represent. In asimulation, the learner acts, the simulation reacts, the learner learns from this feedback.Examples of simulations: prey predator simulators. Note that in each of these cases, the“simulation” involves rules, and the students must make decisions. Each decision a studentmakes affects the outcome of the results. Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performanceoptimization, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games .Simulation is 8
  9. 9. also used with scientific modeling of natural systems or human systems to gain insight into theirfunctioning. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditionsand courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system cannot be engaged,because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it isbeing designed but not yet built, or it may simply not exist. We use simulation of prey predator in a learning process to identify the result outcome ofthe population of Lynx and Snowshoes after one time of harvest By using the simulation, thestudents can adjust the reading of the size of one time Lynx harvest and can make predictionwhen they repeated the adjustment to the reading of size of the population. By doing thissimulation, they might more interesting and attractive learning process compared to the lecturestyle learning. Besides, they can see the relationship between Lynx and Snowshoes after thesimulation finish up. It easy to the teacher to teach/demonstrate in the class to their studentwithout goes to those places. The advantages to use the simulation are it can be used in one period. They can bedone in one class period. It can save time to the teacher and students because it does not takea long time to set up the materials. They require very simple equipment to carried out thesimulations. About fifteen minutes they can make prediction about the simulation that they makebefore. So the teacher acts as facilitators during the teaching and learning process. After all thestudents finish their activity, they can make a presentation in a small group to discuss about theresults in front of the class. At this time, teacher will make correction anything wrong about theirresult. By doing this way, they can change the idea and their learning process is more effective. We apply this simulation in prey predator in a class. After finish up the simulation, finallywe got the result. There are for graph that we get to see the variation and make prediction aboutthe relationship of the prey predator. By looking to the graph, the students related to the topicthat we want to learn in the class which is Prey Predator. 9
  10. 10. 6.0 Advantages and Disadvantages of educational computer simulationMany advantages can be cited with respect to the use of computer simulation programs ineducation. A number of these do not specifically relate to simulation only but also to the validityfor practical laboratories or the use of the computer in education in general. There are somespecific advantages connected with computer simulation. First, some general advantageousaspects of simulation as a form and method of learning will be indicated. Computer simulation offers the opportunity to experiment with phenomena or events,which for a number of reasons, cannot normally be experimented with in the traditional way.Bork (1981) remarks: Simulations provide students with experience that may be difficult orimpossible to obtain in everyday life. In class it is e.g. not possible to experiment actively withan economic system. The only things, teacher can discuss the nature and content of thesystem. Experimenting would surely be useful because this can generate an insight into thefunctioning of the economic system. Computer simulation programs can be used in education togive the student more feeling for reality in some abstract fields of learning. Foster (1984) saysabout this: Simulations can be entertaining because of dramatic and game-like components. When a teacher tries to explain a difficult interrelationship, such as a hybridizationexperiment with fruit flies in the traditional way it is likely that part of the class will fail tounderstand. Execution of the real experiment is impossible because this would take a number ofweeks and can therefore not be integrated as such within a lesson. When, after the necessarytheoretical discussion of the material, a simulation experiment follows there will be a greaterchance that more students will understand a complete relationship, such as a hybridizationexperiment. According to Elron (1983) the best simulation does not have to resemble reality in themost accurate way. The power of simulation often lies, according to him, in the simplification ofreality. Good simplifications provide students with a better insight into reality than by examiningall components of a complex situation .While working with a computer simulation program thestudent is experimenting, so he or she is playing an active rather than a passive role. This activeengagement contrasts with the situation students often experience during face-to-face teachingwhen they listen passively. Working with a computer simulation program often evokesenthusiasm in the student and as such it has a positive influence on his motivation. Spitzerremarks on this: Simulations are highly motivating, both intrinsically and extrinsically. However, 10
  11. 11. no educational tool is effective for everyone. A differentiated supply of educational support toolsis therefore important. A computer simulation program is one of them. Working with a computersimulation program can increase the interest of a student about a subject. This can expressitself in the fact that students will often study relevant literature concerning the subject afterusing a simulation more than they would have done with the traditional approaches to learning. Students are then offered the possibility to experiment with the real world system,though it is simulated. Computer simulation also offers the possibility to repeat the experimentas often as necessary, i.e. until the intended insight into the system has been acquired. It is alsopossible to do extreme things in computer simulation and to observe the results, contrary tomany traditional experiments. However, when experience with aspects of a real experiment isconsidered important but a practical laboratory only has a limited capacity, and then workingwith a computer simulation program can increase the impact of practical work. As was saidearlier there can be different reasons why the traditional experiment cannot be used in theeducational situation, even though the experiment would be desirable because the studentsinsight could be positively enhanced by doing so. Then computer simulation can be a blessing.We now mention some possible advantages as well as some disadvantages of computersimulation as an educational tool for instruction and training.There are not only advantages connected with the use of computer simulation programs ineducation and training. Limitations are in some cases the result of the wrong or inappropriateuse of such programs. Possible limitations of a general and educational kind are: Simulation concerns the manipulation of a number of variables of a model representing areal system. However, manipulation of a single variable often means that the reality of thesystem as a whole can be lost. Certain systems or components of a realistic situation are nottransparent. Some factors have a lot of influence on the whole, but they have indistinct relationsin the whole and can therefore not be represented in a model. These factors, however, cannotbe forgotten in the learning process. A computer simulation program cannot develop the students emotional and intuitiveawareness that the use of simulations is specifically directed at establishing relations betweenvariables in a model. So this intuition has to be developed in a different way. Besides, Computersimulation cannot react to unexpected sub-goals which the student may develop during a 11
  12. 12. learning-process. These sub-goals would be brought up during a teacher-student interaction butthey remain unsaid during the individual student use of a simulation. Computer simulation programs may function well from a technical point of view, but theyare difficult to fit into a curriculum. Often a computer simulation program cannot be adapted totake into different student levels into account within a group or class. A computer simulationprogram can certainly be made to adapt to different circumstances if the designer bears that inmind; however, for many computer simulation programs this has not happened. During the experience of interaction with a computer simulation program, the student isfrequently asked to solve problems in which creativity is often the decisive factor to success.The fact that this creativity is more present in some pupils than in others is not taken intoaccount by the simulation. Mutual collaboration and discussion among students while using thesoftware could be a solution for this.7.0 ConclusionAs a conclusion, Computer simulation is suitable to use in a school based on some factors. Aswe know the computers play important roles in the classroom and laboratory science. They canbe used with instructive or constructive pedagogy. Computer simulations give students theopportunity to observe a real world experience and interact with it. Computer simulations arepotentially useful for simulating labs that are impractical, expensive, impossible, or toodangerous to run. Simulations can contribute to conceptual change, provide open-endedexperiences, and provide tools for scientific inquiry and problem solving. Computer simulationsalso have potentials for distance education. They implied that computer simulations are goodsupplementary tools for classroom instruction and science laboratories. Multimedia supported,highly interactive, collaborative computer simulations appealing growing interest because oftheir potentials to supplement constructivist learning. They offer inquiry environments andcognitive tools to scaffold learning and apply problem solving skills. The literature suggests thatthe success of computer simulations use in science education depends on how theyincorporated into curriculum and how teacher use it. The most appropriate use of computersimulations seems that use them for a supplementary tools for classroom instruction andlaboratory. Computer simulations are good tools to improve students’ hypothesis construction,graphic interpretation and prediction skills. 12
  13. 13. 8.0 ReferencesAkpan, J. P., & Andre, T. (1999). The Effect of a prior dissection simulation on middle schoolstudents’ dissection performance and understanding of the anatomy and morphology of thefrog. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 8, 107-121. Retrieved December 10, 2003from :, F. M. (1997). Software simulation enhances science experiments. T.H.E.Journal, 25, 56-8 13