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2010 ESEM - An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Scrum Projects
 

2010 ESEM - An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Scrum Projects

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An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Scrum Projects ...

An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Scrum Projects
A. César C. França, Fabio Q. B. da Silva, Leila M. R. de Sousa Mariz

Abstract-In this article, factors considered critical for the success of projects managed using Scrum are correlated to the results of software projects in industry. Using a set of 25 factors compiled in by other researchers, a cross section survey was conducted to evaluate the presence or application of these factors in 11 software projects that used Scrum in 9 different software companies located in Recife-PE, Brazil. The questionnaire was applied to 65 developers and Scrum Masters, representing 75% (65/86) of the professionals that have participated in the projects. The result was correlated with the level of success achieved by the projects, measured by the subjective perception of the project participant, using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The main finding is that only 32% (8/25) of the factors correlated positively with project success, raising the question of whether the factors hypothesized in the literature as being critical to the success of agile software projects indeed have an effect on project success.Given the limitations regarding the generalization of this result, other forms of empirical results, in particular case-studies, are needed to test this question.

Paper presented at Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Conference, Bolzano, 2010.


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    2010 ESEM - An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Scrum Projects 2010 ESEM - An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Scrum Projects Presentation Transcript

    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Scrum Projects A. César C. França; Fabio Q. B. da Silva; Leila Mariz <cesarfranca@gmail.com; fabio@cin.ufpe.br; leilamariz@yahoo.com.br>
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Research Project 2 (empirical) research project on the influence of human factors on software engineering Long Term Objective: to understand the influence of personality, behavior, and cognition on individuals, teams, projects, processes, and organizations in software engineering.
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Research Project 3 (empirical) research project on the influence of human factors on software engineering Centro de Informática – UFPE Since 2003 ... 1 professor/researcher 4 PhD students 18 master students
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Context 4 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority T. Chow, e D. Cao, "A Survey Study of Critical Success Factors in Agile Software Projects.", The Journal of Systems and Software, n. 81, 2007, pp. 961–971
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Context and Goals 5 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to- face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority Is the adoption of the 25 agile attributes related to the success of software development projects managed using Scrum?
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 6 Method Cross sectional survey
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 7 Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Method Cross sectional survey
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 8 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 9 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception of use of agile attribute Perception of project success
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 10 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25: level of use of Agile Attribute S: project success Scale Five point Likert type
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Development 11 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design Time July-August, 2009
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Development 12 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design Time July-August, 2009Context 9 firms 11 projects Recife Scrum Group
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Development 13 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design Time July-August, 2009 Context 9 firms 11 projects Recife Scrum Group Participants (62) 48 Scrum Team 10 Scrum Master 4 Product Owner
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Development 14 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design Time July-August, 2009 Context 9 firms 11 projects Recife Scrum Group Participants (62) 48 Scrum Team 10 Scrum Master 4 Product Owner Questionnaire 65 questionnaire sent 62 answered 95% response rate
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Statistical Analysis 15 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design Time July-August, 2009 Context 9 firms 11 projects Recife Scrum Group Participants (62) 48 Scrum Team 10 Scrum Master 4 Product Owner Questionnaire 65 questionnaire sent 62 answered 95% response rate Correlation Spearman's rank correlation coefficient Factor Analysis PCA Development
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Results: Correlation 16 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Results: PCA 17 C1 Management style A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A18 Honoring regular working Schedule A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work C2 Software process A23Good customer relationship A13Following agile-oriented requirement management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A14Following agile-oriented project management process A02Delivering most important features first C3 Team Structure A22Projects with no multiple independent teams A21Projects with small team C4 Technology A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A07 Correct integration testing A12 Appropriate technical training to team A04 Pursuing simple design C5 Team capability A09Team members with great motivation A08Team members with high competence and expertise C6 Customer commitment A24Strong customer commitment and presence A06Right amount of documentation C7 Delivery strategy A01Regular delivery of software C8 Team Location A19Collocation of the whole team A05 Rigorous refactoring activities C9 Customer awareness A25Customer having full authority A16Good progress tracking mechanism
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Discussion 18
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced “Human Factors” 19 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Correlated “Human Factors” 20 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Correlated “Human Factors” 21 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority Not a surprise. Happens with non Agile methodologies.
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Correlated “Human Factors” 22 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority Agrees with research on team work! Not ease to achieve in SE!
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced “Surprises” 23 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Four Areas of Further Research 24 Self-organizing Teams What are they in SE? How to build one? How to keep them cohesive?
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Four Areas of Further Research 25 Motivation How is motivation related to performance? How is motivation related to success? Self-organizing Teams What are they in SE? How to build one? How to keep them cohesive?
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Four Areas of Further Research 26 Motivation How is motivation related to performance? How is motivation related to success? Leadership Style How the style of leadership and management affects success? Self-organizing Teams What are they in SE? How to build one? How to keep them cohesive?
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Four Areas of Further Research 27 Leadership Style How the style of leadership and management affects success? Personality and Behavior Does personality matter? How different team work behavior affects team work effectiveness? Motivation How is motivation related to performance? How is motivation related to success? Self-organizing Teams What are they in SE? How to build one? How to keep them cohesive?
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced Conclusions • Limitations and Threats to Validity: – Restricted context – Small number of participants, projects, and firms • Contributions: – New research questions – More detailed factor structure 28
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Scrum Projects A. César C. França; Fabio Q. B. da Silva; Leila Mariz <cesarfranca@gmail.com; fabio@cin.ufpe.br; leilamariz@yahoo.com.br> Thank you!
    • S O P E I Influences Is influenced An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Scrum Projects by A. César C. França, Fabio Q. B. da Silva, Leila M. R. de Sousa Mariz is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement Conference, Bolzano, 2010. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://www.haseresearch.com