Body contains about 100 mg of Cu.
The copper concentration of plasma is about 100-200 mg/dl
95% is tightly bound to ceruloplasmin
Rest is loosely held with albumin
Normal conc. Of serum ceruloplasmin is 25-50 mg/dl
Adults 2-3 mg/day
Infants and children 0.5-2 mg/day
Green leafy vegetables
Milk (a poor source)
About 10% of the dietary Cu is absorbed
Absorption occurs in duodenum
Metallothionein facilitates copper absorption.
Uptake inhibitors are
Under normal 85-99% is excreted in the faeces.
Remaining is excreted via urine
Retained Cu depends on the Cu status in tissues.
Essential constituent of several enzymes
Cu is a constituent of ALA synthase, needed for heme
Helps the absorption of Fe
A copper containing protein called serum Ferro-Oxidase
II participates in oxidation of Fe2+
Help in the bone formation.
Maintains the structure of myelin sheath of nerves
Cu helps to form insoluble elastin fibers by cross linking
the soluble proelastin chains.
Loss of weight
Change in hair colour
Involves atrophy of myocardium
Histopathological changes in cerebrum, brainstem, and
Demyelinated nerves and non coordinated movements.
Clinical Conditions related to Cu:
Low serum Cu levels
Increased excretion of Cu
Liver: Hepatic cirrhosis
Brain: Dysfunction of lenticular region of brain (brain necrosis)
Eye: Deposition in Descemet’s membrane(Kayser-Fleischer ring)
Zinc is particularly an intracellular element.
The total content of zinc is about 2 g.
Blood contains about 650-680µg/100ml
Conc. in serum is about 100mg/dl.
Erythrocytes contain higher conc. of zinc
Mainly absorbed in duodenum & ileum
Animal source is better than vegetable source
Small peptides and amino acids promote Zn absorption
In adult person about 9.0 mg of zinc is lost via faeces.
0.5 mg is lost in urine.
Trace amount is lost via sweat.
Role in enzyme action
Role in vitamin metabolism
Role in insulin secretion
Prevents dwarfism and hypogonadism
Role in wound healing
Diabetes mellitus is related to deficiency of zinc in
Has reduced amount in leukemia
Acute myocardial infarction
Helps regulatory proteins to bind with DNA
The enzyme is found in cytosol of liver , brain and blood
It contains two Cu & Zn ions each.