Zn & Cu, Biochemistry minerals

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Biochemistry Minerals Zn & Cu biomedical importance and diseases

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Zn & Cu, Biochemistry minerals

  1. 1. Minerals ( Cu & Zn ) Haseeb Tariq Roll no # 32
  2. 2. Copper
  3. 3.  Body contains about 100 mg of Cu. Serum Cu:  The copper concentration of plasma is about 100-200 mg/dl  95% is tightly bound to ceruloplasmin  Rest is loosely held with albumin  Normal conc. Of serum ceruloplasmin is 25-50 mg/dl
  4. 4. Dietary Requirements  Adults 2-3 mg/day  Infants and children 0.5-2 mg/day
  5. 5. Sources  Organ Meat  Egg Yolk  Cereals  Nuts  Green leafy vegetables  Milk (a poor source)
  6. 6. Absorption  About 10% of the dietary Cu is absorbed  Absorption occurs in duodenum  Metallothionein facilitates copper absorption.  Uptake inhibitors are  Phytates  Zinc  Molybdenum
  7. 7. Excretion  Under normal 85-99% is excreted in the faeces.  Remaining is excreted via urine  Retained Cu depends on the Cu status in tissues.
  8. 8. Biochemical Functions:  Essential constituent of several enzymes  Cu is a constituent of ALA synthase, needed for heme synthesis  Helps the absorption of Fe  A copper containing protein called serum Ferro-Oxidase II participates in oxidation of Fe2+
  9. 9.  Help in the bone formation.  Maintains the structure of myelin sheath of nerves  Prevents cachexia.  Cu helps to form insoluble elastin fibers by cross linking the soluble proelastin chains.
  10. 10. Cu deficiency:  Loss of weight  Bone disorders  Anemia  Microcytic hypochromic  Change in hair colour  Involves atrophy of myocardium  Histopathological changes in cerebrum, brainstem, and spinal cord.  Demyelinated nerves and non coordinated movements.
  11. 11. Clinical Conditions related to Cu:  Wilson’s Disease  Low serum Cu levels  Increased excretion of Cu Accumulation in:  Liver: Hepatic cirrhosis  Brain: Dysfunction of lenticular region of brain (brain necrosis)  Kidney: Aminoaciduria  Eye: Deposition in Descemet’s membrane(Kayser-Fleischer ring)
  12. 12.  Menke’s disease  Acaeroplasminaemia
  13. 13. Zinc
  14. 14.  Zinc is particularly an intracellular element.  The total content of zinc is about 2 g.  Blood contains about 650-680µg/100ml Serum Zinc:  Conc. in serum is about 100mg/dl.  Erythrocytes contain higher conc. of zinc
  15. 15. Dietary requirements:  Adults 10-15mg/day  Pregnancy & Lactation increased about 50%
  16. 16. Sources:  Meat  Fish  Eggs  Milk  Beans  Nuts
  17. 17. Absorption:  Mainly absorbed in duodenum & ileum  Animal source is better than vegetable source  Small peptides and amino acids promote Zn absorption  Inhibitors  Phytates  Phosphates  Calcium  Iron
  18. 18. Excretion:  In adult person about 9.0 mg of zinc is lost via faeces.  0.5 mg is lost in urine.  Trace amount is lost via sweat.
  19. 19. Biochemical Functions:  Role in enzyme action  Role in vitamin metabolism  Role in insulin secretion  Prevents dwarfism and hypogonadism  Role in wound healing
  20. 20. Clinical Aspect:  Acrodermatitis Enteropathica  Diabetes mellitus is related to deficiency of zinc in pancreas  Has reduced amount in leukemia  Malignancies  Atherosclerosis  Hepatic diseases
  21. 21.  Acute myocardial infarction  Sickle Anemia  Dermatitis  Helps regulatory proteins to bind with DNA
  22. 22. Superoxide Dismutase  The enzyme is found in cytosol of liver , brain and blood cells.  It contains two Cu & Zn ions each.

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