Approaches to Expert System Shan Hasan Dr. Najmi Ghani Haider Presented By Shan Hasan
Problem Definition <ul><li>Comparison of Expert System Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze different approaches to ex...
Expert System Brief Introduction <ul><li>Simple Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Expert System is computer program that...
History of Expert Systems <ul><li>DENDRAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer project in AI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help orga...
Approaches to Expert System <ul><li>Expert System based on Object Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object-objective of problem ...
Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Layers in Object Model </li></ul>
Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Problems solved by object model </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis oriented problems ...
Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Reformulation Approach to Expert System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications of...
Approaches to Expert System (contd.)
Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Implementing Reformulation model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose structure of ex...
Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Pattern Transformation Process </li></ul>
Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Other Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Road Approach to Expert System </l...
Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Other Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Road Approach to Expert System ...
Conclusion <ul><li>Best Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reformulation approach to Expert System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
References <ul><li>Expert Systems: Perils and Promise daniel g. bobrow, sanjay mittal, and mark j. stefik. </li></ul><ul><...
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Expert System

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My first Independent Study presentation at Szabist

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Expert System

  1. 1. Approaches to Expert System Shan Hasan Dr. Najmi Ghani Haider Presented By Shan Hasan
  2. 2. Problem Definition <ul><li>Comparison of Expert System Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze different approaches to expert system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose the most suitable approach </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Expert System Brief Introduction <ul><li>Simple Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Expert System is computer program that is designed to mimic the decision-making ability of a decision-maker (i.e., expert). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expert System Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inference Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. History of Expert Systems <ul><li>DENDRAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer project in AI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help organic chemists in identifying unknown molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MYCIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnose blood infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains number of heuristic rules that are used by physicians in the identification of certain infection </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Approaches to Expert System <ul><li>Expert System based on Object Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object-objective of problem solving by means of knowledge based approaches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical objects, conceptual objects, system objects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation model of such objects is “object model”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Layered Approach to represent knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Layers in Object Model </li></ul>
  7. 7. Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Problems solved by object model </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis oriented problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as medical diagnosis and trouble shooting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose hypotheses from set of hypotheses by analysis of knowledge base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synthesis oriented problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as intelligent CAD, scheduling and designing softwares. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct appropriate object by combining suitable elements under given constraints to meet the given requirements </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Reformulation Approach to Expert System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications of Knowledge is separated from problem solving procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algorithms to provide interrelationship between them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate procedure to map expert problem solving knowledge structure to input problem structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reformulation is the process of constructing between the clients naive problem description and the specialized experts knowledge. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Approaches to Expert System (contd.)
  10. 10. Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Implementing Reformulation model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose structure of expert knowledge base with reference to expert model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving procedures are constructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map construction- to apply expert structure to a particular problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Map procedures consists of transformation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply to expert structure to produce new patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Until they are matched with the input pattern. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Pattern Transformation Process </li></ul>
  12. 12. Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Other Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Road Approach to Expert System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct symbolic programming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge base is small, need not change frequently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heuristic search to the knowledge base </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Road Approach to Expert System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representation of Knowledge of some subject matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can use knowledge for other purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge processing capabilities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Approaches to Expert System (contd.) <ul><li>Other Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Road Approach to Expert System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between the two extremes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains Knowledge based but also some direct programming is also used. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on a single task and incorporate knowledge specialized for that task. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusion <ul><li>Best Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reformulation approach to Expert System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate Knowledge base and Problem solving application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is well structured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transform knowledge structure to solve unknown problems. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Expert Systems: Perils and Promise daniel g. bobrow, sanjay mittal, and mark j. stefik. </li></ul><ul><li>Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. http://www.aaai.org </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentals of Expert System http://www.usfca.edu/~villegas/classes/992-6275/6275ch12/sld018.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Systems Based on Object Model An Approach to Deep Knowledge Systems H. Ueno and Y. Oomori Department of Systems Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, </li></ul>

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