Expert System

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My first Independent Study presentation at Szabist

My first Independent Study presentation at Szabist

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  • 1. Approaches to Expert System Shan Hasan Dr. Najmi Ghani Haider Presented By Shan Hasan
  • 2. Problem Definition
    • Comparison of Expert System Approaches
      • Analyze different approaches to expert system
      • Propose the most suitable approach
  • 3. Expert System Brief Introduction
    • Simple Definition
      • An Expert System is computer program that is designed to mimic the decision-making ability of a decision-maker (i.e., expert).
    • Expert System Architecture
      • Knowledge Base
      • Inference Engine
      • Knowledge Acquisition
      • Explanation
  • 4. History of Expert Systems
    • DENDRAL
      • Pioneer project in AI
      • Help organic chemists in identifying unknown molecules
    • MYCIN
      • Diagnose blood infections
      • Contains number of heuristic rules that are used by physicians in the identification of certain infection
  • 5. Approaches to Expert System
    • Expert System based on Object Model
      • Object-objective of problem solving by means of knowledge based approaches.
      • Physical objects, conceptual objects, system objects.
      • Representation model of such objects is “object model”.
      • Uses Layered Approach to represent knowledge
  • 6. Approaches to Expert System (contd.)
    • Layers in Object Model
  • 7. Approaches to Expert System (contd.)
    • Problems solved by object model
    • Analysis oriented problems
      • Such as medical diagnosis and trouble shooting
      • Choose hypotheses from set of hypotheses by analysis of knowledge base
    • Synthesis oriented problems
      • Such as intelligent CAD, scheduling and designing softwares.
      • Construct appropriate object by combining suitable elements under given constraints to meet the given requirements
  • 8. Approaches to Expert System (contd.)
    • Reformulation Approach to Expert System
      • Applications of Knowledge is separated from problem solving procedures
      • Algorithms to provide interrelationship between them
      • Separate procedure to map expert problem solving knowledge structure to input problem structure
      • Reformulation is the process of constructing between the clients naive problem description and the specialized experts knowledge.
  • 9. Approaches to Expert System (contd.)
  • 10. Approaches to Expert System (contd.)
    • Implementing Reformulation model
      • Choose structure of expert knowledge base with reference to expert model.
      • Problem solving procedures are constructed
      • Map construction- to apply expert structure to a particular problem.
        • Map procedures consists of transformation
        • Apply to expert structure to produce new patterns
        • Until they are matched with the input pattern.
  • 11. Approaches to Expert System (contd.)
    • Pattern Transformation Process
  • 12. Approaches to Expert System (contd.)
    • Other Approaches
      • Low Road Approach to Expert System
        • Direct symbolic programming
        • Knowledge base is small, need not change frequently
        • Heuristic search to the knowledge base
      • High Road Approach to Expert System
        • Representation of Knowledge of some subject matter
        • Can use knowledge for other purpose
        • Knowledge processing capabilities.
  • 13. Approaches to Expert System (contd.)
    • Other Approaches
      • Middle Road Approach to Expert System
        • Between the two extremes
        • Contains Knowledge based but also some direct programming is also used.
        • Focused on a single task and incorporate knowledge specialized for that task.
  • 14. Conclusion
    • Best Approach
      • Reformulation approach to Expert System
        • Separate Knowledge base and Problem solving application
        • Knowledge is well structured
        • Transform knowledge structure to solve unknown problems.
  • 15. References
    • Expert Systems: Perils and Promise daniel g. bobrow, sanjay mittal, and mark j. stefik.
    • Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. http://www.aaai.org
    • Fundamentals of Expert System http://www.usfca.edu/~villegas/classes/992-6275/6275ch12/sld018.htm
    • Expert Systems Based on Object Model An Approach to Deep Knowledge Systems H. Ueno and Y. Oomori Department of Systems Engineering, Tokyo Denki University,