Fundamentals of ManagementBBA - 2009 SalmaanRahman Lecture 1 Introduction to Management Chapters 1 & 2
Who are Managers? Definition becomes more difficult with time Organizations and the business world keeps evolving Roles change with time At its simplest, companies employ two categories of people: Non-managerial employees Managerial employees What separates managerial employees from other employees?
Managers: Managers can be defined through Roles Functions Skill Authority At its simplest: Non-managerial employees work directly on a task or job. Managers are those figures to whom non-managerial employees report to
So. . . a manager is: Someone who works with and through other people to coordinate and integrate work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals. Entire organization, a department, a team, or a single person
Managers: classification Firstline Lowest Level manage the work of non-managerial employees directly (supervisors, shift managers, foremen, etc Middle All levels between firstline and top management Manage the work of firstline managers Regional, project leader, plant manager, division manager Top Executive vice president, president, CEO, Chairman Responsible for making strategic decisions, setting goals, and plans that affect entire organization
What is Management? At its simplest: Management is what managers do Management is the coordinating of work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively Efficiency: getting the most output from the least amount of imputs (doing things right) Effectiveness: doing those work activities that meet organizational goals (doing the right things) Successful organizations are those who combine high effectiveness with high efficiency.
What do Managers do? No two jobs are alike! Three basic categorization schemes: Functions Roles Skills
Management functions: Four functions Planning Organizing Leading Controlling Henri Fayol Planning Defining goals, strategy, plans Organizing What needs to be done, who does it, how it will be done, when Leading Directing and motivating all parties, resolving conflicts Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure goals are reached.
Management Roles Interpersonal Roles Figurehead, leader, Liaison Involve people Informational Roles Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson Involves information – receiving, collecting and disseminating Decisional Roles Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, allocator, negotiator Involves making choices Henry Mintzberg
Management Skills Managers jobs are varied and complex Managers require skills to perform the duties and activities required of them Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual Skills Robert L. Katz
1–13 Exhibit 1.6a Conceptual Skills Using information to solve business problems Identifying opportunities for innovation Recognizing problem areas and implementing solutions Selecting critical information from masses of data Understanding of business uses of technology Understanding of organization’s business model
Interpersonal (Human) Skills Coaching and mentoring skills Diversity skills: working with diverse people and cultures Networking within the organization Networking outside the organization Working in teams; cooperation and commitment
Communication Skills Ability to transform ideas into words and actions Credibility among colleagues, peers, and subordinates Listening and asking questions Presentation skills; spoken format Presentation skills; written and/or graphic formats
Effectiveness Skills The ability to fulfill corporate mission, departmental objectives Customer focus Multitasking: working at multiple tasks in parallel Negotiating skills Project management Review operations and implementing improvements Set and maintain performance standards Set priorities for attention and activity Time management