Lecture Organization
 Lecturing
 Group exercises
 Quizzes/Assignments/Tutorials
 Case discussion
 Case study presenta...
Grading Policy
 Grading
Assignment and Quiz
 Mini-project
 Test 1
 Test 2
 End Exam


 Mini-project
Mini-project in...
Text Books
1. Chopra, S. and Meindl, P., Supply Chain Management: Strategy,
Planning and Operation, Pearson Education, Inc...
References
1. Christopher, M., Logistics and Supply Chain Management,
Second Edition, Financial Times Professional Limited...
Introduction
 Why study Supply Chain Management?

 Operations Management
 Supply Chain Management
 Important trends
Why Study Operations and
Supply Chain Management?
Three Basic Truths
I.

Pervasiveness

II.

Interdependence

III. Profitability and Survival
1. Pervasiveness
Every organization must make a product or provide
a service that someone values………….
Manufacturer.
Retail...
2. Interdependence
Most organizations function as part of a larger
supply chain
Supplier

Manufacturer

Distributor

Retai...
Supply Chains
 Networks of manufacturers and service

providers that work together to move goods from
the raw material st...
3. Profitability and Survival

Organizations must carefully manage their
operations and supply chains to prosper, and
inde...
Operations Management

THE PLANNING, SCHEDULING,
AND CONTROL OF THE
ACTIVITIES THAT TRANSFORM
INPUTS INTO FINISHED GOODS
A...
Operations Function

The collection of people, technology, and systems
within a company ...
… that has primary responsibil...
Viewing Operations as a
Transformation Process
Transformation
Process
Manufacturing operations

Inputs
Materials
People
...
Manufacturing
 Tangible product
 Key decisions driven by physical

characteristics of the product:






How is the ...
A round watermelon needs lot of room in a refrigerator and the usually round
fruit often sits awkwardly on refrigerator sh...
Services
 Intangible “Product” or Service
 Key decisions:


How much customer involvement?



How much customization?
Cross-Functional Linkages
MIS

Finance

What IT solutions
to make it all work
together?

Budgeting.
Analysis.
Funds.

Desi...
Supply Chain Management

ACTIVE MANAGEMENT OF SUPPLY
CHAIN ACTIVITIES AND
RELATIONSHIPS TO MAXIMIZE
CUSTOMER VALUE AND ACH...
Ancient Times

The first supply chain was the barter system

Traces of outsourcing was seen when Charles S. Rolls
became s...
Understanding the
Supply Chain
Traditional View: Logistics in the Economy
(1990, 1996)
 Freight Transportation
 Inventory Expense

 Administrative Exp...
Traditional View: Logistics in the Manufacturing
Firm
 Profit
 Logistics Cost

4%
21%

 Marketing Cost

27%

 Manufact...
Supply Chain Management: The Magnitude
in the Traditional View
 Estimated that the grocery industry could save $30

billi...
Supply Chain Management:
The True Magnitude
 Compaq estimates it lost $.5 billion to $1 billion in

sales in 1995 because...
Supply Chain Management:
The True Magnitude
 SOME ESTIMATES FOR INDIA

* Logistics Spend … IN Rs. 2,40,000 crores
(approx...
Supply Chain: The Potential
 In 25 years, NDDB has enabled India to become the largest

producer of milk by implementing ...
Supply Chain: The Potential

 Dell Computer has outperformed the competition

in terms of shareholder value growth over t...
Supply Chain: The Potential
 In 10 years, Wal-Mart transformed itself by

changing its logistics system. It has the highe...
Outline
 What is a Supply Chain?
 Decision Phases in a Supply Chain
 Process View of a Supply Chain

 The Importance o...
Just a significant evolution…
 Several hundred years ago, Napolean made the

remark, “An army marches on its stomach.”
 ...
Some Definitions
Supply Chain Management encompasses every
effort involved in producing and delivering a
final product or ...
Some More Definitions
Supply Chain Management deals with the management of
materials, information, and financial flows in ...
Some More Definitions
Supply Chain Management is primarily concerned with the efficient
integration of suppliers, factorie...
What is a Supply Chain?
 All stages involved, directly or indirectly, in

fulfilling a customer request
 Includes manufa...
A picture is better than 1000 words!
How many words would be better than 3 pictures?
- A supply chain consists of
Supplier...
Example of a Supply Chain?
P&G or other
manufacturer

Plastic
Producer

Chemical
manufacturer
(e.g. Oil Company)

Third
pa...
What is a Supply Chain?
 CUSTOMER is an integral part of any supply chain
 Includes movement of products from suppliers ...
The Supply Chain
Suppliers

Manufacturers

Transportation
Costs
Material Costs

41

Warehouses &
Customers
Distribution Ce...
The Supply Chain – Another View
42

Plan

Source

Suppliers

Material Costs

Make

Manufacturers

Deliver

Buy

Warehouses...
What is Supply Chain Management (SCM)?
43
Plan

Source

Make

Deliver

Buy

 A set of approaches used to efficiently inte...
Supply chain flows

Material flow

Information flow
Fund flow
Material Flows
Upstream

Second Tier
Supplier

First Tier
Supplier

Alcoa

Ball Corp

Downstream

Distributor
Anheuser-Bus...
Wheat

Flour

Praline

Printed
materials

Confectionery
manufacturer

Fiberboard

Multiple
retailers

Wafers

Chocolate

A...
Dynamics of Material Flow

Supplier

Plant

Warehouse

Logistics

Retailer
Dynamics of Order Flow

Supplier

Plant

Warehouse

Logistics

Retailer
Supply Chain Planning Processes
Material Requirement Planning

Component
Requirement

Supplier

Demand Forecasting

Demand...
Supply Chain
Suppliers’
Suppliers

Direct
Suppliers

Producer

Distributor

Final
Consumer

Supply Chain:

 A sequence of...
A Supply Chain for Bread
Value
Added

Value of
Product

Farmer produces and harvests wheat

2.33

2.33

Wheat transported ...
The Objective of a Supply Chain
 Maximize overall value created
 Supply chain value: difference between what the

final ...
The Objective of a Supply Chain
 Example: Dell receives 30000/- from a customer for a






computer (revenue)
Supply...
The Objective of a Supply Chain
 Sources of supply chain revenue: the customer
 Sources of supply chain cost: flows of i...
Customer could be an internal
customer or an external customer

Module 1:Supply Chain Management
Process View of a Supply Chain
 Cycle view: processes in a supply chain are divided

into a series of cycles, each perfor...
Cycle I

Supplier

Manufacturer

Customer

Distributor

Retailer
Cycle III

Module 1:Supply Chain Management
Cycle View of Supply Chains
Customer
Customer Order Cycle

Retailer
Replenishment Cycle

Distributer
Manufacturing Cycle

...
Cycle View of a Supply Chain
 Each cycle occurs at the interface between two







successive stages
Customer order...
Push/Pull View of
Supply Chain Processes
 Supply chain processes fall into one of two categories

depending on the timing...
Push/Pull View of Supply Chains
Procurement,
Manufacturing and
Replenishment cycles

PUSH PROCESSES

Customer Order
Cycle
...
Push View of SCM
A push-based SCM takes longer to react to the
changing market place
In a push-based supply chain, product...
Supply Chain Integration – Push Strategies
 Classical manufacturing supply chain strategy
 Manufacturing forecasts are l...
Supply Chain Integration – Pull Strategies
 Production and distribution are demand-driven


Coordinated with true custom...
Push/Pull View of
Supply Chain Processes
 Useful in considering strategic decisions relating to

supply chain design – mo...
Supply Chain Integration – Push/Pull Strategies
 Hybrid of “push” and “pull” strategies to overcome

disadvantages of eac...
Choosing Between Push/Pull Strategies
Pull

High

Industries where:

• Customization is High
• Demand is uncertain
• Scale...
Characteristics of Push, Pull and Push/Pull Strategies

PUSH

PULL

Minimize Cost

Maximize Service Level

High

Low

Reso...
Supply Chain Macro Processes in a Firm
 Supply chain processes discussed in the two views

can be classified into




...
ISCM

SRM





Source
Negotiate
Buy
Design
collaboration
 Supply
collaboration

Customer

Firm

Supplier







...
Decision Phases of a Supply Chain
 Supply chain strategy or design
 Supply chain planning
 Supply chain operation
Supply Chain Decisions

STRATEGIC
TACTICAL
OPERATIONAL

Procurement Manufacturing

Distribution

Logistics
Supply Chain Strategy or Design
 Decisions about the structure of the supply chain and

what processes each stage will pe...
Supply Chain Planning
 Planning decisions:
 Which markets will be supplied from which locations
 Planned buildup of inv...
Supply Chain Operation
 Time horizon is weekly or daily
 Decisions regarding individual customer orders
 Supply chain c...
Supply Chain Decisions
•Allocation of
Suppliers to the
Plants

•Location, Number,
Capacity of Plants
•What Products to
Pro...
Supply chain mngt
Supply chain mngt
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Supply chain mngt

  1. 1. Lecture Organization  Lecturing  Group exercises  Quizzes/Assignments/Tutorials  Case discussion  Case study presentations
  2. 2. Grading Policy  Grading Assignment and Quiz  Mini-project  Test 1  Test 2  End Exam   Mini-project Mini-project in supply chain  Presentation on a relevant topic on supply chain  10% 10% 15% 15% 50%
  3. 3. Text Books 1. Chopra, S. and Meindl, P., Supply Chain Management: Strategy, Planning and Operation, Pearson Education, Inc., Singapore, Second Edition, 2004. 2. Bozarth, C.C. and Handfield, R. B., Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, Pearson Education, 2006. 3. Simchi-Levi, D., Kaminsky, P., Simchi-Levi, E., and Ravi Shankar, Designing and Managing the supply chain, Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, New Delhi, 2008. 4. Shah, J., Supply chain management: Text and Cases. New Delhi: Pearson Education, 2009. 5. Shapiro, J.F., Modelling the supply chain, Second Edition, Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2007. 6. Dobler, D. W. and Burt, D. N., Purchasing and Supply Management: Text and Cases, Sixth Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 1996. 7. Tersine, R. J., Principles of Inventory and Materials Management, Fourth Edition, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 1994.
  4. 4. References 1. Christopher, M., Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Second Edition, Financial Times Professional Limited, 1998. 2. Narasimhan, S. L., McLeavy, D. W. and Billington, P. J., Production Planning and Inventory Control, Second Edition, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, 1995. 3. Raghuram, G. and Rangaraj, N., Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Cases and Concepts, Macmillan India Limited, New Delhi, 2000. 4. Arnold, J. R. T. and Chapman, S. N., Introduction to Materials Management, Fourth Edition, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1998. 5. Burt, Dobler and Starling, World Class Supply Management: Key to Supply Chain Management, Tata McGraw-Hill, 7th Edition, 2003.
  5. 5. Introduction  Why study Supply Chain Management?  Operations Management  Supply Chain Management  Important trends
  6. 6. Why Study Operations and Supply Chain Management?
  7. 7. Three Basic Truths I. Pervasiveness II. Interdependence III. Profitability and Survival
  8. 8. 1. Pervasiveness Every organization must make a product or provide a service that someone values…………. Manufacturer. Retailer. Design firm. University. Health services.
  9. 9. 2. Interdependence Most organizations function as part of a larger supply chain Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Upstream Downstream Customer
  10. 10. Supply Chains  Networks of manufacturers and service providers that work together to move goods from the raw material stage through to the end user  Linked through physical, information, and monetary flows
  11. 11. 3. Profitability and Survival Organizations must carefully manage their operations and supply chains to prosper, and indeed, survive!
  12. 12. Operations Management THE PLANNING, SCHEDULING, AND CONTROL OF THE ACTIVITIES THAT TRANSFORM INPUTS INTO FINISHED GOODS AND SERVICES
  13. 13. Operations Function The collection of people, technology, and systems within a company ... … that has primary responsibility ... … for providing the organization’s products and/or services.
  14. 14. Viewing Operations as a Transformation Process Transformation Process Manufacturing operations Inputs Materials People Equipment Intangible needs Information Outputs Service operations Tangible goods Fulfilled requests Information Satisfied Customers
  15. 15. Manufacturing  Tangible product  Key decisions driven by physical characteristics of the product:     How is the product made? How do we store it? How do we move it? Etc.
  16. 16. A round watermelon needs lot of room in a refrigerator and the usually round fruit often sits awkwardly on refrigerator shelves. Smart Japanese Farmers have forced their watermelons to grow into a square-shape by inserting the melons into square, tempered glass cases while the fruit is still growing on the vine. “Cuboid Watermelon”
  17. 17. Services  Intangible “Product” or Service  Key decisions:  How much customer involvement?  How much customization?
  18. 18. Cross-Functional Linkages MIS Finance What IT solutions to make it all work together? Budgeting. Analysis. Funds. Design Sustainability. Quality. Manufacturability. Operations and Supply Chain Accounting Performance measurement systems. Planning and control. Human Resources Skills? Training? # of Employees? Marketing What products? What volumes? Costs? Quality? Delivery?
  19. 19. Supply Chain Management ACTIVE MANAGEMENT OF SUPPLY CHAIN ACTIVITIES AND RELATIONSHIPS TO MAXIMIZE CUSTOMER VALUE AND ACHIEVE A SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
  20. 20. Ancient Times The first supply chain was the barter system Traces of outsourcing was seen when Charles S. Rolls became selling agent for cars made by F. Henry Royce 1904 The essence of SCM was understood with the first phase characterized as an inventory ‘push’ era that focused primarily on physical distribution of finished goods 1960-1975 Companies began migrating from an inventory push to a customer pull channel 1975-1990 1980 Emergence of SCM 1985- WalMart introduced the concept of Cross Docking 19961998- Internet revolutionized the distribution system of the business Concept of e-commerce changed the definition of business Module 1:Supply Chain Management
  21. 21. Understanding the Supply Chain
  22. 22. Traditional View: Logistics in the Economy (1990, 1996)  Freight Transportation  Inventory Expense  Administrative Expense  Logistics Related Activity Source: Cass Logistics $352, $455 Billion $221, $311 Billion $27, $31 Billion 11%, 10.5% of GNP
  23. 23. Traditional View: Logistics in the Manufacturing Firm  Profit  Logistics Cost 4% 21%  Marketing Cost 27%  Manufacturing Cost 48% Profit Logistics Cost Marketing Cost Manufacturing Cost
  24. 24. Supply Chain Management: The Magnitude in the Traditional View  Estimated that the grocery industry could save $30 billion (10% of operating cost) by using effective logistics and supply chain strategies   A typical box of cereal spends 104 days from factory to sale A typical car spends 15 days from factory to dealership  Laura Ashley turns its inventory 10 times a year, five times faster than 3 years ago
  25. 25. Supply Chain Management: The True Magnitude  Compaq estimates it lost $.5 billion to $1 billion in sales in 1995 because laptops were not available when and where needed  P&G estimates that it saved $65 million retail customers by collaboration resulting in a better match of supply and demand  Boeing Aircraft, one of America’s leading capital goods producers, was forced to announce writedowns of $2.6 billion in October 1997. The reason? “Raw material shortages, internal and supplier parts shortages…”. (Wall Street Journal, Oct. 23, 1997)
  26. 26. Supply Chain Management: The True Magnitude  SOME ESTIMATES FOR INDIA * Logistics Spend … IN Rs. 2,40,000 crores (approx. US $ 50 Billion) * Share of GDP …….…… 12-13 % * Major Elements are ( Percentage of Total) * Transportation ……… * Inventories ……… * Packaging ……… * Handling & Warehousing ….. * Others & Losses ……… 35 25 11 9 14
  27. 27. Supply Chain: The Potential  In 25 years, NDDB has enabled India to become the largest producer of milk by implementing a logistics and supply chain system that has eliminated several intermediaries, thereby leading to a much higher remunerative price (yield) for producers and lower price for consumers.  As described in the FORBES magazine, the Dabbawalas of Mumbai has achieved an extremely high level of reliability and precision (SIX SIGMA level in QA) in delivering to their customers the products earmarked for them.
  28. 28. Supply Chain: The Potential  Dell Computer has outperformed the competition in terms of shareholder value growth over the eight years period, 1988-1996, by over 3,000% using - Direct business model - BTO (Build-to-Order) strategy.
  29. 29. Supply Chain: The Potential  In 10 years, Wal-Mart transformed itself by changing its logistics system. It has the highest sales per square foot, inventory turnover and operating profit of any discount retailer.
  30. 30. Outline  What is a Supply Chain?  Decision Phases in a Supply Chain  Process View of a Supply Chain  The Importance of Supply Chain Flows  Examples of Supply Chains
  31. 31. Just a significant evolution…  Several hundred years ago, Napolean made the remark, “An army marches on its stomach.”  Unless the soldiers are fed, the army cannot move.  Term “supply chain management” arose in the late 1980s and came into widespread use in 1990s.  Prior – ‘Logistics’ and ‘operations management’
  32. 32. Some Definitions Supply Chain Management encompasses every effort involved in producing and delivering a final product or service, from the supplier’s supplier to the customer’s customer. Supply Chain Management includes managing supply and demand, sourcing raw materials and parts, manufacturing and assembly, warehousing and inventory tracking, order entry and order management, distribution across all channels, and delivery to the customer. The Supply Chain Council, U.S.A.
  33. 33. Some More Definitions Supply Chain Management deals with the management of materials, information, and financial flows in a network consisting of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and customers. Stanford Supply Chain Forum Logistics involves “managing the flow of items, information, cash and ideas through the coordination of supply chain processes and through the strategic addition of place, period and pattern values. MIT Center for Transportation and Logistics
  34. 34. Some More Definitions Supply Chain Management is primarily concerned with the efficient integration of suppliers, factories, warehouses and stores so that merchandise is produced and distributed in the right quantities, to the right locations and at the right time, and so as to minimize total system cost subject to satisfying service requirements. Simchi-Levi Call it distribution or logistics or supply chain management. By whatever name, it is the sinuous, gritty, and cumbersome process by which companies move, materials, parts, and products to customers. Fortune (1994)
  35. 35. What is a Supply Chain?  All stages involved, directly or indirectly, in fulfilling a customer request  Includes manufacturers, suppliers, transporters, warehouses, retailers, and customers  Within each company, the supply chain includes all functions involved in fulfilling a customer request (product development, marketing, operations, distribution, finance, customer service)
  36. 36. A picture is better than 1000 words! How many words would be better than 3 pictures? - A supply chain consists of Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Upstream Customer Downstream - Aims to Match Supply and Demand, profitably for products and services SUPPLY SIDE DEMAND SIDE - Achieves The right Product + The right Price + + The right The right Store Quantity + The right Customer + The right Time = Higher Profits
  37. 37. Example of a Supply Chain? P&G or other manufacturer Plastic Producer Chemical manufacturer (e.g. Oil Company) Third party DC Tenneco Packaging Paper Manufacturer Supermarket Customer wants detergent and goes to Supermarket Chemical manufacturer (e.g. Oil Company) Timber Industry
  38. 38. What is a Supply Chain?  CUSTOMER is an integral part of any supply chain  Includes movement of products from suppliers to manufacturers to distributors, but also includes movement of information, funds, and products in both directions  Probably more accurate to use the term “supply network” or “supply web”  All stages may not be present in all supply chains (e.g., no retailer or distributor for Dell computer) 1-40
  39. 39. The Supply Chain Suppliers Manufacturers Transportation Costs Material Costs 41 Warehouses & Customers Distribution Centers Transportation Costs Manufacturing Costs Transportation Costs Inventory Costs
  40. 40. The Supply Chain – Another View 42 Plan Source Suppliers Material Costs Make Manufacturers Deliver Buy Warehouses & Customers Distribution Centers Transportation Transportation Costs Transportation Costs Manufacturing Costs Inventory Costs Costs
  41. 41. What is Supply Chain Management (SCM)? 43 Plan Source Make Deliver Buy  A set of approaches used to efficiently integrate     Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses Distribution centers  So that the product is produced and distributed    In the right quantities To the right locations And at the right time  System-wide costs are minimized and  Service level requirements are satisfied
  42. 42. Supply chain flows Material flow Information flow Fund flow
  43. 43. Material Flows Upstream Second Tier Supplier First Tier Supplier Alcoa Ball Corp Downstream Distributor Anheuser-Busch M&M Transportation companies Retailer Meijer Final customers
  44. 44. Wheat Flour Praline Printed materials Confectionery manufacturer Fiberboard Multiple retailers Wafers Chocolate Aluminium Packing Wholesalers End customers Others (hospital etc.) Creamery (milk) Cocoa beans Sugar Vegetable oil Cocoa butter Lecithin Emulsifiers, Salt, etc.
  45. 45. Dynamics of Material Flow Supplier Plant Warehouse Logistics Retailer
  46. 46. Dynamics of Order Flow Supplier Plant Warehouse Logistics Retailer
  47. 47. Supply Chain Planning Processes Material Requirement Planning Component Requirement Supplier Demand Forecasting Demand Planning Production Plan Plant Warehouse Logistics Order Management Retailer
  48. 48. Supply Chain Suppliers’ Suppliers Direct Suppliers Producer Distributor Final Consumer Supply Chain:  A sequence of activities  organizations involved in producing  delivering a good or service 1-50
  49. 49. A Supply Chain for Bread Value Added Value of Product Farmer produces and harvests wheat 2.33 2.33 Wheat transported to mill 1.24 3.57 Mill produces flour 2.33 5.90 Flour transported to baker 1.25 7.15 Baker produces bread 8.35 15.50 Bread transported to grocery store 1.25 16.75 Grocery store displays and sells bread 3.25 20.00 Total Value-Added 20.00 Stage of Production 1-51
  50. 50. The Objective of a Supply Chain  Maximize overall value created  Supply chain value: difference between what the final product is worth to the customer and the effort the supply chain expends in filling the customer’s request  Value is correlated to supply chain profitability (difference between revenue generated from the customer and the overall cost across the supply chain)
  51. 51. The Objective of a Supply Chain  Example: Dell receives 30000/- from a customer for a     computer (revenue) Supply chain incurs costs (information, storage, transportation, components, assembly, etc.) Difference between 30000/- and the sum of all of these costs is the supply chain profit Supply chain profitability is total profit to be shared across all stages of the supply chain Supply chain success should be measured by total supply chain profitability, not profits at an individual stage 1-53
  52. 52. The Objective of a Supply Chain  Sources of supply chain revenue: the customer  Sources of supply chain cost: flows of information, products, or funds between stages of the supply chain  Supply chain management is the management of flows between and among supply chain stages to maximize total supply chain profitability
  53. 53. Customer could be an internal customer or an external customer Module 1:Supply Chain Management
  54. 54. Process View of a Supply Chain  Cycle view: processes in a supply chain are divided into a series of cycles, each performed at the interfaces between two successive supply chain stages  Push/pull view: processes in a supply chain are divided into two categories depending on whether they are executed in response to a customer order (pull) or in anticipation of a customer order (push)
  55. 55. Cycle I Supplier Manufacturer Customer Distributor Retailer Cycle III Module 1:Supply Chain Management
  56. 56. Cycle View of Supply Chains Customer Customer Order Cycle Retailer Replenishment Cycle Distributer Manufacturing Cycle Manufacturer Procurement Cycle Supplier
  57. 57. Cycle View of a Supply Chain  Each cycle occurs at the interface between two      successive stages Customer order cycle (customer-retailer) Replenishment cycle (retailer-distributor) Manufacturing cycle (distributor-manufacturer) Procurement cycle (manufacturer-supplier) Cycle view clearly defines processes involved and the owners of each process. Specifies the roles and responsibilities of each member and the desired outcome of each process.
  58. 58. Push/Pull View of Supply Chain Processes  Supply chain processes fall into one of two categories depending on the timing of their execution relative to customer demand  Pull: execution is initiated in response to a customer order (reactive)  Push: execution is initiated in anticipation of customer orders (speculative)  Push/pull boundary separates push processes from pull processes
  59. 59. Push/Pull View of Supply Chains Procurement, Manufacturing and Replenishment cycles PUSH PROCESSES Customer Order Cycle PULL PROCESSES Customer Order Arrives
  60. 60. Push View of SCM A push-based SCM takes longer to react to the changing market place In a push-based supply chain, production decisions are usually based on long-term forecasts In push-based strategies, SCM experience increased transportation costs, high inventory Pull View of SCM levels and high manufacturing costs In a pull-based supply chain, manufacturing is demand driven so that it is coordinated with actual external customer demand rather than a forecast Lead-time reduction occurs as the variabilities are better monitored in pull-based SCM Pull-based systems are often difficult to implement when lead times are so long that it is impractical to react to demand information Module 1:Supply Chain Management
  61. 61. Supply Chain Integration – Push Strategies  Classical manufacturing supply chain strategy  Manufacturing forecasts are long-range  Orders from retailers’ warehouses  Longer response time to react to marketplace changes   Unable to meet changing demand patterns Supply chain inventory becomes obsolete as demand for certain products disappears  Increased variability (Bullwhip effect) leading to:     Large inventory safety stocks Larger and more variably sized production batches Unacceptable service levels Inventory obsolescence  Inefficient use of production facilities (factories)   How is demand determined? Peak? Average? How is transportation capacity determined?  Examples: Auto industry, large appliances, others? 63
  62. 62. Supply Chain Integration – Pull Strategies  Production and distribution are demand-driven  Coordinated with true customer demand  None or little inventory held  Only in response to specific orders  Fast information flow mechanisms  POS data  Decreased lead times  Decreased retailer inventory  Decreased variability in the supply chain and especially at     manufacturers Decreased manufacturer inventory More efficient use of resources More difficult to take advantage of scale opportunities Examples: Dell, Amazon 64
  63. 63. Push/Pull View of Supply Chain Processes  Useful in considering strategic decisions relating to supply chain design – more global view of how supply chain processes relate to customer orders  The relative proportion of push and pull processes can have an impact on supply chain performance
  64. 64. Supply Chain Integration – Push/Pull Strategies  Hybrid of “push” and “pull” strategies to overcome disadvantages of each  Early stages of product assembly are done in a “push” manner   Partial assembly of product based on aggregate demand forecasts (which are more accurate than individual product demand forecasts) Uncertainty is reduced so safety stock inventory is lower  Final product assembly is done based on customer demand for specific product configurations  Supply chain timeline determines “push-pull boundary” PushPull Boundary “Generic” Product Push Strategy Raw Materials “Customized” Product Pull Strategy Supply Chain Timeline End Consumer 66
  65. 65. Choosing Between Push/Pull Strategies Pull High Industries where: • Customization is High • Demand is uncertain • Scale economies are Low Demand Uncertainty Industries where: • Demand is uncertain • Scale economies are High • Low economies of scale Push Furniture Industries where: Industries where: • Uncertainty is low • Low economies of scale • Push-pull supply chain • Standard processes are the norm • Demand is stable • Scale economies are High Low Low Pull  Automobile?  Aircraft? Computer equipment Books, CD’s Where do the following industries fit in this model:  Fashion?  Petroleum refining?  Pharmaceuticals?  Biotechnology?  Medical Devices? Grocery, Beverages Economies of Scale High Push Source: Simchi-Levi 67
  66. 66. Characteristics of Push, Pull and Push/Pull Strategies PUSH PULL Minimize Cost Maximize Service Level High Low Resource Allocation Responsiveness Lead Time Long Short Processes Supply Chain Planning Order Fulfillment Objective Complexity Focus Source: Simchi-Levi 68
  67. 67. Supply Chain Macro Processes in a Firm  Supply chain processes discussed in the two views can be classified into    Customer Relationship Management (CRM)- interface between the firm and its customers Internal Supply Chain Management (ISCM) – internal to the firm Supplier Relationship Management (SRM) - interface between the firm and its suppliers
  68. 68. ISCM SRM     Source Negotiate Buy Design collaboration  Supply collaboration Customer Firm Supplier      Strategic planning Demand planning Supply planning Fulfillment Field service CRM      Market Price Sell Call center Order management  Integration among the above three macro processes is critical for effective and successful supply chain management
  69. 69. Decision Phases of a Supply Chain  Supply chain strategy or design  Supply chain planning  Supply chain operation
  70. 70. Supply Chain Decisions STRATEGIC TACTICAL OPERATIONAL Procurement Manufacturing Distribution Logistics
  71. 71. Supply Chain Strategy or Design  Decisions about the structure of the supply chain and what processes each stage will perform  Strategic supply chain decisions  Locations and capacities of facilities  Products to be made or stored at various locations  Modes of transportation  Information systems  Supply chain design must support strategic objectives  Supply chain design decisions are long-term and expensive to reverse – must take into account market uncertainty
  72. 72. Supply Chain Planning  Planning decisions:  Which markets will be supplied from which locations  Planned buildup of inventories  Subcontracting, backup locations  Inventory policies  Timing and size of market promotions  Must consider in planning decisions demand uncertainty, exchange rates, competition over the time horizon
  73. 73. Supply Chain Operation  Time horizon is weekly or daily  Decisions regarding individual customer orders  Supply chain configuration is fixed and operating policies are determined  Goal is to implement the operating policies as effectively as possible  Allocate orders to inventory or production, set order due dates, generate pick lists at a warehouse, allocate an order to a particular shipment, set delivery schedules, place replenishment orders  Much less uncertainty (short time horizon)
  74. 74. Supply Chain Decisions •Allocation of Suppliers to the Plants •Location, Number, Capacity of Plants •What Products to Produce •Which Plants to Produce them • Procurement Policy •Warehouse Allocation • Inventory Decisions • Manufacturing Policy • Customer Allocation • Distribution Policy • Production Schedule •Scheduling on Machines • Workload Balancing • Finished Goods Inventory • Supplier Selection Procurement Manufacturing •Location, Number, Size of Warehouses • Mode of Shipment • Port Selection Distribution • Vehicle Routing • Fleet Size • Vehicle Routing Logistics
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