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# Mountains%2c earthquakes%2c volcanoes notes

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• 1. Name_________________ Mountains, Earthquakes, andVolcanoesS6E5. Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth’s surface isformed. c. Describe processes that change rocks and the surface of the earth. Plate Boundaries 3 Kinds of Plate Boundaries o _______________ o _______________ o _______________StressDue mostly to plate movements, the earth’s crust is under a lot of stress.There are 3 types: o “A” occurs where plates pull apart, divergent boundaries, and is called _____________________ o “B” occurs where plates converge, and is called ___________ o “C” occurs where plates move past each other, at transform fault boundaries and is called ____________________StrainStress leads to strain on the crust which bends it. If it is warm, under the ground, itcan bend. The features are called _________.Upturned folds are _________________ while downturned folds are ___________.Label
• 2. Or the rock may break, if it is brittle. This causes _____________ –breaks of theearth.Different faultsFaults move in different ways, depending on the type of stress on them. Remember “3”types form. 1. ________________________ 2. ________________________ 3. ________________________Plate Tectonic and Mountain FormationThe most common types of mountains: 1. ____________________: from when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward –Ural Mountains (Russian) 2. ____________________: form when tension causes land to drop down – Teton Range (USA) 3. ____________________: molten material rises to the Earth’s surface and erupts on the surface - Mount Kilimanjaro (Africa)Mountain FormationMountains can be a result of: 1. ___________________________ (Himalayan Mountains; Alps in Europe) 2. ______________________ (Mount Kilimanjaro-Africa; Parícutin-Mexico) 3. ______________________ (Mauna Kea- Hawaiian Islands) 4. ______________________ (Andes Mountains) 5. ______________________ (Mt. Oraefajokull -Iceland: Mid-Atlantic Ridge)Continent-Continent CollisionWhen ____________________ crust pushes against ____________________crust both sides of the convergent boundary have the same properties.
• 3. Neither side of the boundary wants to sink beneath the other side, and as a result thetwo plates ________________________________ and the crust buckles andcracks, __________________ (and down into the mantle), forming ______________________________________________Examples: 1. ___________________________ 2. ___________________________Basic Earthquake Facts Mostly happen along/on _____________________________ ____________________ can record earthquakes from all over the world above 2.5-3 on magnitudescale ___________________________________________________Earthquakes _____________________ – The shaking and trembling that results from the sudden movement of part of the Earth’s crust Scientists predict over ________________________ earthquakes happen each year ________________________ is most common reason for EarthquakesFukushima’s EarthquakeAn earthquake shook Fukushima in 11th March 2011. It caused a _______________.Tsunamis Also called _________________________ Large ocean waves caused by an ________________________________ Ocean floor _______________________________________________. Can also be caused by a ______________________________________. Remember this huge wave is caused ________________________________ They can travel at speeds of _____________________- MPH
• 4. They can reach heights of ____________ (the height of a 6 Story Building)Seismic Waves Earthquake waves are known as ___________________________ ____________- The point beneath the Earth’s surface where rocks break and move The focus is the point of origin for the earthquake ______________________- Directly above the focus on the Earth’s surface Earthquake waves reach the epicenter first__________________________- “P-waves”: Seismic waves that travel the __________________ They arrive at a given point before any other type of wave They travel through: _____________, ____________, ____________ They move through the Earth differently depending on the material they are traveling through As they move deeper into the Earth, where it is more dense, they move faster They are _________________________________Secondary Waves___________________ – Seismic waves that do not travel through the Earth as fastas P-waves doS-waves arrive at a given point after P-waves doS-waves travel through ____________________ but not liquids and gasesSurface Waves  L-waves: They are the ____________________________________They ___________________________________________________________
• 5.  They start at the epicenter and move along the Earth’s surface  Earth’s surface _____________________________ like water waves do  They ___________________________ to the Earth because they bend and twist the surfaceSeismograph____________________ – An instrument that detects and measures seismic wavesConsists of:A weight attached to a spring or wireA pen attached to the weight that records the movement of the Earth on a paper, thatis wound tightly around a constantly moving drum________________________________ – Scientists who study earthquakes They can determine the strength of an earthquake by studying the height of the waves They look at a ____________________________ They match the seismogram to a chart called the _______________________ o Invented in 1935 o The scale is from one to ten, with any earthquake above 6 being very destructiveList one of the major world Earthquakes ________________Earthquakes may cause: 1. ____________________________ 2. ____________________________ 3. ____________________________ 4. ____________________________ 5. ___________________________These can also result from earthquake ___________________________
• 6. Volcanoes  ________________________________________________________. o Caused by ________________________ along boundaries. o Occur at both ________________________________________.Formation____________________: Rock deep within Earth High temperature High Pressure Liquid State Found in pockets called _________________________________________________ constantly moves and works its way through crackstoward the surface by ______________________________________________________ – Magma that has reached the Earth’s SurfaceThe place where magma becomes lava is called a _________________________The opening through which lava erupts is called a ____________________ Volcanoes can have more than one vent Lava will poor from the sides of a volcano as well as the topAll ___________________form from an expulsion of materials from deep within theearth in the form of enormous amounts of _________________________________________________________________________________________________.All are not AlikeSome are ________________________ Lava oozes from a vent
• 7. Others are _______________________ With lava and other material hurled hundreds of feet in the air Gases and earth material mix to be seen from miles awayThe opening through which lava erupts is called a ____________________ Volcanoes can have more than one vent Lava will poor from the sides of a volcano as well as the topTypes of Volcanic EruptionsTwo factors determine the type of eruption:  Amount of __________________________________in the magma  The ___________________________________ of the magmaEruptionsDuring eruptions many rock fragments are blown into the air Smallest = ______________________ Medium = ______________________ Largest = _______________________Small volcanic bombs the size of golf balls are called ____________________________ (_______________): mixture of ash, eroded land, and waterflowing down river valleys________________:_______________, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide,hydrogen sulfide, chlorineTypes ofVolcanoes Different types of volcanic eruptions form different types of volcanoes 1. ______________________ - made mostly of ______________ and other rock particles that have been blown into the air Form from explosive eruptions Cones are not high Narrow base & steep sides
• 8. 2. _______________________ – composed of mostly quiet lava flows Gently sloping, domed shaped mountain forms 3. _____________________ – Built up of alternating layers of rock particles and lava First is a violent eruption Then a quiet eruption After many alternating eruptions a cone shape is formedVolcano Visuals______________________– volcanic cone made up of layers of hardened lava______________________– volcanic cone made up of rock particles, dust and ash.______________________– volcanic cone made up of alternating layers of lava androck particles.Volcano AnatomyAt the top of a funnel-shaped pit or depression is a pit: ___________________If it becomes to large it is called a __________________________________: the above ground structure built from lava and/or tephra
• 9. _________________: a smaller secondary volcano built on the side of or near the main volcano, but sharing the same conduit to the magma chamber_____________: a secondary vent that emitsonly gases_______________: the path that magma takes from the magma chamber to the vent__________________: a long fissure (crack) from which lava flowsScientists study the makeup of the lava that spews from the __________________to gain knowledge about the interior magmaLabelTypes of Lava Dark-colored/ Water Light-colored/ little Water Chemical composition of both Large amounts of gases Steam and carbon dioxide
• 10. 3 Types of Lava 1. _______________________:  Hot, thin, fast flowing  harden with a relatively smooth surface  Often has a ropy or wrinkled appearance 2. ________________________:  Cooler, thicker, slow moving  Hardens with a rough, jagged, sharp edge surface 3. ________________________:  Lava suddenly cooled by water  shows sack-like segments (stuffed pillows)Ring of Fire A chain of volcanoes located in the _____________ OceanHot SpotsA part of the mantle is REALLY hot and magma is forced up to the surface Creates islands.(Example: Hawaiian Islands)Magma that may originate in the ___________________________________,breaking the surface and forming a volcano, they are independent of plate boundariesand a chain of volcanoes may form as the _______________________________.Three Major Zones Nearly all the way around the edge of the Pacific Ocean: ________________ Near the Mediterranean Sea: ______________________ Third Extends through Iceland to the middle of the Atlantic Ocean ______________________ – Long ridge of volcanoes
• 11. Volcano Activity Levels (Stages) 1. ________________ (awake): Has erupted within recent time and can erupt again at any time.Pre-eruption activities: Increase in _________________________- under the cone increase in temperature of cone, __________________________-of ice/snow in the crater swelling of the cone __________________________________ __________________________________2. __________________ (sleeping): _______eruption within recent times, but there is record of past eruptions Can become ___________________________after a “wake up” period Example: Mt. Rainier3. ______________________:  _________________________within recorded history  _______________________________________________  Example: Mount Mazama (Crater Lake)Make the Plate Boundary Chart. 1. Fill in the types of boundaries; 2. The faults associated with each; 3. The type of stress; 4. The results