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Rapporteur summary slides wednesday

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    Rapporteur summary slides wednesday Rapporteur summary slides wednesday Presentation Transcript

    • Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell, Guangwen Tang Taking Stock of the Evidence: What we know Bioconversion Reference Maize: β-carotene 3:1 Animal Study Howe, J Nutr 2006 2.8:1 Davis et al., BJN 2008 α-carotene 5.5:1 β-cryptoxanthin Tanumihardjo, J Nutr 2005 Maize (n=5) 6.5:1 Human Study Li et al., AJCN 2010 (n=8) 3.2:1 Muzhingi et al FASEB J 2010 Golden Rice (n=5) 3.8:1 Tang et al., AJCN 2009 (n=24, children) 2.0:1 Tang et al., FASEB J 2010 Carrot (n=7) 15:1 Tang et al., AJCN 2005 Spinach (n=14) 21:1 Tang et al., AJCN 2005 F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell, Guangwen Tang Taking Stock of the Evidence: What we know The effectiveness of OFSP for improving vitamin A Effectiveness status in preschool children has been demonstrated F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell, Guangwen Tang Gaps & Constraints Target groups and indicators of vitamin A status should be chosen carefully to optimize chances of demonstrating efficacy or effectiveness Children: 6-24 mo and 2-5 y Target Population: High risk VAD Women: pregnant and lactating Dark adaptation Indicator : Appropriate to measure change in vitamin A status BreastmilkLOBAL C ONFERENCE F IRST G retinol concentration ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Serum retinol concentration Serum retinol concentration homeostatically controlled; not an optimal indicator of change in vitamin A status Serum retinol concentration declines transiently in infection; difficult to interpret; high infection rates in target populations Olson, 1981 F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell, Guangwen Tang How do we maximize impact and speed delivery? Win the community support!!! Large scale community efficacy intervention trials will bring the new crops to the community daily life, gain first-hand health impact information, and promote the acceptance F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
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    • Progress and challenges in iron and zinc biofortification: status • Genetic variability of selected staples has been documented • Minimum targets for iron and zinc levels based on consumption, requirements and bioavailability have been set (30-40% EAR) • New high iron and zinc varieties under development • Consumption patterns and human bioavailability conducted in target populations F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Major challenge is to demonstrate improved absorption and efficacy • High level of absorption inhibitors in cereals and legumes with no enhancers • In absorption studies biofortified staples increased mg Zn absorbed but not Iron mg absorbed • No demonstration of efficacy with zinc-biofortified crops (no sensitive biomarker) • Proof of concept for iron biofortification (Philippines rice study) still needs to demonstrate reduced prevalence of iron deficiency in target populations • Time frame to scientific consensus may be10-20 years F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • The Way Forward • Improvement of efficacy protocols (i.e. better control of infection, biomarkers, functional outcomes) • Reconsider breeding for low phytate (particularly for iron) • Iron levels in wheat and rice relatively low; genetic engineering should be further considered F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
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    • Building Public Trust in Transgenic Biofortified Crops • All scientific evidence in favour of biofortification is merely reality. Resistance isn't based on reality but on perceptions. • The fear of a risk is inversely correlated to actual hazard. • In a high-stress/highly controversial environment, empathy is the number one dimension: – “Do you care what I care about?” – Other factors include competence/expertise, honesty/transparency, cultural interpretation, etc. • In high-stress situations, people can only process a maximum of three points. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Building Public Trust in Transgenic Biofortified Crops • Important to consider – Messages – Messenger – Means that we use to communicate • Be prepared with message: there’s no longer any time to react – Be the first with the messages – Use the same messages consistently to build trust F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Building Public Trust in Transgenic Biofortified Crops • Scientific research will not carry the day, people will rely on who they trust, opinions of trusted peers – Build a credibility ladder using three or more additional sources who support your work • Media will help generate awareness and interest but it takes interpersonal communication to influence evaluation, social trial and decision F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
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    • Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • The ultimate goal of HarvestPlus is to increase the density of bioavailable Zn, Fe and Vitamin A in staple foods. • Session dealt with: – Large areas of Zn deficient calcareous soils in regions where malnourished persons reside. • India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, western US, Australia, etc. • Significant yield loss as well as Zn poor crops – Fertilization to increase crop Zn and Se – Agronomic management (fertilizers, cultivars, cropping) to prevent high levels of crop Cd and As. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • Repeated production of crops for centuries depletes soils of available Zn. 5 t wheat grain/ha times 25 mg Zn/kg dry grain = 125 g Zn/ha-yr. – Zn deficient soils have only about 1000 g plant available Zn (DTPA-extr.)/ha. – Ultimately have to add Zn to deficient soils even if we use breeding to improve Zn in edible crop portions. – Added Zn is converted to unavailable forms over time. – Grain Zn response to soil-applied Zn is slight. – Grain Zn response to foliar Zn can be significant. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • One problem with Zn biofortification is that the Zn ends up in the aleurone layer which is removed during milling. – Foliar Zn during late grain fill increased endosperm Zn enough to significantly improve flour Zn. – Still need technology to increase Zn sink in endosperm of cereals; with Zn fertilization and genetic endosperm storage, can achieve nutritional goals. – Need limits on Cd in Zn fertilizers enforced in developing nations; extreme case with Cd in Chinese Zn product; affected many nations and others unknown. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • Se fertilization of alkaline soils can increase crop Se. – Se added to livestock diets provides needed Se in human diets. – Alternative is supplements or biofortified foods. – High Se natural wheat does not command higher price in market even though it has clearly been available from Dakotas and Canada. • Cd and As in crops is a minor problem compared to malnutrition due to low bioavailable Fe and Zn in crops. – Low rice Fe and Zn strongly increases Cd bioavailability in rice diets. – Market limits on Cd in durum wheat, and single dominant gene which halves grain Cd led to adoption of low Cd genotype to keep market. – Cd contamination of rice soils in Asia continues due to poor regs. May require phytoextraction to remove Cd to allow safe rice production: Japan, Chain, Thailand, Korea. Low Cd cultivars can help with problem. – As in cooking and drinking water much more important than As in rice; do not recommend breeding for lower As in rice except for polluted Bangladeshi and Indian fields. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
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    • Navigating the Regulatory System: Lessons learned from Golden Rice by Gerard Barry • Golden Rice Progress - Carotenoid levels upto 25ug/g • Leading Countries have policies that support the use of modern biotechnology for national development (e.g. India, Philippines, Indonesia, China) • An integrated approach to Hazards Assessment and characterization involved in producing new GM varieties • Way forward: efficacy , bioavailability and consumer acceptance studies planned for the next few years. • Planned first release and launch of Golden rice in early 2013. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Consumer Acceptance and Delivery of Biofortified Maize in Zambia: by Victor Manyong and Marx Mbunji • Maize Varieties with 8ppm Vitamin A are already in the pipeline. Goal is to reach 15ppm. • Results show that acceptability of Maize is enhanced when there is a message through radio or Community information • Contrary to low acceptance of yellow maize, consumers ready to accept orange maize when there is a Nutrition Message. • How to keep track of the different fortification interventions? e.g. Sugar. • Potential for Contamination of white maize with orange maize may downgrade the price when orange maize is introduced • Way forward – Fast track variety testing and release, use school feeding program and Government subsidy as an entry point for delivery, ensure Superior agronomic traits, efficient extension systems needed for delivery F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Developing Effective Delivery Systems for Biofortified Crops: Some Thoughts on the Integrated Delivery of Orange-fleshed Sweetpotato in Sub-Saharan Africa by Jan Low • Nutrition education essential for increased frequency of consumption. Orange Color accepted but preferences differ in adults and children • Retention and efficacy studies has shown that OFSP is a rich and bioavailable source of vitamin A • For delivery, large no of households can be reached effectively with the less intensive model. • Integrated approach shows agronomic competitiveness essential • Demand creation campaign at community level essential and the orange color is an asset. • For successful delivery, invest in Marketing and marketing linkages • Way forward – Building the evidence for linking Agriculture and Nutrition with health to Maximize impact from OFSP. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
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    • Symposia: Delivering Iron and Zinc Crops: An invisible Nutrients • What drives farmers preference ? – Ekin Birol, HarvestPlus • Getting biofortification into the public food distribution systems – Akhter Ahmed, IFRI • Seed Systems & Marketing biofortified traits to farmers – Marcelle van den Kommer, Oriri Strategy & Transformation • Branding staple crops with invisible micronutrients – Ashish Wele, Nirmal Seeds India F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • • Farmers today are influenced by the agronomical characteristics, but the challenge for the future is how farmers can be influenced by the special traits ( nutritional). • We have experience to deliver seeds based on the agronomical parameters, delivering seeds with nutritional trait is new to the seed industry. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • • Food industries for years has been marketing products successfully with invisible traits. We should explore these innovative marketing /branding strategies, which can targeted at the bottom of pyramid. • Building strategic partnership between Public- Private. The strategy would be to find a win- win partnership to leverage the social goals of HarvestPlus and the commercial goal of private companies. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • • Opportunities: – incorporating in Food and Nutrition security missions. – Public food distribution systems, school feeding programs and other national nutritional programs. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
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    • Weaving Biofortification into the Global Development Agenda • We have moved from getting the science right to a more political phase – Scaling up – Achieving public health impact • Being able to tell stories to key stakeholders and allies now essential – Give science a human face – Bolster public support F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Strategies at 3 Levels • Global – Biofortification engages all MDGs and multiple development discourses • Regional – CAADP Framework for African Food Security puts nutrition squarely on agenda • National (Uganda case) – Strong NARS – Supportive policy framework – Multi-stakeholder engagement F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Crafting the Narrative • Country ownership key • The ethical dimension – Valuing nutritious food for everyone – Biofortification targets most deprived, women, children • Some questions: – Has “bio-” become a dirty word? – Who are the trusted intermediaries who will help us make the case? F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
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    • Biofortification for the Developed World: Progress with Antioxidants & Other Nutrients Speakers: Sridevi Devaraj, John Finley, Sekhar Boddupalli, Joe Cornelius Rapporteur: Ray Glahn F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Major Biological Antioxidants • Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide dismutase (SOD) Catalase Glutathione peroxidase • Antioxidant Nutrients Other Vitamin C Curcumin Vitamin E Cinnamon Carotenoids Alpha Lipoic Acid Beta carotene, lycopene, Broccoli, Green Tea, Aloe vera lutein Flavonoids • Non-enzymatic scavengers Uric acid Glutathione Thiols in proteins F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Key Points • Major focus on foods to help prevent heart disease, obesity, cancer and diabetes. • Antioxidant studies should be targeted to populations who have increased attendant oxidative stress • Compliance assessment should be made by measurement of circulating antioxidant levels • Assessment of combinations of antioxidant vitamins should be made carefully • Mechanistic studies and biomarkers of oxidative stress should be assessed • Long term safety and efficacy should be monitored • In the future, genotype may dictate utility of antioxidants in preventing chronic disease F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Selenium 1. The real story is often more complex than the theory 2. Understanding nutritional chemistry is essential 3. Understanding the soil/plant interaction is essential. 4. Food selenium safer than supplements. F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Fruits and Vegetables • Increased consumption of Fruits and Vegetables is critical for Human Sustainability  Diabetes, Obesity Epidemic • Focus on taste and convenience to drive consumption; then build on the nutrition F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION
    • Summary: Improving Human Nutrition with Biotechnology-Derived Soybean Traits 2010 Dietary Guidelines Recommendations • Avoid industrial trans fat Vistive® Gold • Substitute with MUFA and PUFA Low Saturate High Oleic • Reduce saturated fat in diet Low Linolenic • Reduce to less than 7% en. Soybean Oil • Substitute with MUFA and PUFA • Consume LC sources of Omega-3 Soymega™ • Two 4 oz. servings of fatty fish/week SDA Omega-3 • Average of 250mg LC PUFA/week Soybean Oil F IRST G LOBAL C ONFERENCE ON B IOFORTIFICATION 38 38