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Rapporteur summary slides wednesday

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  • 1. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A Taking Stock of the Evidence: What we know Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell,Guangwen Tang Animal Study Bioconversion Reference Maize: β-carotene 3:1 Howe,J Nutr 2006 β-cryptoxanthin 2.8:1 Davis et al., BJN 2008 α-carotene 5.5:1 Tanumihardjo, J Nutr 2005 Human Study Maize (n=5) 6.5:1 Li et al., AJCN 2010 (n=8) 3.2:1 Muzhingi et al FASEB J 2010 GoldenRice (n=5) 3.8:1 Tang et al., AJCN 2009 (n=24, children) 2.0:1 Tang et al., FASEB J 2010 Carrot (n=7) 15:1 Tang et al., AJCN 2005 Spinach (n=14) 21:1 Tang et al., AJCN 2005
  • 2. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A Taking Stock of the Evidence: What we know Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell,Guangwen Tang Effectiveness The effectiveness of OFSP for improving vitamin A status in preschool children has been demonstrated
  • 3. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A Gaps & Constraints Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell,Guangwen Tang Target groups and indicators of vitamin A status should be chosen carefully to optimize chances of demonstrating efficacy or effectiveness Target Population: High risk VAD Children:6-24 mo and 2-5 y Women: pregnant and lactating Indicator : Appropriate to measure change in vitamin A status Dark adaptation Breastmilkretinol concentration
  • 4. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Serum retinol concentration Olson,1981 Serum retinol concentration homeostaticallycontrolled; not an optimal indicator of change in vitamin A status Serum retinol concentration declines transiently in infection; difficult to interpret; high infection rates in target populations
  • 5. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A How do we maximize impact and speed delivery? Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell,Guangwen Tang Win the community support!!! Large scale community efficacy intervention trials will bring the new crops to the community daily life, gain first-hand health impact information, and promote the acceptance
  • 6. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  • 7. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Progress and challenges in iron and zinc biofortification: status • Genetic variability of selected staples has been documented • Minimum targets for iron and zinc levels based on consumption,requirements and bioavailabilityhave been set (30-40% EAR) • New high iron and zinc varieties under development • Consumptionpatterns and human bioavailabilityconducted in target populations
  • 8. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Major challenge is to demonstrate improved absorption and efficacy • High level of absorption inhibitors in cereals and legumes with no enhancers • In absorption studies biofortified staples increased mg Zn absorbed but not Iron mg absorbed • No demonstration of efficacy with zinc-biofortified crops (no sensitive biomarker) • Proof of concept for iron biofortification (Philippines rice study) still needs to demonstrate reduced prevalence of iron deficiency in target populations • Time frame to scientific consensus may be10-20 years
  • 9. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION The Way Forward • Improvement of efficacy protocols (i.e. better control of infection, biomarkers,functional outcomes) • Reconsider breeding for low phytate (particularlyfor iron) • Iron levels in wheat and rice relatively low; genetic engineering should be further considered
  • 10. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  • 11. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Building Public Trust in Transgenic Biofortified Crops • All scientific evidence in favour of biofortification is merely reality. Resistance isn't based on reality but on perceptions. • The fear of a risk is inversely correlated to actual hazard. • In a high-stress/highly controversial environment, empathy is the number one dimension: – “Do you care what I care about?” – Other factors include competence/expertise, honesty/transparency, cultural interpretation, etc. • In high-stress situations, people can only process a maximum of three points.
  • 12. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Building Public Trust in Transgenic Biofortified Crops • Important to consider – Messages – Messenger – Means that we use to communicate • Be prepared with message: there’s no longer any time to react – Be the first with the messages – Use the same messages consistently to build trust
  • 13. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Building Public Trust in Transgenic Biofortified Crops • Scientific research will not carry the day, people will rely on who they trust, opinions of trusted peers – Build a credibility ladder using three or more additional sources who support your work • Media will help generate awareness and interest but it takes interpersonal communicationto influence evaluation, social trial and decision
  • 14. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  • 15. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • The ultimate goal of HarvestPlus is to increase the density of bioavailable Zn, Fe and Vitamin A in staple foods. • Session dealt with: – Large areas of Zn deficientcalcareoussoilsin regions where malnourishedpersonsreside. • India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, western US, Australia, etc. • Significant yield loss as well as Zn poor crops – Fertilizationto increase crop Zn and Se – Agronomic management(fertilizers, cultivars, cropping)to preventhighlevelsof crop Cd and As.
  • 16. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • Repeated production of crops for centuries depletessoils of available Zn. 5 t wheat grain/ha times 25 mg Zn/kg dry grain = 125 g Zn/ha-yr. – Zn deficient soils have only about 1000 g plant available Zn (DTPA-extr.)/ha. – Ultimately have to add Zn to deficient soils even if we use breeding to improve Zn in edible crop portions. – Added Zn is converted to unavailable forms over time. – Grain Zn response to soil-applied Zn is slight. – Grain Zn response to foliar Zn can be significant.
  • 17. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • One problem with Zn biofortificationis that the Zn ends up in the aleurone layer which is removed during milling. – Foliar Zn during late grain fill increased endosperm Zn enough to significantly improve flour Zn. – Still need technology to increase Zn sink in endosperm of cereals; with Zn fertilization and genetic endosperm storage, can achieve nutritional goals. – Need limits on Cd in Zn fertilizers enforced in developing nations; extreme case with Cd in Chinese Zn product; affected many nations and others unknown.
  • 18. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • Se fertilization of alkaline soils can increase crop Se. – Se added to livestockdiets provides needed Se in human diets. – Alternativeis supplements or biofortified foods. – High Se natural wheat does notcommand higher price in marketeven though it has clearly been available fromDakotas and Canada. • Cd and As in crops is a minor problem compared to malnutrition due to low bioavailable Fe and Zn in crops. – Lowrice Fe and Zn strongly increases Cd bioavailability in rice diets. – Marketlimits on Cd in durumwheat,and single dominantgene which halves grain Cd led to adoption of lowCd genotype to keep market. – Cd contamination of rice soils in Asia continues due to poor regs.May require phytoextractionto remove Cd to allowsafe rice production:Japan,Chain, Thailand,Korea.LowCd cultivars can help with problem. – As in cooking and drinking water much more importantthan As in rice; do not recommend breeding for lowerAs in rice exceptfor polluted Bangladeshiand Indian fields.
  • 19. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  • 20. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Navigating the Regulatory System: Lessons learned from Golden Rice by Gerard Barry • Golden Rice Progress - Carotenoid levels upto 25ug/g • Leading Countries have policies that support the use of modern biotechnology for national development (e.g. India, Philippines, Indonesia, China) • An integrated approach to Hazards Assessment and characterization involved in producing new GM varieties • Way forward: efficacy , bioavailability and consumer acceptance studies planned for the next few years. • Planned first release and launch of Golden rice in early 2013.
  • 21. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Consumer Acceptance and Delivery of Biofortified Maize in Zambia: by Victor Manyong and Marx Mbunji • Maize Varieties with 8ppm Vitamin A are already in the pipeline. Goal is to reach 15ppm. • Results show that acceptability of Maize is enhanced when there is a message through radio or Community information • Contrary to low acceptance of yellow maize, consumers ready to accept orange maize when there is a Nutrition Message. • How to keep track of the different fortification interventions? e.g. Sugar. • Potential for Contamination of white maize with orange maize may downgrade the price when orange maize is introduced • Way forward – Fast track variety testing and release, use school feeding program and Government subsidy as an entry point for delivery, ensure Superior agronomic traits, efficient extension systems needed for delivery
  • 22. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Developing EffectiveDelivery Systems for Biofortified Crops: Some Thoughts on the Integrated Delivery of Orange-fleshed Sweetpotatoin Sub-Saharan Africa by Jan Low • Nutrition education essential for increased frequency of consumption. Orange Color accepted but preferences differ in adults and children • Retention and efficacy studies has shown that OFSP is a rich and bioavailable source of vitamin A • For delivery, large no of households can be reached effectively with the less intensive model. • Integrated approach shows agronomic competitiveness essential • Demand creation campaign at community level essential and the orange color is an asset. • For successful delivery, invest in Marketing and marketing linkages • Way forward – Building the evidence for linking Agriculture and Nutrition with health to Maximize impact from OFSP.
  • 23. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  • 24. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposia: Delivering Iron and Zinc Crops: An invisible Nutrients • Whatdrives farmers preference ? – Ekin Birol, HarvestPlus • Gettingbiofortificationinto the public food distributionsystems – AkhterAhmed,IFRI • SeedSystems & Marketingbiofortifiedtraits to farmers – Marcelle van den Kommer, Oriri Strategy & Transformation • Branding staple crops with invisible micronutrients – Ashish Wele, Nirmal Seeds India
  • 25. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION • Farmers today are influenced by the agronomical characteristics, but the challenge for the future is how farmers can be influenced by the special traits ( nutritional). • We have experience to deliver seeds based on the agronomical parameters, delivering seeds with nutritional trait is new to the seed industry.
  • 26. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION • Food industries for years has been marketing products successfully with invisible traits. We should explore these innovative marketing /branding strategies, which can targeted at the bottom of pyramid. • Building strategic partnership between Public- Private. The strategy would be to find a win- win partnership to leverage the social goals of HarvestPlus and the commercial goal of private companies.
  • 27. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION • Opportunities: – incorporating in Food and Nutrition security missions. – Public food distribution systems, school feeding programs and other national nutritional programs.
  • 28. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  • 29. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Weaving Biofortification into the Global Development Agenda • We have moved from getting the science right to a more political phase – Scaling up – Achieving public health impact • Being able to tell stories to key stakeholders and allies now essential – Give science a human face – Bolster public support
  • 30. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Strategies at 3 Levels • Global – Biofortificationengages all MDGs and multiple development discourses • Regional – CAADPFramework for African Food Security puts nutrition squarely on agenda • National (Uganda case) – Strong NARS – Supportive policy framework – Multi-stakeholderengagement
  • 31. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Crafting the Narrative • Country ownership key • The ethical dimension – Valuing nutritious food for everyone – Biofortification targets most deprived, women, children • Some questions: – Has “bio-” become a dirty word? – Who are the trusted intermediaries who will help us make the case?
  • 32. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  • 33. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Biofortification for the Developed World: Progress with Antioxidants & Other Nutrients Speakers: Sridevi Devaraj, John Finley, Sekhar Boddupalli,Joe Cornelius Rapporteur: Ray Glahn
  • 34. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Major BiologicalAntioxidants • AntioxidantEnzymes Superoxidedismutase(SOD) Catalase Glutathione peroxidase • AntioxidantNutrients Other Vitamin C Curcumin Vitamin E Cinnamon Carotenoids AlphaLipoicAcid Betacarotene,lycopene, Broccoli,Green Tea,Aloe vera lutein Flavonoids • Non-enzymaticscavengers Uricacid Glutathione Thiols in proteins
  • 35. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Key Points • Major focus on foods to help prevent heart disease, obesity, cancer and diabetes. • Antioxidant studies should be targeted to populations who have increased attendant oxidative stress • Compliance assessment should be made by measurement of circulating antioxidant levels • Assessment of combinations of antioxidant vitamins should be made carefully • Mechanistic studies and biomarkers of oxidative stress should be assessed • Long term safety and efficacy should be monitored • In the future, genotype may dictate utility of antioxidants in preventing chronic disease
  • 36. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Selenium 1. The real story is often more complex than the theory 2. Understandingnutritional chemistry is essential 3. Understandingthe soil/plantinteraction is essential. 4. Food selenium safer than supplements.
  • 37. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Fruits and Vegetables • Increased consumptionof Fruits and Vegetables is critical for Human Sustainability  Diabetes, Obesity Epidemic • Focuson taste and convenience to drive consumption;then build on the nutrition
  • 38. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Summary: Improving Human Nutrition with Biotechnology-Derived Soybean Traits 2010 Dietary Guidelines Recommendations • Avoid industrial trans fat • Substitute with MUFA and PUFA • Reduce saturated fat in diet • Reduce to less than 7% en. • Substitute with MUFA and PUFA • Consume LC sources of Omega-3 • Two 4 oz. servings of fatty fish/week • Averageof 250mg LC PUFA/week 38 38 Soymega™ SDA Omega-3 SoybeanOil Vistive® Gold Low Saturate High Oleic Low Linolenic SoybeanOil

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