2nd Global Conference on Biofortification
Prof M S Swaminathan, FNA, FRS
UNESCO Chair in Ecotechnology, MSSRF, Chennai
Kig...
United Nations
Secretary-General’s
Vision (2012)
Source: www.un.org
2025 : Target Year for Achieving Zero Hunger Challenge
UK Prime Minister’s Initiative
On 12 August 2012, the closing day of
the London Olympics, the Prime
Minister of the United...
South Asian Enigma
o Extraordinary economic
growth in South Asia
o Population largely
dependent on agriculture
o Yet, 2 ou...
61.7
11 9.6 8 7.5 6
Top 6 countries with highest
number of stunted children
(millions)
UNICEF 2013
o Region with the large...
Source : IFPRI
AFRICAN ENIGMA
Prosperity of Nature but
Poverty of People
AFRICA
Halving hunger :
it can be done
M S Swaminathan
&
Pedro A Sanchez
UN Millennium Project 2005
Source: FAO, US Energy Administration and www.indexmundi.org and
http://quotes.post1.org/historical-crude-oil-price-chart/...
Hunger
Chronic
Hidden
Transient
Food
Security :
Availability
Access
Absorption
Awareness – Analysis - Action
MSSRF / WFP :...
CALORIE
DEPRIVATION
PROTEIN
DEFICIENCY
MICRONUTRIENT
DEFICIENCY
Picture Source: Google images
Three major dimensions of hu...
Comparison of woo-gen (right) and dee-geo-
woo-gen strains, the latter containing
the sd1 mutation
The effects of differen...
Green Revolution Symphony (1968)
o Technology
o Services
o Public Policies
o Farmers’ enthusiasm
Indian farmers achieved a...
Evergreen Revolution is the Pathway
o World requires 50% more
rice in 2030 than in 2004
with approximately 30%
less arable...
Prodn.x 9
Yield x3
Area x 2.5
1960-61- 11.0 MT
1965-66 – 10.4 MT
1973-74 - 20.8 MT
An Evergreen Revolution in Wheat
Goal f...
No Time to Relax : Major Challenges Ahead
o Avoiding Food losses and Food Waste
o Climate change, temperature, precipitati...
Biofortification and Zero Hunger Challenge :
3 Major approaches
1. Naturally occurring biofortified plants like moringa,
s...
25 x iron in spinach
17 x calcium in milk
15 x potassium in bananas
10 x vitamin A in carrots
9 x protein in yogurt
Nation...
Breadfruit Can Be Manna
o The Breadfruit Institute has
found that the perennial trees
produce more food in dry
weight per ...
Rich source
of Vitamin C
Phyllanthus emblica
Picture Source: Google images
Rich in Nutrition; Climate Smart
Culinary Diversity
Source : http://foodtank.com/news/2014/03/california-drought-time-to-rethink-forgotten-grains
Combating California drought...
Science,
Vol 325,
31 July
2009
Gene Banks
for a
Warming
Planet
The National Horticulture
Mission of India aims to provide
horticultural remedies to
nutritional maladies. As a result
of ...
Orange-fleshed Sweet Potato Rich in
Beta carotene
Quality Protein Maize
Biofortification through breeding:
High-iron Pearl Millet
ICTP 8203
ICRISAT-bred OPV
(70-74 ppm Fe)
With 10% Higher Yield
...
World’s first high-zinc rice released in Bangladesh
Source : Rice Today, Oct-Dec 2013, Vol12, No.4
19 varieties of Yam in 4 species were in Cultivation (as of
2006) but less than 5 in rural market and none in urban
market...
Kolli Hills
Biofortified Multiple Cropping System
o 3500 rice accessions (rice landraces of CG,
Orissa, TN), 100 popular rice cultivars and
650 advanced breeding lines have...
Marker Assisted Breeding IR 38 x Jeerige sanna
BI 33 x Jeerige sanna
Azucena x Moromutant
Five mapping populations
have be...
Back cross derived lines in Swarna background
using Kaybonet-GR2-R event as donor
Swarna Golden Swarna
Source : IARI, New ...
780
bp
Line 4 Homozygous plants
NT P
(b)
650bp
Line 12 Homozygous Transgenic
plants
H2O
M
NT P
(a)
Tissue specific express...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Pol...
Golden Rice :
Trial Site Vandalized in Bicol, Philippines
Source: Rice Today, IRRI, Oct-Dec 2013, Vol.12, No.4
Establish R...
“FSN involves the introduction of agricultural
remedies to the nutritional maladies prevailing in an
area, through the mai...
“Take it to the Farmer” (Dr Norman Borlaug)
Lab to Lab:
All India Coordinated Research Project
Lab to Land
National Demons...
Jamsetji Tata National Virtual Academy (NVA) Fellows
Celebration of the Core Competence of Rural India
Role of Community Hunger Fighters in Biofortification
o Become well-versed on the
causes and cures for the
endemic and hid...
Fighting Poverty induced Chronic Hunger
National Food Security Bill of India, 2013
Goal : To provide food and nutritional ...
Conclusions
o Enlargement of the Food Basket : Under the National Food
Security Act, nutri-cereals like a wide range of mi...
Conclusions
II. Initiatives of State Governments
o Supply of protein rich grain
legumes like chickpea, beans,
pigeon pea, ...
Conclusions
III. Contributions of MSSRF
1. Getting Governments resolve at the Asia-Pacific
conference on the Year of Famil...
Conclusions
o 2013 was commemorated as the Year of Quinoa
o 2014 is observed as the International Year of Family
Farming
o...
Six Keys to Success
1. Farmers Decision on Crop and Varietal Choice:
governed by the cost – risk – return structure of
far...
4. Nutritional Literacy: capacity building of
community hunger fighters
5. Convergence and Synergy among food and non food...
Towards an Era of
Biohappiness
 Sustainable Development Goals
 Zero Hunger Challenge
 Biofortification is the Pathway
...
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M.S. Swaminathan presents: Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification

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Professor M.S. Swaminathan presents "Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification" at The 2nd Global Conference on Biofortification: Getting Nutritious Foods to People in Kigali, Rwanda. April 1, 2014

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M.S. Swaminathan presents: Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification

  1. 1. 2nd Global Conference on Biofortification Prof M S Swaminathan, FNA, FRS UNESCO Chair in Ecotechnology, MSSRF, Chennai Kigali, Rwanda, 1 April 2014 Biofortification and the Zero Hunger Challenge
  2. 2. United Nations Secretary-General’s Vision (2012) Source: www.un.org 2025 : Target Year for Achieving Zero Hunger Challenge
  3. 3. UK Prime Minister’s Initiative On 12 August 2012, the closing day of the London Olympics, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron, launched, a programme designed to rescue 25 million children from malnutrition-induced stunting by 2016, when the next Olympics will take place at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. Biofortification is an important pathway for achieving this goal speedily and economically.
  4. 4. South Asian Enigma o Extraordinary economic growth in South Asia o Population largely dependent on agriculture o Yet, 2 out of 5 children stunted 39% of children are stunted in South Asia UNICEF 2013
  5. 5. 61.7 11 9.6 8 7.5 6 Top 6 countries with highest number of stunted children (millions) UNICEF 2013 o Region with the largest number of children with stunted growth o First 1000 days critical. Low Birth Weight Babies 1 in 4 o Under-nutrition reduces a nation’s economic advancement by 8% (Lancet 2013) South Asian Enigma
  6. 6. Source : IFPRI AFRICAN ENIGMA Prosperity of Nature but Poverty of People
  7. 7. AFRICA Halving hunger : it can be done M S Swaminathan & Pedro A Sanchez UN Millennium Project 2005
  8. 8. Source: FAO, US Energy Administration and www.indexmundi.org and http://quotes.post1.org/historical-crude-oil-price-chart/ (data updated as on March 14, 2014) The Future Belongs to Nations with Grains and not Guns Price Volatility
  9. 9. Hunger Chronic Hidden Transient Food Security : Availability Access Absorption Awareness – Analysis - Action MSSRF / WFP : Food Insecurity Atlas
  10. 10. CALORIE DEPRIVATION PROTEIN DEFICIENCY MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY Picture Source: Google images Three major dimensions of hunger Biofortifcation answers all three dimensions
  11. 11. Comparison of woo-gen (right) and dee-geo- woo-gen strains, the latter containing the sd1 mutation The effects of different Rht alleles on plant height in wheat (cv. April Bearded). The wild-type contains Rht-B1a and Rht-D1a, which are homoeologous (corresponding) genes on the B and D genomes. Rht- B1c is a more severe allele at the Rht-B1 locus Source: http://5e.plantphys.net/ Overcoming Undernutrition: The Green Revolution in Wheat and Rice
  12. 12. Green Revolution Symphony (1968) o Technology o Services o Public Policies o Farmers’ enthusiasm Indian farmers achieved as much progress in wheat production in four years (1964–68), as during the preceding 4000 years. Major Components Synergy among Scientific skill, Political will and Farmers’ toil
  13. 13. Evergreen Revolution is the Pathway o World requires 50% more rice in 2030 than in 2004 with approximately 30% less arable land of today o Mainstreaming ecology in technology development and dissemination is the road to sustainable agriculture
  14. 14. Prodn.x 9 Yield x3 Area x 2.5 1960-61- 11.0 MT 1965-66 – 10.4 MT 1973-74 - 20.8 MT An Evergreen Revolution in Wheat Goal for 2030 : 150 million tonnes of wheat from 30 million ha Prerequisites : Soil & Plant Health Care & Remunerative Market
  15. 15. No Time to Relax : Major Challenges Ahead o Avoiding Food losses and Food Waste o Climate change, temperature, precipitation, and sea level o Shrinking per capita land and water resources o Expanding biotic and abiotic stresses o Adverse cost-risk-return structure of farming o Market volatility o Reluctance of youth to take to farming : Lack of Demographic Dividend
  16. 16. Biofortification and Zero Hunger Challenge : 3 Major approaches 1. Naturally occurring biofortified plants like moringa, sweet potato, nutri-millets and fruits and vegetables. 2. Biofortified varieties selected by breeding and selection, eg, iron rich pearl millet and zinc rich rice 3. Genetically biofortified crops like Golden Rice and iron rich rice (after appropriate regulatory clearance) Cultivate and Consume
  17. 17. 25 x iron in spinach 17 x calcium in milk 15 x potassium in bananas 10 x vitamin A in carrots 9 x protein in yogurt National Geographic, November 2012 Role of Agro-forestry in Biofortification Moringa Oleifera Agro- forestry : Common land use in Africa
  18. 18. Breadfruit Can Be Manna o The Breadfruit Institute has found that the perennial trees produce more food in dry weight per hectare than corn, rice, or wheat o A fruit rich in iron, potassium, and Vitamin A precursors Source: Science Vol 342 18 October 2013
  19. 19. Rich source of Vitamin C Phyllanthus emblica Picture Source: Google images
  20. 20. Rich in Nutrition; Climate Smart Culinary Diversity
  21. 21. Source : http://foodtank.com/news/2014/03/california-drought-time-to-rethink-forgotten-grains Combating California drought again : Revive Dying Wisdom and Vanishing Crops Convert Calamity into an Opportunity
  22. 22. Science, Vol 325, 31 July 2009 Gene Banks for a Warming Planet
  23. 23. The National Horticulture Mission of India aims to provide horticultural remedies to nutritional maladies. As a result of this Mission, the production of fruits and vegetables has reached a level of 270 million tonnes in India during 2013-14. Develop Safe Storage Facilities
  24. 24. Orange-fleshed Sweet Potato Rich in Beta carotene
  25. 25. Quality Protein Maize
  26. 26. Biofortification through breeding: High-iron Pearl Millet ICTP 8203 ICRISAT-bred OPV (70-74 ppm Fe) With 10% Higher Yield 86M86 Pioneer hybrid (54-64 ppm Fe) Marketed by NIRMAL SEEDS
  27. 27. World’s first high-zinc rice released in Bangladesh Source : Rice Today, Oct-Dec 2013, Vol12, No.4
  28. 28. 19 varieties of Yam in 4 species were in Cultivation (as of 2006) but less than 5 in rural market and none in urban market Dioscorea alata 1. Inchikachil I & II` 2. Kuzhikavithu I 3. Kuzhikavithu II 4. Quintalkachil I 5. Quintalkachil II 6. Anakomban 7. Kaduvakkayyan 8. Urulan kachil 9. Kuppathottikizhangu 10. Elivalankachil 11. Neendi/Veetukizhangu 12. Vella kachil I & II 13. Chorakachil/cherakachil/chuvappukachil/ Neela kachil I, II & III Dioscorea esculenta 14. Nanakizhangu 15. Vella Enchi kachil 16. Mullan Kachil Dioscorea rotundata 17.Africankachil 18. Thoonankachi Dioscorea bulbifera 19. Erachikachil/Adathappu Life Saving Crops in Wayanad Leveraging Agro-forestry for Nutrition
  29. 29. Kolli Hills Biofortified Multiple Cropping System
  30. 30. o 3500 rice accessions (rice landraces of CG, Orissa, TN), 100 popular rice cultivars and 650 advanced breeding lines have been screened o 14 genotypes with high Zn content in polished grains with 35-40 ug/g have been identified o Selection and phenotyping of 40 rice genotypes are under multi-location trials Rice Breeding for High Zinc Rice Source : MSSRF & IGAU, Raipur
  31. 31. Marker Assisted Breeding IR 38 x Jeerige sanna BI 33 x Jeerige sanna Azucena x Moromutant Five mapping populations have been developed and purified. Molecular markers for genes associated with iron uptake, transport and accumulation have been designed. Marker Assisted Selection is eligible for organic certification Source : Indian Biofortification Network
  32. 32. Back cross derived lines in Swarna background using Kaybonet-GR2-R event as donor Swarna Golden Swarna Source : IARI, New Delhi Genetic Modification : Golden Rice
  33. 33. 780 bp Line 4 Homozygous plants NT P (b) 650bp Line 12 Homozygous Transgenic plants H2O M NT P (a) Tissue specific expression of ferritin gene from mangrove in rice for iron fortification Avicennia marina Transgenic Rice lines Stable inheritance of transgenics Am Fer Am Fer Am Fer Genetic map of Am Fer in transgenics Source : MSSRF
  34. 34. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Polished rice with stable expression of 21-28ppm Iron (a) (b) (c) (d) Expression of Iron in Rice Endosperm
  35. 35. Golden Rice : Trial Site Vandalized in Bicol, Philippines Source: Rice Today, IRRI, Oct-Dec 2013, Vol.12, No.4 Establish Regulatory system which inspires public, professional, political and media confidence
  36. 36. “FSN involves the introduction of agricultural remedies to the nutritional maladies prevailing in an area, through the mainstreaming of nutritional criteria in the selection of the components of a farming system involving crops, farm animals and where feasible, fish. While finalizing the components of a farming system, the gender and age dimensions of human nutritional needs are kept in view, such as the special needs of pregnant women and nursing mothers, and new born babies during the first 1000 days after conception and birth”. Biofortified crop varieties are introduced in FSN wherever available. Farming System for Nutrition (FSN)* *Designed by MSS for LANSA
  37. 37. “Take it to the Farmer” (Dr Norman Borlaug) Lab to Lab: All India Coordinated Research Project Lab to Land National Demonstrations Krishi Vigyan Kendras (Farm Science Centre) Village Knowledge Centres Dairy Cooperatives Fisher Friend Applications Land to Lab Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Sites Land to Land National Tonnage Club of Farmers Farm Schools (Farmer to Farmer Learning) Bridging the gap between scientific know-how and farmers’ do how
  38. 38. Jamsetji Tata National Virtual Academy (NVA) Fellows Celebration of the Core Competence of Rural India
  39. 39. Role of Community Hunger Fighters in Biofortification o Become well-versed on the causes and cures for the endemic and hidden hunger prevailing in the village / town through a nutrition literacy programme o Identify and introduce agricultural remedies to nutritional maladies based on gender and age o Introduce in the farming system biofortified crops and varieties
  40. 40. Fighting Poverty induced Chronic Hunger National Food Security Bill of India, 2013 Goal : To provide food and nutritional security by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices Special Features : o Life Cycle approach with emphasis on the 1000 days of a child’s life o The senior most woman in the household will be designated the Head of the Household from the point of view of food entitlements o Enlargement of the Food Basket by including nutri-millets and other orphan crops in the Public Distribution System o Entitlement : Every person belonging to priority households shall be entitled to receive five kilogram of foodgrains per person per month at subsidised prices.
  41. 41. Conclusions o Enlargement of the Food Basket : Under the National Food Security Act, nutri-cereals like a wide range of millets and orphan crops will be included in the Public Distribution System at Rs. 1 per kg (1 US Dollar - 60 Rupees) o National Horticulture Mission : Horticultural Remedies will be popularised for major nutritional maladies under a well funded National Horticulture Mission o Launching a Nutri-Farm Movement : The Nutri-farm Movement will include the popularisation of biofortified varieties and crops like iron-rich pearl millet, zinc rich wheat and rice, protein rich maize I. Initiatives of the Government of India The above steps will help to address both calorie deprivation and micro-nutrient malnutrition Contd….
  42. 42. Conclusions II. Initiatives of State Governments o Supply of protein rich grain legumes like chickpea, beans, pigeon pea, lentils, green and black gram etc o Multiple fortified salt o Supply of eggs in school noon meal programmes Contd….
  43. 43. Conclusions III. Contributions of MSSRF 1. Getting Governments resolve at the Asia-Pacific conference on the Year of Family Farming that every Family Farm will be developed into a biofortified farm 2. Establishment of Genetic Gardens of Biofortified Crops and varieties both for promoting nutritional literacy and the conservation, cultivation, consumption and commerce of such nutrition rich crops. The proposed MSSRF Genetic Garden of Biofortified crops may be the first of its kind in the world. 3. Take an active part in the HarvestPlus programme and other similar programmes and undertake nutritional enrichment of staples and commonly consumed vegetables through Mendelian breeding and marker- assisted selection. Contd….
  44. 44. Conclusions o 2013 was commemorated as the Year of Quinoa o 2014 is observed as the International Year of Family Farming o 2016 will be celebrated as the Year of Pulses o The Second Global Biofortification Conference may recommend to the UN that a Year between 2018 and 2020 may be observed as the International Year of Biofortified and Underutilised Crops. This will be an important step in meeting the Zero Hunger Challenge by 2025, since biofortified crops help to address simultaneously under- and malnutrition. Contd…. 4. International Year of Underutilised and Biofortified Crops
  45. 45. Six Keys to Success 1. Farmers Decision on Crop and Varietal Choice: governed by the cost – risk – return structure of farming; soil nutrient composition influences crop nutrient composition 2. Consumers Decision based on cost and culinary characteristics 3. Public – Private Partnerships: Pricing, procurement, value chain development, public distribution and social protection Contd….
  46. 46. 4. Nutritional Literacy: capacity building of community hunger fighters 5. Convergence and Synergy among food and non food factors; Coalition for a Nutrition Secure India 6. Measurement of Impact: adopt measurable indicators Six Keys to Success
  47. 47. Towards an Era of Biohappiness  Sustainable Development Goals  Zero Hunger Challenge  Biofortification is the Pathway  LANSA (Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in South Asia) is an effective platform for partnership
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