Manyong delivery vit a


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Manyong delivery vit a

  1. 1. Consumer Acceptance of Biofortified Maize in Rural Zambia: Does Color Matter? J.V. Meenakshi, A. Banerji, Victor M. Manyong, Keith Tomlins, Priscilla Hamukwala, Rodah Zulu, and Catherine Mungoma Biofortification, First Global Conference, Nov 9-11, 2010, Washington D.C.
  2. 2. Problem of malnutrition • The diets of millions of people in SSA are deficient in essential micro- (vitamins, minerals) and macro- (protein, energy, fatty acids) nutrients contributing to  Poor health, weak immune system, stunted growth  Poor cognitive development  Increased incidence of kwashiorkor, anaemia and corneal blindness  Susceptibility to infectious diseases • 100 million Africans are predisposed to high risk of visual impairment and blindness due to vitamin A deficiency (African Union, 2005) • 33 million pre-school age children in Africa are deficient in vitamin A  20-24% of child mortality from diarrhoea, measles and malaria  3% mortality form infectious diseases
  3. 3. 1. Supplementation (Medical approach)  Comparatively expensive and requires continued financing over time 2. Food fortification (Industrial approach)  Requires access to effective markets and healthcare systems to monitor nutrient levels 3. Biofortification (Agronomic approach)  Requires improving the nutritive value of staple food crops Approaches to mitigate micronutrient malnutrition
  4. 4. Context of this Study • Plant breeders have identified maize varieties that can have up to 15 ppm beta carotene. Varieties with 8 ppm are already in the pipeline. • For an adult consuming 400 grams of maize every day, an addition of 15 ppm beta carotene would translate into an increase of 400 x 15 12 x 0.5 = 250 RAE. This is about 50% of the estimated average requirements of an adult woman of 500 RAE. • But given the history of yellow maize, will a provitamin A orange maize be accepted by consumers?
  5. 5. Objectives of the Study • Evaluate consumer acceptance of orange maize using willingness to pay and consumer acceptance measures in the absence of any nutrition campaign, and quantify the magnitude of any premium or discount relative to white maize • Examine the impact of the provision of nutrition information, comparing the use of radio messages with that of community leaders • Examine whether novelty effects significantly influence premiums/discounts by comparing home use testing (HUT) with central location testing (CLT)
  6. 6. Analyzing Consumer Acceptance • Food science approaches: taste tests to determine which product the consumer prefers and to produce consumers acceptance measures (the Coke versus Pepsi test) • Economics approaches: purchase decisions depend on preferences as well as prices (utility). A consumer may prefer Coke to Pepsi if both are selling at the same price, but may choose to buy Pepsi if it is cheaper than Coke say by at least 10 percent =Economists attempt to quantify when such switches may occur by eliciting willingness to pay (WTP)
  7. 7. Nutrition Information • Message developed in collaboration with Zambian nutritionists (English and translated in 3 local languages – Bemba, Lenje, and Tonga) • Simulated radio (7 minute) program produced by Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation • Two channels for the nutrition information: – Radio messages: are easier to control and can reach large populations at relatively low cost, but are ‗anonymous.‘ – Community leaders (and extension workers) are likely to be more effective in bringing about behaviour change, but quality control and costs are issues.
  8. 8. Central Location Testing (CLT) and Home Use Testing (HUT) • CLT—consumers taste nshima made from white orange and yellow maize (in random order) and are asked to evaluate the three types of maize in terms of consumer acceptance and WTP. Process takes about 30 minutes per respondent and overall four days. • HUT—consumers given flour made from white, orange and yellow maize (sequentially and in random order) and asked to use according to usual household recipes for a few days. After this they are asked to evaluate the three in terms of consumer acceptance and WTP. Idea is to account for ‗novelty‘ value that may dominate consumer rankings in CLT. Process takes nearly 10 days and is more expensive.
  9. 9. Home use testing (279 hh) Central location testing (208 hh) Without nutrition information; “control” 103 hh With nutrition information provided through simulated radio 89 hh With nutrition information provided by community leaders 87hh Without nutrition information; “control” 107 hh With nutrition information provided through simulated radio 101 hh Study Design and Sample Size
  10. 10. Ethics • This research involved a number of ethical concerns being: – Invasive to the body (ingestion of food) – Interviewing vulnerable people – Interviewing children under the age of 18 years • Therefore, before the research was undertaken, the methodology was evaluated by the Research Ethics Committees of the Universities of Zambia, Zambia and Greenwich, UK. Clearance was given to undertake the research.
  11. 11. Normative Analyses • Consumer acceptability: ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze factors affecting the consumer scores using hedonic scales (on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 corresponding to ―dislike very much‖ and 5 corresponding to ―like very much‖ following Meullenet et al. (2007). • WTP: the conditional logit model was used to estimate the premia following Campbell et al. (2006) and McFadden (1974).
  12. 12.
  13. 13. The Study Districts
  14. 14. Selected Characteristics of the Sample HUT CLT Sample size (households v individuals) 279 208 % reporting maize consumption every day 98 100 % reporting nshima consumption every day 97 100 % reporting sale of maize 52 76 % reporting purchase of maize for consumption 62 63 % maize area under hybrids 57 67 % reporting receiving information about maize cultivation Of these, those who received from public extension 49 65 51 55 % reporting ownership of a radio 57 71
  15. 15. Acceptability and Message Channel
  16. 16. Acceptability and Approach
  17. 17. Acceptability and District From CLT (=Ethnic Group)
  18. 18. Ordinal logistic regression: Selected Results HUT CLT Maize=yellow -1.016 -1.166 Maize=orange 0.122 0.022 Gender 0.017 -0.302 Age 0.007 0.003 Assets 0.423 0.134 Nutrition message=Radio 0.468 -0.315 Nutrition message=Community leaders 0.803 - [Maize=yellow]*[Nutrition message=Radio] 0.468 0.045 [Maize=orange]*[Nutrition message=Radio] 0.803 0.047 [Maize=yellow]*[Nutrition message=C. leaders] 0.303 - [Maize=orange]*[Nutrition message=C. leaders] 0.526 -
  19. 19. Estimated Premia (as percent of WTP for white maize) Orange relative to white Yellow relative to white Home Use Testing No information 5 -18** Information from Radio 15** -21** Information from Community Leaders 17* -21** Central Location Testing No information 7 -19** Information from Radio 32** -11 ** at 5%; * at 10%
  20. 20. Summary of Results  Acceptability of orange=white > yellow  Acceptability is enhanced with nutrition message  No much difference in modes used for nutrition message although high magnitude for C. leaders  CLT and HUT lead to almost similar results  Factors influencing: orange+, age+/-, nutr. info+, gender (women)+; assets+, time for eating+/-; form+/-;  Premium of 15% to 32% of orange maize relative to white maize; yellow maize suffers -18% to -21% of discount compared to white maize
  21. 21. Implications/Lessons • Consumers exhibit low acceptance of yellow maize. Yellow maize is least preferred in all settings • There is no difference in consumer acceptance of orange and white maize. The negative connotation of yellow maize does not spill over to orange maize, probably because the new maize varieties also meet consumers food preferences (taste, texture, appearance, etc.) • The provision of nutrition information translates into much greater acceptance of orange maize (and a premium on its price)
  22. 22. • There is no difference in the acceptance and premium for orange maize between information received from radio messages and those received from community leaders, although a bit higher for the latter. • CLT does not translate into lower willingness to pay estimates; and although results are not strictly comparable, novelty effects appear not to matter. Further studies do not need to invest in costly HUT Implications/Lessons (Cont.)
  23. 23. In addition to strategies derived from this study others that are important for large scale delivery and success of biofortified maize are: • Good agronomic traits: high yield, resistance to pests and diseases, tolerance/adaptation to drought; • Efficient extension systems in Zambia: better integration of health care and agric extension systems at the grass roots levels; • Seed industry, millers and non-profit development partners (FOs, NGOs.) to be brought into the delivery strategies and mechanisms as earlier as possible; • Urban poor also deserve attention, therefore they need be consulted as well. Ways Forward