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  • 1. Investigating Farmers’ Choice of Pearl Millet Varieties in India Dorene Asare-Marfo, Ekin Birol and Devesh Roy
  • 2. STUDY AIM & DATA To investigate: 1. Popular varieties of pearl millet currently cultivated, 2. Farmers’ demand for various production, consumption and marketing traits, 3. Farmers’ sources of pearl millet seeds and 4. Farmers’ sources of information about new varieties. … to inform the design of targeted interventions that ensure maximum adoption of biofortified varieties.  Detailed farm household level data collected from − 2069 farm households in Maharashtra, Oct – Dec 2009 − 2144 farm households in Rajasthan, Dec 2009 – March 2010
  • 3. PEARL MILLET CULTIVATION  In Maharashtra − 66% of households cultivated pearl millet in last Kharif − 13% of households cultivated pearl millet in last Rabi − 5% of Kharif producers saw multiple varieties − Pearl millet producers have lower incomes than nonproducers  In Rajasthan − 68% of households cultivated pearl millet in last Kharif − 1% of households cultivated pearl millet in last Rabi − 5% of Kharif producers saw multiple varieties − Pearl millet producers have lower incomes than nonproducers
  • 4. POPULAR VARIETIES Rank MAHARASHTRA RAJASTHAN 1 Mahyco 204 Desi (local) 2 Pioneer 86M32 Pioneer 86M32 3 Mahyco 2210 Pioneer 86M52 4 Nirmal 9 Bayer Proagro 9444 5 Mahalaxmi 308 Eknath 301 6 Mahyco 167 Nandi 32 7 Dhanya 7870 HHB 67 Improved 8 ICTP 8203 HHB 67 9 Ganga Kaveri 1044 Guha MH 169 10 Nirmal 40 Nandi 52 Total area 82% 82% Total % of farmers 81% 72%
  • 5. VARIETY MAPS– Maharashtra
  • 6. VARIETY MAPS– Rajasthan
  • 7. MAIN USES OF PEARL MILLET  In Maharashtra a significantly larger proportion of output is sold compared to Rajasthan  In both states 20-30% of output is used for household consumption and similar proportion is used as feed  In general greater proportions of desi (local) and OPVs are consumed as food compared to hybrids  Detailed consumption data to be analysed soon
  • 8. PREFERRED TRAITS  In both states yield and fodder yield are the most important production traits  In Maharashtra other important production traits are − Resistance to smut and rust  In Rajasthan other important production traits are − Earliness in maturity  In both states the most important consumption traits are roti colour and taste  In both states the most important processing and marketing trait is reliability of buyers and demand
  • 9. SEED SOURCES  In Maharashtra − farmers’ sources of seed are agri-input supplier (60%) agri- service centres (23%) and other farmers (11%) − farmers have been growing their varieties for an average of 2 years  In Rajasthan − farmers’ sources of seed are agri-input supplier (46%), own seed (35%), other farmers (18%) and agri-service center (2%) − farmers have been growing their varieties for an average of 17 years for desi and 5 years for hybrid varieties  Agri-input shops and other sources of new varieties penetrated the seed market in Maharashtra more significantly
  • 10. INFORMATION SOURCES  In Maharashtra farmers’ main sources of information are − Other farmers – 71% − Public extension – 20% − Private extension – 7%  In Rajasthan farmers’ main sources of information are − Other farmers – 97% − Public extension – 2%  Social networks are important in both states  In Rajasthan very few farmers get information from outside the farmer “circle” and hence variety turnover is much less dynamic
  • 11. CONCLUSIONS  Agro-ecological conditions and production traits − Landraces suited to marginal environmental conditions in west Rajasthan − OPV suited to scarcity zone in Maharashtra  Consumption and marketing traits − Roti colour is very important consumption trait- benefits for invisible traits – future study − Reliability of demand is very important – need to “market” high iron varieties well to ensure market demand  Detailed consumption data not yet analysed – future study  Since small proportion of pearl millet produce is consumed at home and we may need to provide other high iron staples to combat iron deficiency
  • 12. CONCLUSIONS  Seed delivery − In Maharashtra • Seed markets are more developed than in Rajasthan • Hybrid farmers are located closer to the markets − In Rajasthan • Majority of seeds obtained from farmers • Landrace farmers are located further away from markets  Information about seed: • In Maharashtra a third of farmers get information from public and private extension but in Rajasthan only 2% of farmers get information about seed from non-farmers  Overall, more intensive efforts required in Rajasthan than in Maharashtra for adoption of biofortified varieties
  • 13.  EXTRA SLIDES
  • 14. DATA  Detailed farm household level data collected from − 2069 farm households in Maharashtra, Oct – Dec 2009 − 2144 farm households in Rajasthan, Dec 2009 – March 2010  Sampling design − Sampling frame – all blocks in the agro-ecological zones conducive to pearl millet production − Used the most recent block level data on area under pearl millet production in the chosen zones − Oversampled from blocks with higher total areas under pearl millet production − Stratification of villages (4 – 6 villages)Random selection of households in each village (10 – 20 households)
  • 15. MAHARASHTRA: Blocks sampled for farm household survey Share of agricultural land area dedicated to pearl millet production Sampled Blocks
  • 16. RAJASTHAN: Blocks sampled for farm household survey Share of agricultural land area dedicated to pearl millet production Sampled Blocks