P29: Basic Kinesics for the Investigator

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P29: Basic Kinesics for the Investigator

  1. 1. BASIC KINESICS FOR THE INTERVIEWER / INVESTIGATOR Atty. Harve B. Abella, Esq.
  2. 2. FACIAL ACTION CODING SYSTEM • Psychologists-PAUL EKMAN and TOMKIN- agreed that there was a common set of rules that governed the facial expressions human beings made.We can pick up fleeting micro expressions on our faces that signal what our authentic feelings really are Ekman and Wallace Friesen , created a taxonomy of facial expressions. • Human face can make 43 distinct muscular movement. • There are 300 combinations of two muscles, if you add in a third you get over 3000. We took it up to five muscles, which is over 10,000 visible facial configurations. • Ekman said “ Most of the 10,000 facial expressions do not mean anything. They are the kinds of nonsense faces children make”. • However Ekman & Friesen identified about 3000 expressions that comprise the essential repertoire of human facial displays of emotions.
  3. 3. • FROM THE INSIDE OUT Expression alone is sufficicient to create marked changes in the autonomic nervous system.-fear, anger,anguish heartbeat would go up,hands get hot etc. • The process also works in the opposite direction as well.Emotions can also start on the face. • The face is not a secondary billboard for our feelings.it is a partner in the emotional process. • FLASHES OF TRUTH Many facial expressions can be made voluntarily but often some part of another emotion that we are trying to suppress leaks out. • Facial expressions can be reformed and corrected.
  4. 4. APPEARANCE • The final area of kinesics is appearance. • Appearance includes clothes, hair, jewelry, cosmetics and such. It accents our body movements and how we are perceived. • Appearance tells others how we want to be seen. How we practice the “rules” of the game in an organization. • If you changed your appearance drastically- from formal to informal, for example- how would others respond? • When do you give your appearance special attention? These occasions tell you about the importance of appearance. • Most people indicate they are not influenced by another’s physical appearance,but apparently they are. • Expect your appearance to a part of the messages you communicate,and should plan your appearance so that it will effectively communicate to others.
  5. 5. BODY SHAPE AND POSTURE • Body shape and posture are a part of Kinesics. Body shape and posture affect how we think about ourselves, how we relate to others, and how others relate to us even though body shape is mostly hereditary and largely uncontrollable. • When we encounter an unfamiliar situation, we become more aware of body shape and posture- interview or a formal speech. • Posture is part of any relationship, regardless of your degree of awareness. Whether you lean forward/backward ,stand or sit erectly,or slouch ,you tell another person something. • The others mental filter gives meaning to your posture.
  6. 6. • Behaviorists have studied the shapes of our bodies and have identified three types. The ectomorph is thin, youthful, and tall; the mesomorph is strong, athletic, muscular and bony; the endomorph is fat, round, and soft. • Indeed our physical structures communicate something about us. Perhaps these body types lead to false stereotypes, but the point remains that our physical structures do communicate.
  7. 7. 07/11/14 Nature vs. nurture • Some body language is inherited and consistent among all humans. Other body language is not. • The use and recognition of certain fundamental facial expressions are now generally accepted to be consistent and genetically determined among all humans regardless of culture. • However the use and recognition of less fundamental physical gestures (hand movements for example, or the winking of an eye), and aspects of personal space distances, are now generally accepted to be environmentally determined (learned, rather than inherited), which is significantly dependent on local society groups and cultures.
  8. 8. 07/11/14 North America: OK Russia, Brazil, Turkey: An orifice signal; sexual insult; gay man Tunisia, France, Belgium: Zero; worthless Japan: Money; coins Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Malta: Up yours! USA: Two Germany: Victory France: Peace Cultural hand signals
  9. 9. 07/11/14 Most western countries: Two Greece Go to Hell! Bali: Bad Japan: Woman South America: Thin France: You can't fool me! Mediterranean: Small penis
  10. 10. 07/11/14 Widespread use : OK, good, hitchhike Many Europoean countries: one Australia: sit on this! (a_s hole) Western countries: Number 5 Could also mean in many countries: Stop! Greece and Turkey: Go to hell!
  11. 11. 07/11/14 Sneering
  12. 12. 07/11/14 ‘Sneering’ involves baring the teeth and flaring nostrils usually signals anger and irritation. Among apes, baring the teeth signals an impending attack while flaring nostrils allows more oxygenated blood to flow. Humans still carry the expression as part of evolutionary heritage.
  13. 13. 07/11/14 Universal facial expressions • Anger • Disgust • Fear • Surprise • Sadness • Joy Charles Darwin (1872). The Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals P Ekman, E R Sorenson and W V Friesen (1969) Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion, Science Vol 164, No 3875, 4 Apr 1969
  14. 14. 07/11/14 • Ekman's work included isolated tribes-people who could not have been influenced by Western media and images, and essentially proved that Darwin was right - i.e., that the use and recognition of facial expressions to convey certain basic human emotions is part of human evolved nature, genetically inherited, and not dependent on social learning or conditioning.
  15. 15. 07/11/14 Neutral
  16. 16. 07/11/14 Anger
  17. 17. 07/11/14 Disgust
  18. 18. 07/11/14 Fear
  19. 19. 07/11/14 Surprise
  20. 20. 07/11/14 Sadness
  21. 21. 07/11/14 Real enjoyment/genuine smile
  22. 22. 07/11/14 Feigned enjoyment/polite smile
  23. 23. 07/11/14 Contempt
  24. 24. 07/11/14 Shame
  25. 25. 07/11/14 Rules for Better Reading • 1) Read Gestures in Cluster – Each gesture is like a single word and one word may have several different meanings. – Gestures come in ‘sentences’ called “clusters”. – A body language cluster, just like a verbal sentence, needs around three words in it before one can approximate what each ‘word’ means.
  26. 26. 07/11/14 Example Critical evaluation cluster: hand-to-face gesture (main signal) + cross arms + tightly cross legs + head and chin down
  27. 27. 07/11/14 Rules for Better Reading • 2) Look for congruence – When available, try to find validation in the verbal message – Studies show that when verbal and non-verbal message are incongruent, women tend to follow the non-verbal cue – A person saying something different from how he is behaving non-verbally is usually less believable
  28. 28. 07/11/14 Examples of incongruence • Your BF or GF is saying all the ‘right words’ but avoids your gaze • Your subordinate says its alright for him to do overtime as you requested but you can see the sneer in his face
  29. 29. 07/11/14 Rules for Better Reading • 3) Read gestures in context – Example: a person, chin down, crossing both legs and arms in a cold night outside may not be acting defensive but plainly feeling cold – But if the person was acting the same way in a setting which was not warm and did not act that way until you started blaming him for the failure of a business engagement, may be acting defensively.
  30. 30. 07/11/14 Hands • Hands out with palms upward – “I’m a peace maker” – Asking for help • Palms-in movement – Similar to palms upward but with drawing motion; also may be waving hands around as long as its facing the speaker/actor – May indicate invitation or ‘sweet’ attempts at persuasion
  31. 31. 07/11/14 • Palms down and Palms out – Dominating move; authority; holding others at bay while you speak; may mean you already made up your mind and not open to input; you are firm with your message; sometimes viewed as hostility; – Notice two lovers holding hands while walking, may sometimes indicate who is on the ‘upper hand’. – Palms down, may usually change or combined with to palms out which basically means the same except the latter is more forceful – Palms out became a fad in the 90’s “talk to the hand”
  32. 32. 07/11/14 • Fist – Newborns squalling usually curl their hands into a tight fist. This is observed even with deaf or blind babies indicating that it is not a learned gesture but an inborn response to anger or frustration – The difficulty nowadays is that it is used in many ways even in jest
  33. 33. 07/11/14 • A hand with open fingers generally displays open- mindedness • Tightly close fingers indicate person is uptight and rigid • The best way to interpret open or close fingers is when seen together with palms down or palms up position. • Ex. Palms down with fingers apart may mean: “I feel strongly about my position but I may also be willing to hear things”
  34. 34. 07/11/14 • Nervousness signs: wringing hands, pulling or bending fingers, digging nails on the fist, drumming fingertips on table tops usually show anxiety • Self touches may also indicate that all is not well since it is a way of self comfort – Rubbing the face (nose or chin) – Rubbing forearms – Crossing arms in a tight hug – Cracking knuckles – Clasping hands together tightly – Clenching hands in a fist
  35. 35. 07/11/14 • Boredom signs: finger tapping, facial rubbing, supporting head with hand, knuckle cracking, any motion to rouse the person (slapping own self) • Notice that some of these signs are also signs of boredom thus one must be observant for other cues
  36. 36. 07/11/14 Classic gesture of Boredom
  37. 37. 07/11/14 Evaluation is shown by a closed hand resting on the chin or cheek, often with the index finger pointing upwards. When the person begins to lose interest but still wants to appear interested the position will alter so that the heel of the palm supports the head as boredom sets in.
  38. 38. 07/11/14 When the index finger points vertically up the cheek and the thumb supports the chin, the listener is having negative or critical thoughts about the speaker or his subject.
  39. 39. 07/11/14 Chin Stroke is the signal that the listener is going through the decision- making process
  40. 40. 07/11/14 • Research found those who habitually rub the back of the neck have a tendency to be negative or critical, whereas those who habitually rub their foreheads to non-verbalize an error tend to be more open and easy-going. • NOTE: hand-to-face gestures can easily be misinterpreted
  41. 41. 07/11/14 • Politicians – The more powerful the politician the more controlled the hand movements – Many politicians rehearse their hand gestures •Bush showing his hand in the podium, “I have nothing to hide” •Marcos pounding his fist, “I intend to pursue the point” – Squeezing against the thumb against the fingertips avoids intimidating the audience (Tony Blair style) •In a study, subjects shown this gesture tend to interpret the doer as someone who is ‘thoughtful’, ‘goal oriented’ and focused. While those who used pointed finger were viewed as ‘aggressive’, ‘belligerent’ and ‘rude’
  42. 42. 07/11/14 Thumb squeezed against fingertips
  43. 43. 07/11/14 Handshakes • Dominance: turning hand so that palm faces slightly down • Submission: turning hand so that palm faces slightly up • Equality: both hands in vertical position. This creates a feeling of equality and mutual respect.
  44. 44. 07/11/14 Other hand gestures
  45. 45. 07/11/14 • Hands on the back- emotions attached to this gesture is superiority, confidence and power • Thumb displays – in general, usually indicate several things including dominance and assertiveness. It also shows confident and sometimes authoritative and aggressive attitudes. To be understood, it needs to be read in a cluster. – People who wear high-status or prestige clothing usually display their thumbs.
  46. 46. 07/11/14 Hands clenched indicates frustration even when smiling.
  47. 47. 07/11/14 Steeple usually signal confident attitude. It is usually used in a superior- subordinate interaction.
  48. 48. 07/11/14 Face Platter: Used mainly by women and gay men to attract a man’s attention
  49. 49. 07/11/14 Crossed-arms • We respond normally to external threats by hiding behind a barrier. As children we hide behind something when we are in threatening situations. At the end of pre-school age (4-6) we usually learn to ‘create a barrier by folding our arms tightly across our chest when we are threatened. During teens, we make our crossed arms less obvious by relaxing it a little and combining it perhaps with crossed-legs. As adults we become more sophisticated in making it less obvious to others. • Monkeys and chimps also crossed-arms to protect themselves from frontal attack • The gesture is a classic sign of protective gesture. People who feel nervous, threatened, in a defensive or negative attitude would tend to also do the gesture.
  50. 50. 07/11/14 • In a study, students who were instructed to tightly crossed their arms while listening to a lecture had 38% less retention than those not closing their arms, legs and were in a more relaxed position. • Studies also show that observer reaction to a person crossing arms tended to be negative compared to someone who did not cross arms
  51. 51. 07/11/14 • Clenched fist arms-crossed show hostile attitude • Double arm grip crossed arms- showing feelings of insecurity and not buying what is being told. • Crossed-arms with thumbs up – defensive but wants to think he is still ok or cool
  52. 52. 07/11/14 Posture and Legs • Slouching • A subtle characteristic wherein others usually ‘feel’ there is something wrong but can’t put their finger on. • Aside from creating possible physical aches it also projects negative personality images: – Illness – Boredom – Insecurity – Shyness – Indifference – Unsure of one’s self – Don’t appear to be interesting
  53. 53. 07/11/14 • Slouching makes you appear smaller • Straightening the spine (sitting or standing straight) is one way to transform appearance. – The person appears •Taller •More interested •More confident • May also indicate readiness for action – Animals standing and trying to make itself appear large usually indicate feeling threatened and would attack.
  54. 54. 07/11/14 • Body parts in the lower region are usually far from one’s awareness so most of the time less controlled. • Legs and feet are important sources of information because people do not pay so much awareness in them like they do with their face gestures and they usually do not consider faking them
  55. 55. 07/11/14 • A person may look composed in the upper body but would show feet tapping or short air jabs of the feet as if indicating the frustration at not being able to escape the situation or feeling anxious • Feet jiggling is similar to the idea of getting away from what is experience. It is usually a sign of discomfort and nervousness. – To make use of this action fully, try to look for congruence/incongruence in the verbal language
  56. 56. 07/11/14 • Experiments showed (using managers as respondents) that when subjects lied they increased their foot movements. Most of the respondents faked their facial gestures or controlled hand movements when lying but are usually unaware of the increased movements in foot or/and legs • Studies also showed that observers tend to catch lies better when they see the entire body of the subject.
  57. 57. 07/11/14 4 main legs position At Attention • This is a formal position that shows a neutral attitude with no commitment to stay or go. • In male—female encounters, it is used more by women than men as it effectively keeps the legs together like a 'No Comment' signal. • Used often by subordinates when talking with superiors
  58. 58. 07/11/14 Legs Apart • This is predominantly a male gesture and is like a standing Crotch Display. • The Crotch Displayer plants both feet firmly on the ground, making a clear statement that he has no intention of leaving. • It is used as a dominance signal by men because it highlights the genitals, giving the Crotch Displayer a macho-looking attitude.
  59. 59. 07/11/14 • Foot-Forward • The body weight is shifted to one hip, which leaves the front foot pointing forward. • A clue to a person's immediate intentions, because we point our lead foot in the direction our mind would like to go. • In a group situation, we point our lead foot at the most interesting or attractive person but when we want to leave, we point our feet at the nearest exit.
  60. 60. 07/11/14 Leg Cross (while standing) • Usually casual or indicating being reserved. • In certain situations where a person is with strangers, the leg cross is done together with the arm cross and there is some distance between the person and others.
  61. 61. 07/11/14 • Standing hands on hip • Posturing for authority, sometimes associated with aggressiveness. Standing two feet on the ground makes one look bigger, and this is exaggerated when hands are on hips.
  62. 62. 07/11/14 Mouth • Compressing lips – classing sign of anger • Puckered lips – (lip shape when one is about to kiss) a sign of affection (e.g. love, sensuality or sexual harassment!) • Purse lips – the shape is between compressed and puckered lips. Usually indicates anger, confusion or disagreement on some level. • Pouting – sadness, anger or frustration. May also be done as a playful gesture.
  63. 63. 07/11/14 • Licking the lips – a gesture often misunderstood especially by men. It can send a variety of message depending on who is doing the licking and the setting. • Jaw drop – shocked, confused • Jaw locked - lower jaw appear like it is set in stone; anger, tension, sadness
  64. 64. 07/11/14 • Smiling – happy. • A real smile is… – Lips move or curl upward – Nose may crinkle slightly – Nostrils may flare – Muscles around the eyes are fully engaged • A fake smile is… – Lips move laterally towards the ears – Muscles and features of the rest of the face remain somewhat stagnant
  65. 65. 07/11/14 Eyes • Raising eyebrows – a way of emphasizing what is said; can also indicate confusion. It is also perceived as submissive signal in both humans and apes • those not used to lying, this is good indicator of telling the truth; for perennial liars, raising brows could mean that it’s a lie. • When someone raises brows while questioning, notice other signs (open mouth or flared nostrils) then it would indicate that he has concerns of what you are saying. • Single eye brow raise- often means “I don’t believe you”. • Lowering brows is showing dominance and aggression
  66. 66. 07/11/14 • Blinking – the average person blinks about 20 times a minute. More than the average usually means excitement or anxiety. • Squinting – when you squint to someone who is talking to you the impression is generally you are doubting what he or she is saying. Even if the real reason of your squint is you can’t see clearly. • Half-closed eye – boredom and fatigue • Open eyes – usually interpreted as fully present at the moment • Eyes that are too open – (showing white part) may indicate fear
  67. 67. 07/11/14 • Dilating pupils – Excitement, mental activity (e.g. problem solving and fully dilates in finding a solution) • Contracting pupils – angry, negative mood • Eyebrow flash – eyebrows rise rapidly and drops again with the intention of drawing attention to the face. This is usually used as a ‘hello’ signal or social greeting and is found to be present in apes and monkeys
  68. 68. 07/11/14 • Studies show that people tend to read eye areas well than any other body parts and women are better than men. • Autistic people, in general have a deficiency in reading body language even if they have high IQs. Researchers suspect this as the reason for their poor social relations
  69. 69. • You are seen before you are heard. • Movements if they are significant are learned. We pride them as a part of society. • Strong and weak body language – examine the slides: BODY LANGUAGEBODY LANGUAGE
  70. 70. THE BODYTHE BODY LANGUAGELANGUAGE OF POWEROF POWER
  71. 71. THE BODYTHE BODY LANGUAGE OFLANGUAGE OF WEAKNESSWEAKNESS
  72. 72. GESTURE CLUSTERS • Body language consists of word, sentences and punctuation. • Each gesture is like a single word e.g. Scratching, lying, fleas, dandruff, sweating, uncertainty or forgetfulness. • Critical – seen by the fact that the legs are tightly cross and arms crosses the body (defensive) head and chin are down (hostility) sentenced - i don’t like what you are saying and i disagree with you. • Status power or prestige is also directly related to the number of gestures or body movements he uses. • As a general rule the higher the person on the socio-economic scale, the less gesticulation and body movement he uses.
  73. 73. SHOULDER SHRUG
  74. 74. COMMON CRITICAL EVALUATION CLUSTER
  75. 75. WAY A CHILD TELLS A LIE
  76. 76. ADULT TELLING A LIE
  77. 77. SMOKE DOWN : Negative, secretive, suspicious SMOKE UP : Confident, superior, positive
  78. 78. TERRITORIES AND ZONES • Dr. EDWARD T.HALL STUDIED MAN’S PERSONAL SPACE , HE COINED THE WORD PROXEMICS – • SENSE OF TERRITORY IS INBORN IN ANIMALS. HUMANS LIKE ANIMALS INDICATE THEIR OWNERSHIP OF THIS ESTABLISHED TERRITORY AND WILL CONSEQUENTLY DEFENDED AGAINST ALL INVASION. E.g.- 2nd SESSION • SUBSTANCE OF CONVERSATION CAN OFTEN DEMAND HANDLING OF SPACE. E.g.- TELLING A SECRET- NEGATES THE CONFIDENTIALITY OF THE MESSAGE ITSELF. • THE PROXEMICS OF HOME IS AN INTERESTING STUDY. • POLICE INTERROGATORS USE TERRITORIAL INVASION TECHNICS TO BREAK DOWN THE RESISTANCE OF THE CRIMINALS. • CULTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE ZONE DISTANCES • COUNTRY Vs CITY SPATIAL ZONES
  79. 79. • As the density of the crowd increases, each individual has less personal space and takes a hostile stand, which is why, as the size of the mob increases, it becomes angrier and uglier. This information is used by the police, and they try to break up the crowd so that each person can regain his own personal space and so become calmer.
  80. 80. ACCEPTABLE CONVERSATIONAL DISTANCE - 46 CMS
  81. 81. NEGATIVE REACTION OF A WOMAN WHEN TERRITORY IS ENCROACHED
  82. 82. WOMEN FROM A COUNTRY TOWN GREETING EACH OTHER
  83. 83. WOMEN FROM A TOWN GREETING EACH OTHER
  84. 84. MEN FROM CITY GREET EACH OTHER
  85. 85. FOLKS FROM A SPARSELY POPULATED AREA
  86. 86. GESTURE SHOWING PRIDE OF OWNERSHIP
  87. 87. HAND AND ARM GESTURE • RESEARCH BY NIERENBERG AND CALERO ON THE HANDS- CLENCHED POSITION BROUGHT TO THE CONCLUSION THAT THIS WAS A FRUSTRATION GESTURE, SIGNALLING THAT THE PERSON WAS HOLDING BACK A NEGATIVE ATTITUDE. • STEEPLING - CAN BE AN EXCEPTION TO THESE RULES. IT IS OFTEN USED IN ISOLATION OF OTHER GESTURES.
  88. 88. HANDS CLENCHED IN RAISED POSITION HANDS CLENCHED IN LOWER POSITION
  89. 89. THE UPPER ARM GRIP THE HAND GRIPPING WRIST GESTURE THE SUPERIORITY – CONFIDENCE GESTURE
  90. 90. RUBBING THE PALMS TOGETHER HANDS CLENCHED IN MIDDLE POSITION
  91. 91. THE LOWERED STEEPLE THE RAISED STEEPLE
  92. 92. THUMB DISPLAYS • In palmistry, the thumbs denote strength of character and ego and the non verbal use of thumb agrees with this. • Thumb displays are positive signals, they are secondary gestures, a supportive part of gesture cluster. • Thumbs protruding from pockets shows dominant attitude. • Arms folded with thumbs pointing upwards is a double signal, -defensive, negative attitude plus a superior attitude. • Closed fist thumb gesture can be used as a signal of ridicule and disrespect when it is used to point at a another person.
  93. 93. THUMBS PROTUDING FROM BACK POCKETS IN MY HUMBLE OPINION…
  94. 94. THE THUMBS GESTURE IN COAT THUMBS-UP POSITION
  95. 95. OK GESTURE
  96. 96. THUMB-UP GESTURE
  97. 97. THE V SIGN
  98. 98. HAND TO FACE GESTURES • THE MOUTH GUARDTHE MOUTH GUARD THE BRAIN SUB-CONSICOUSLY INSTRUCTS TO TRY AND SUPPRESS THE DECEITFUL WORDS THAT ARE BEING SAID. • NOSE TOUCHINGNOSE TOUCHING IS SOPHISTICATED, DISGUISED VERSION OF THE MOUTH GUARD. LYING CAUSES THE DELICATE NERVE ENDING IN THE NOSE TO TINGLE • THE EYE RUBTHE EYE RUB THIS GESTURE IS THE BRAIN’S ATTEMPT TO BLOCK OUT THE DECEIT, DOUBT OR LIE THAT IT SEES OR TO AVOID HAVING TO LOOK AT THE FACE OF THE PERSON TO WHOM HE IS TELLING THE LIE. • THE EAR RUBTHE EAR RUB AN ATTEMPT BY THE LISTENER TO BLOCK THE WORDS “HEAR NO EVIL” OR THAT A PERSON HAS HEARD ENOUGH OR MAY WANT TO SPEAK.
  99. 99. HAVING NEGATIVE THOUGHTS MAKING A DECISION
  100. 100. EVALUATION, DECISION, BOREDOM CLUSTER THE MOUTH GUARD
  101. 101. THE NOSE TOUCH INTERESTED EVALUATION
  102. 102. THE EYE RUB THE COLLAR PULL
  103. 103. HAND TO FACE GESTURE • THE NECK SCRATCHTHE NECK SCRATCH THE PERSON SCRACTHES ABOUT FIVE TIMES - IS A SIGNAL OF DOUBT OR UNCERTAINITY AND IS CHARACTERISTIC OF A PERSON WHO SAYS “ I M NOT SURE I AGREE” • THE COLLAR PULLTHE COLLAR PULL DESMOND MORRIS RESEARCHED THAT TELLING OF A LIE CAUSED A TINGLING SENSATION IN THE DELICATE FACIAL AND NECK TISSUES. IT IS ALMOST AS IF THE LIE CAUSES A SLIGHT TRICKLE OF SWEAT TO FORM ON THE NECK WHEN THE DECEIVER FEELS THAT YOU SUSPECT HE IS LYING.
  104. 104. THE NOSE TOUCH THE EAR RUB THE NECK SCRATCH
  105. 105. PAIN IN THE NECK GESTURE REASSURANCE IS NEEDED HERE BOREDOM
  106. 106. ARM BARRIERSARM BARRIERS HIDING BEHIND A BARRIER IS A NORMAL HUMAN RESPONSE THAT WE LEARN AT AN EARLY AGE TO PROTECT OURSELVES. TESTS REVEALTHAT, WHEN A LISTENER FOLDS HIS ARMS,NOT ONLY HE HAS MORE NEGATIVE THOUGHTS ABOUT THE SPEAKER, BUT ALSO PAYS LESS ATTENTION TO WHAT IS BEING SAID- 38% IT IS FOR THIS REASON TRAINING CENTERS HAVE CHAIRS WITH ARMS.
  107. 107. STANDARD ARM-CROSS GESTURESTANDARD ARM-CROSS GESTURE - IS AN ATTEMPT TO HIDE FROM AN UNFAVOURABLE SITUATION COMMONLY SEEN WHEN THE PERSON IS AMONGST THE STRANGERS, PUBLIC MEETING, QUEUES, CAFETERIAS, ELEVATORS, OR ANYWHERE PEOPLE FEEL UNCERTAIN OR INSECURE. PARTIAL ARM/ BARRIERPARTIAL ARM/ BARRIER - IS OFTEN SEEN AT MEETINGS WHERE A PERSON MAY BE A STRANGER TO THE GROUP OR IS LACKING IN SELF-CONFIDENCE. IT ALLOWS A PERON TO RELIVE THE EMOTIONAL SECURITY THAT HE EXPERIENCED AS A CHILD WHEN HIS PARENTS HELD HIS HANDS UNDER FEARFUL CIRCUMSTANCES. ARM BARRIERSARM BARRIERS
  108. 108. DISGUISED NERVOUSNESS FIST SHOWS A HOSTILE ATTITUDE
  109. 109. ARM BARRIERS SUPERIOR ATTITUDE HOLDING HANDS WITH ONESELF
  110. 110. COLD, NOT DEFENSIVE
  111. 111. PARTIAL ARM BARRIER BOOKS AS A BARRIER
  112. 112. DEFENSIVE STANDING POSITION STANDARD ARM CROSS
  113. 113. LEG BARRIERS • THE STANDARD LEG-CROSS POSITIONTHE STANDARD LEG-CROSS POSITION MAY BE USED TO SHOW A NERVOUS, RESERVED OR DEFENSIVE ATTITUDE. HOWEVER THIS SHOULD NOT BE INTERPRETED IN ISOLATION OR OUT OF CONTEXT. • THE AMERICAN FIGURE 4 LEG LOCK POSITIONTHE AMERICAN FIGURE 4 LEG LOCK POSITION INDICATES THAT AN ARGUEMENTATIVE OR COMPETITIVE ATTITUDE EXITS. • FIGURE 4 LEG CLAMPFIGURE 4 LEG CLAMP SIGN OF THE TOUGH MINDED, STUBBORN INDIVIDUAL WHO MAY NEED A SPECIAL APPROACH TO BREAK THROUH HIS RESISTANCE. • STANDING LEG CROSS GESTURESTANDING LEG CROSS GESTURE GENERALLY MOST PEOPLE STAND LIKE THIS WHEN THEY ARE AMONG PEOPLE WHOM THEY DO NOT KNOW WELL. • THE ANKLE LOCK GESTURETHE ANKLE LOCK GESTURE OBSERVATION HAVE REVEALED THAT HE IS TRYING TO HOLD BACK A NEGATIVE ATTITUDE, EMOTION, NERVOUSNESS OR FEAR. • THE FOOT LOCKTHE FOOT LOCK IT IS ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY USED BY WOMEN. SHOWS THAT SHE HAS BECOME A MENTAL RECLUSE OR HAS RETREATED INTO HER SHELL.
  114. 114. AMERICAN 4 LEG LOCK POSITION ARMS LOCK THE LEG IN PLACE
  115. 115. CLOSED BODY & CLOSED ATTITUDE OPEN BODY & OPEN ATTITUDE
  116. 116. FEMALE – ANKLE LOCK SEATED FOOT LOCK POSITION STANDING FOOT LOCK POSITION
  117. 117. THE STANDARD LEG CROSS WOMAN SHOWING DISPLEASURE
  118. 118. • EYES ARE STEELY, KNOWING, MOCKING, PIERCING, GLOWING AND SO ON. • IS THERE SUCH A THING AS A BURNING GLANCE OR A HURT GLANCE. • FAR FROM BEING WINDOWS OF THE SOUL EYES ARE PHYSIOLOGICALLY DEAD ENDS, SIMPLY ORGANS OF SIGHT BUT NEVER REALLY CAPABLE OF EXPRESSING EMOTION IN THEMSELVES. • EYES CAN TRANSMIT THE MOST SUBTLE NUANCES, THE EMOTIONAL IMPACT OF THE EYES OCCUR BECAUSE OF THEIR USE AND THE USE OF THE FACE AROUND THEM. • THE LENGTH OF GLANCE, BY OPENING OF EYELIDS, BY SQUINTING AND BY A DOZEN LITTLE MANIPULATONS OF THE SKIN AND EYES, ALMOST ANY MEANING CAN BE SENT OUT. EYE SIGNALSEYE SIGNALS
  119. 119. GAZE BEHAVIOUR • IT IS ONLY WHEN YOU SEE EYE TO EYE WITH ANOTHER PERSON THAT A REAL BASIS FOR COMMUNICATION CAN BE ESTABLISH. • LIKE MOST BODY LANGUAGE AND GESTURE, THE LENGTH OF TIME THAT ONE PERSON GAZES AT ANOTHER IS CULTURALLY DETERMINED . • NOT ONLY IS THE LENGTH OF THE GAZE SIGNIFICANT; JUST AS IMPORTANT IS THE GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OF THE PERSON’S FACE AND BODY AT WHICH YOU DIRECT YOUR GAZES.THESE SIGNALS ARE TRANSMITTED AND RECEIVED NON-VERBALLY AND ARE ACCURATELLY INTERPRETED BY THE RECIEVER.
  120. 120. THE BUISNESS GAZE
  121. 121. THE SOCIAL GAZE
  122. 122. THE INTIMATE GAZE
  123. 123. OTHER POPULAR GESTURES AND ACTION • STRANDDLING A CHAIR -STRANDDLING A CHAIR - SYMBOLISES THE SAME PROTECTIVE BEHAVIOR TO SHIELD HIMSELF WHEN UNDER PHYSICAL OR VERBAL ATTACK. • PICKING IMAGINERY LINT -PICKING IMAGINERY LINT - WHEN A PERSON DISAPPROVES OF THE OPINIONS OR ATTITUDES OF OTHERS BUT FEELS CONSTRAINED IN GIVING HIS POINT OF VIEW. THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST COMMON SIGANLS OF DISAPPROVAL AND INDICATES HE DOES NOT LIKE WHAT IS BEING SAID EVEN THOUGH HE MAY BE VERBALLY AGREEING WITH EVERYTHING. • HEAD GESTURE -HEAD GESTURE - HEAD UP IS THE POSITION TAKEN BY A PERSON WHO HAS A NEUTRAL ATTITUDE ABOUT WHAT HE IS HEARING.  WHEN THE HEAD TILTS TO ONE SIDE IT SHOWS THATWHEN THE HEAD TILTS TO ONE SIDE IT SHOWS THAT INTEREST HAS DEVELOPED.INTEREST HAS DEVELOPED.  WHEN THE HEAD IS DOWN IT SIGNALS THAT THE ATTITUDE ISWHEN THE HEAD IS DOWN IT SIGNALS THAT THE ATTITUDE IS NEGATIVE AND EVEN JUDGEMENTAL.NEGATIVE AND EVEN JUDGEMENTAL.  BOTH HANDS BEHIND THE HEAD “I HAVE ALL THE ANSWERS,BOTH HANDS BEHIND THE HEAD “I HAVE ALL THE ANSWERS, “EVERYTHING’S UNDERCONTROL – FEELING CONFIDENT,“EVERYTHING’S UNDERCONTROL – FEELING CONFIDENT, DOMINANT OR SUPERIOR ABOUT SOMETHING.DOMINANT OR SUPERIOR ABOUT SOMETHING.
  124. 124. THE STRADDLER
  125. 125. THE LINT PICKER ‘MAY BE SOMEDAY YOU’LL BE AS SMART AS I AM.’
  126. 126. DEFENSIVE DEPRESSED
  127. 127. EXCITED REJECTING
  128. 128. CONFIDENT THOUGHTFUL
  129. 129. I AM JUST AS SMART AS YOU ARE
  130. 130. THIRD PERSON NOT ACCEPTED BY FIRST TWO
  131. 131. BODY POINTING IS USED TO EXCLUDE THE MAN ON THE RIGHT
  132. 132. AGGRESSIVE DESCRIPTIONDESCRIPTION Angry, Sarcastic , Being a bad listener, Putting people down , Blaming others, Shouting , Raising one’s voice , Overly critical. BODY LANGUAGEBODY LANGUAGE Clenched fists, Confrontational pose, Tense body posture, Hands on hips, Head tilted, Finger pointing, Prolonged eye contact, Narrowing eyes, Looking down on others.
  133. 133. SUBMISSIVESUBMISSIVE DESCRIPTION BODY LANGUAGE Apologetic,Apologetic, Self depreciating,Self depreciating, Resentful,Resentful, Low self-esteem,Low self-esteem, Retreating,Retreating, Too ready to please.Too ready to please. Fidgety,Fidgety, Covering mouth and eyes,Covering mouth and eyes, Stumped posture,Stumped posture, Nervous deposition,Nervous deposition, Fiddling,Fiddling, Poor eye contact,Poor eye contact, Quite,Quite, Faltering voice,Faltering voice, Pleading smile,Pleading smile, Tendency towards obsequiousness.Tendency towards obsequiousness.
  134. 134. ASSERTIVEASSERTIVE DESCRIPTION BODY LANGUAGE Sincere, Open, Honest, Respectful, Sympathetic, Firm but fair, Offering constructive Criticism, Good listener, Offering praise where due, Treating people as equals. Upright,Upright, Relaxed posture,Relaxed posture, Face-to-face eye contact,Face-to-face eye contact, Calm and open gestures,Calm and open gestures, Relaxed facial expression,Relaxed facial expression, Maintaining reasonableMaintaining reasonable distance from subject (not toodistance from subject (not too close for comfort),close for comfort), Resonant speech,Resonant speech, Unambiguous hand signals.Unambiguous hand signals.
  135. 135. MANIPULATIVEMANIPULATIVE DESCRIPTION BODY LANGUAGE Patronizing,Patronizing, Exaggerate gestures (such as openExaggerate gestures (such as open Crafty,Crafty, palms to indicate deliberate sincerity),palms to indicate deliberate sincerity), Calculating,Calculating, Overly laid back posture,Overly laid back posture, Insincere,Insincere, Patronizing touching,Patronizing touching, Two – faced,Two – faced, Exaggerated eye contact,Exaggerated eye contact, A “user”,A “user”, Sugary voice tone,Sugary voice tone, Lacking trust,Lacking trust, PattingPatting Overly friendly,Overly friendly, Making ends justify means,Making ends justify means, ContrivedContrived
  136. 136. TEN GESTURES THAT USUALLY FAILTEN GESTURES THAT USUALLY FAIL • Standing rigid with your arms at your sides • Clutching your chest with both arms • Gripping the podium or projector with white knuckles showing • Playing with hair, clothing or face • Clasping hands behind you • Mismatching gestures and words • Shrugging when making assertions • Shrugging immediately after the talk • Tugging at clothing • Moving extraneously in any way
  137. 137. SEVEN GESTURES THAT USUALLY WORKSEVEN GESTURES THAT USUALLY WORK • Resting arms comfortably • Opening arms and palms (if the words match) • Enumerating with the hand (don’t make this your only gesture and never do it more than once in a presentation) • Tenting the fingers • Sweeping arm from one side to the other to show movement or progress • Chopping from top to bottom side to side to match a parallel series • Avoiding extraneous movement
  138. 138. WEEK BODY LANGUAGEWEEK BODY LANGUAGE • Looks nervous • Plays with pencil or notes • Reads or mumbles talk • Rustles transparencies • Whispers to someone nearby • Slouches with legs apart or scrunches body • Crosses legs and keeps one moving • Grips notes with both hands • Closes fists • Crosses arms tightly over chest
  139. 139. STRONG BODY LANGUAGESTRONG BODY LANGUAGE • Sits straight , leaning slightly forward • Attends closely to the previous speakers • Takes notes (perhaps to refer to when her turn comes) • Places feet comfortably flat on the floor or crossed • Rests comfortably (if not taking notes) • Surveys audience to spot potential problems with line of sight or hearing • Looks relaxed • Smiles when appropriate • Seems to enjoy
  140. 140. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION • TOUCH: Often the swiftest and the obvious type of body language. Touch spells a more vivid and direct message than a dozen of words, but such a touch must come at the right moment and in the right context. Touch varies from culture to culture. • TYPES OF TOUCH: Compulsive- completely impervious to all messages. Assertive- Gentle, empathy. Passive- minimal. Aggressive- firm, jabbing, pointing without touching.
  141. 141. TWO BASIC GROUP OF BL POSTURES: • OPEN CLOSED: Accepting or rejecting messages. • FORWARD BACK: Actively or passively reactive to communication. • Posture group combine to create four basic modes. • Responsive mode: open/forward-actively accepting, time to close the sale/deal, ask for agreement, demand a concession. • Reflective mode: open/back- interested and receptive but not actively accepting. Time to present further facts and incentives, time to keep quiet and let him think. • Fugitive mode: closed/back- trying to escape physically or mentally into boredom, time to spark interest even if irrelevant.
  142. 142. • Combative mode: closed / Forward - there is active resistance, try to soften, defuse anger, avoid contradictions, outright arguments. Steer towards reflective mode.
  143. 143. OPENOPEN FORWARDFORWARD CLOSEDCLOSED BACKBACK RESPONSIVE REFLECTIVE COMBATIVE FUGITIVE 4 BASIC MODES
  144. 144. FOUR BASIC MODES OF BODYFOUR BASIC MODES OF BODY LANGUAGE IN BUISNESSLANGUAGE IN BUISNESS RESPONSIVE REFELECTIVE FUGITIVE COMBATIVE EngagedEngaged ListeningListening BoredBored Let me speakLet me speak Leaning forwardLeaning forward Head tiltedHead tilted Staring intoStaring into spacespace Finger tappingFinger tapping Open bodyOpen body Lots of eyeLots of eye contactcontact SlumpedSlumped postureposture Foot tappingFoot tapping Open armsOpen arms NoddingNodding DoodlingDoodling StaringStaring Open handsOpen hands High blink rateHigh blink rate FootFoot tappingtapping
  145. 145. EAGER EVALUATING LET ME GO AGGRESSIVE SprintSprint positionposition Sucks glasses/Sucks glasses/ pencilpencil Feet towardsFeet towards doordoor LeaningLeaning forwardforward Open legsOpen legs Strokes chinStrokes chin LookingLooking aroundaround Finger pointingFinger pointing Feet underFeet under chairchair Looks up andLooks up and rightright ButtoningButtoning jacketjacket Fist clenchedFist clenched On toesOn toes Legs crossed inLegs crossed in 4 position4 position LeaningLeaning forwardforward (Ankle on knee)(Ankle on knee)
  146. 146. GRIPPING THE CHAIR ON YOUR MARK, GET SET…
  147. 147. READY TO AGREE ATTENTIVE REJECTION DEFIANT Closes papersCloses papers (Standing)(Standing) Arms behindArms behind on hipson hips Smiling,Smiling, moving backmoving back (Standing)(Standing) Hands backHands back Pen downPen down SmileSmile Arms foldedArms folded FrownFrown Hands flat onHands flat on tabletable Open FeetOpen Feet Legs crossedLegs crossed 11 position11 position (Thigh on knee)(Thigh on knee) Head downHead down FrownFrown
  148. 148. READY TO PROCEED READINESS TO END AN CONVERSATION – HANDS ON KNEES
  149. 149. THE INTIMIDATOR
  150. 150. DEFENSIVE • (Standing) Feet pointing in • Hands clenched LYING • Touches faceTouches face • Hands over mouthHands over mouth • Pulls earPulls ear • Eyes downEyes down • Glances at youGlances at you • Shifts in seatShifts in seat • Looks down and to leftLooks down and to left
  151. 151. 07/11/14 Body Angling The man on the right indicating he wants to leave
  152. 152. 07/11/14 To avoid being seen as aggressive, we stand with our bodies angled at 45 degrees to each other during friendly encounters to form an angle of 90 degrees.
  153. 153. 07/11/14 Open triangular position encouraging the entry of a third person.
  154. 154. 07/11/14 Direct body pointing in the Closed Position to attempt to get a captive audience.
  155. 155. 07/11/14 If another person wants to join two others standing in a Closed Position, he'll be invited when the other two angle their bodies to form the triangle. If not accepted, the others will hold the Closed Position and turn only their heads towards him as a sign of recognition and probably give tight-lipped smiles.
  156. 156. 07/11/14 Body Pointing is used to close off a couple and exclude the man on the right
  157. 157. 07/11/14 Not only do the feet serve as pointers indicating the direction in which a person's mind is going, they also point at people who we find the most interesting or attractive.
  158. 158. 07/11/14 Most common deceit signals (Pease and Pease) • IMPORTANT: in applying these common deceit signals, strictly enforce the three rules on reading body language: Clusters, Congruence or Incongruence and Context • The least dependable signs of lying are the ones over which a person has the most control, such as words, because a person can rehearse their lies. • The most reliable clues to lying are the gestures a person makes automatically, because they have little or no control over them.
  159. 159. 07/11/14 Mouth cover (subconscious suppression of deceitful words) The mouth cover may involve the whole hand, a few fingers or the fist. • If a person covers mouth while talking, maybe lying • If a person covers mouth while the other is talking may indicate disbelief
  160. 160. 07/11/14 Nose touch • Several quick rubs below the nose or one quick nose touch. • Research show that when a person lies, certain chemicals are released causing tissue inside the nose to swell as well as increase in blood pressure thus the human nose expands with blood during lying and is known as the “Pinocchio effect”, this cause the nose to tingle resulting to a rubbing action to satisfy the ‘itch’. • A real itch in the nose is usually an isolated repetitive gesture and is incongruent or out of context with the person’s overall conversation.
  161. 161. 07/11/14 • Eye rub • When a child doesn’t want to look at something, he covers eyes. Among grown ups it becomes more complex and turns into the eye rub which could mean the blocking out of deceit, doubt or deceitful thing it sees or to avoid having to look at the face of the person being lied to. • Men usually do the eye rub more than women. • Women use, small gentle touching motions just below the eye. • Looking away holds the same meaning • “lying through your teeth” – a combination of clenched teeth, false smile and eye rub.
  162. 162. 07/11/14 Ear grab • This the adult version of the ‘hands-over-both-ears’ used by child. • It’s the symbolic attempt to block the words heard by putting hand around or over the ear or tugging the earlobe, rubbing the back of the ear or ‘finger drill’ (finger is screwed back and forth in the ear • It can also mean the person has heard enough and want to speak. • In Italy it means someone is gay
  163. 163. 07/11/14 Neck scratch • index finger — scratches the side of the neck below the earlobe • This gesture is a signal of doubt or uncertainty and is characteristic of the person who says, 'I'm not sure I agree.‘ • It is noticeable when verbal language contradicts it (e.g. I understand what you mean)
  164. 164. 07/11/14 Collar Pull - lies cause a tingling sensation in the facial and neck tissues making the scratch the part. This also explains the collar pull. Increased blood pressure from the deceit causes sweat to form on the neck when the deceiver feels that you suspect he's not telling the truth. Collar Pull could also mean anger and frustration.
  165. 165. 07/11/14 Deceit signals (Hagen) • Wide eyes • Flushed face • Self touches (nose touch, rubbing back neck) • Lack of eye contact • Excessive won’t back down eye contact
  166. 166. 07/11/14 • Excessive blinking • Angling body away from accuser • Hiding the hands • Biting the lips or covering mouth • Exaggerated movement of arms and legs
  167. 167. 07/11/14 Seating arrangements Corner position: For friendly and casual conversation
  168. 168. 07/11/14 The Co-operative Position: used best when two people are thinking alike or when working on a task together.
  169. 169. 07/11/14 Competitive/Defensive Position: Sitting across the table from a person can create a defensive, competitive atmosphere and can lead to each party taking a firm stand on his point of view because the table becomes a solid barrier between both parties. Sitting directly opposite each other creates bad vibes.
  170. 170. 07/11/14 Independent position: This is taken by people when they don't want to interact with each other.

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