A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS                                                           ...
most cases will seroconvert and have                    putatively associated with exposure to                            ...
possibly other agents. We would like to       legged nymphs that are active in the                     For Lyme nephropath...
Vitamins: Are They “Vital”                                             Nutrients for Pets?                                ...
pantothenic acid, and biotin are involved     adequate supply in the diet. Therefore,              flounder. Normal cookin...
(α-tocopherol and α-/γ-mixtures), C            commonly via the parenteral (injectable)              enhancement of immuno...
Albert Ahn, DVM, is a veterinarian, Corporate Vice President and                  Chief Scientific Officer at The Hartz Mo...
Hartz Announces its 2003“Veterinarian of the Year”                                                   Dr. Tami Shearer (Gra...
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Hartz Companion Animal - Update on Frequently Asked Questions About Canine Lyme Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment


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The immunofluorescent antibody
and ELISA Lyme titer tests do not
differentiate between antibodies due
to natural exposure to the Borrelia
burgdorferi organisms versus antibodies
directed against antigens from Lyme
vaccines. In the past, in a vaccinated
animal with a positive Lyme titer, we
needed to follow up with the Western
blot test, whose banding pattern helped
differentiate between antibodies due
to natural exposure and/or Lyme
vaccination. Although the banding pattern
seen after OspA subunit vaccination is
simple (a lone band at p31), patterns seen
with natural infection are complex,
especially over time, and can be confused
with that seen after vaccination with

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Hartz Companion Animal - Update on Frequently Asked Questions About Canine Lyme Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

  1. 1. A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS JUNE 2004 VOLUME 2, NUMBER 2 Update on Frequently Asked Questions About Canine Lyme Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment Meryl P. Littman, VMD, DACVIM School of Veterinary Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaWhich diagnostic test for Lyme when the organism was in the tick or would indicate only recently acquireddisease do you recommend? cultured in vitro for bacterin production, infection, studies have revealed that IgM The immunofluorescent antibody we now know that during antigenic levels may rise periodically during chronicand ELISA Lyme titer tests do not variation in chronic infection, OspA is infection as new antigens are expresseddifferentiate between antibodies due eventually expressed in the mammal and due to antigenic variation by theto natural exposure to the Borrelia anti-OspA antibodies can be detected in organism. The new antigens stimulateburgdorferi organisms versus antibodies non-vaccinates. Luckily, we now have IgM antibody production.directed against antigens from Lyme SNAP®-3® (Idexx Laboratories), which Positive titers in an endemic area arevaccines. In the past, in a vaccinated tests for antibody directed against the C6 not predictive of illness. After exposure,animal with a positive Lyme titer, we peptide of the VlsE antigen. This test isneeded to follow up with the Western specific for natural exposure because the IN THIS ISSUE:blot test, whose banding pattern helped VlsE antigen is only expressed when B. Update on Frequently Askeddifferentiate between antibodies due burgdorferi is in the mammal, and is not Questions About Canineto natural exposure and/or Lyme present in any of the vaccine types, so Lyme Disease: Diagnosisvaccination. Although the banding pattern vaccinated dogs will not show a positive and Treatment ............................ 1seen after OspA subunit vaccination is test unless they are also naturally infected. Vitamins: Are They “Vital”simple (a lone band at p31), patterns seen Therefore, the two-tiered ELISA andwith natural infection are complex, Western blot testing is no longer Nutrients for Pets? ..................... 4especially over time, and can be confused necessary. Ask the Vet ................................ 7with that seen after vaccination with Testing for IgG and IgM titers is not Hartz Announces its 2003bacterin. Although we previously thought helpful and may be confusing. Although “Veterinarian of the Year” ......... 8OspA was only expressed by B. burgdorferi we used to think that IgM antibody
  2. 2. most cases will seroconvert and have putatively associated with exposure to A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS positive titers for many years but will not Lyme antigens. If the dog has JUNE 2004 VOLUME 2, NUMBER 2 be ill in any way. These dogs are likely proteinuria, I would follow up with a full infected carriers in a premunitive state, urinalysis (if not already done). If there is Consulting Editors such as asymptomatic cats, which carry an active sediment, I would do urine Albert Ahn, DVM Mycoplasma hemofelis (previously culture and sensitivity testing. If there is Corporate Vice President hemobartonellosis) after doxycycline an inactive sediment and I am concerned Chief Scientific Officer treatment. Recovered cats are about glomerular disease–causing The Hartz Mountain Corporation asymptomatic but continue to show proteinuria, I would do a Chemscreen, Bruce Truman positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) complete blood count (CBC), urine Divisional Vice President testing for M. hemofelis. Likewise, dogs protein–creatinine ratio, blood pressure Animal Health and Nutrition usually carry B. burgdorferi for many years measurement, other tick serology, etc. I The Hartz Mountain Corporation without any illness. would probably treat a proteinuric Lyme- The high seroprevalence for Lyme positive dog with doxycycline and an HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM is produced for The Hartz Mountain infection makes it very difficult to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Corporation by Veterinary Learning diagnose when symptomatology is due inhibitor to decrease glomerular filtration Systems, 780 Township Line Rd., to Lyme disease. If there is 40% pressure and urinary protein loss. If the Yardley, PA 19067. seroprevalence in healthy dogs in your dog is also hypoalbuminemic, azotemic, Copyright © 2004 The Hartz Mountain area, you will also be seeing roughly 40% hyperphosphatemic, or hypertensive, I Corporation. All rights reserved. of the sick dogs with positive titers as an might also treat with low-dose aspirin, Hartz® and other marks are owned by The Hartz incidental finding. A positive titer must omega-3 fatty acids, and diet Mountain Corporation. be interpreted along with the rest of the modifications as needed. Printed in U.S.A. No part of this publication may workup for a sick patient. Even when I recommend testing all Lyme-positive be reproduced in any form without the express symptomatology is classic for Lyme dogs for proteinuria. If we can find early written permission of the publisher. disease (fever, inappetence, lameness), the warnings of PLN, we can intervene For more information on The Hartz Mountain clinician needs an index of suspicion for before progression and complications of Corporation, visit www.hartz.com. other possibilities, including other tick- nephrotic syndrome, thromboembolic borne infections. events, hypertension, and/or renal failure become evident. PCR testing on whole blood before the What do you do with an dog is exposed to antibiotic treatment. asymptomatic Lyme-positive Consider Lyme positivity as a We do not know what, if any, clinical dog? marker for exposure to ticks and disease may be caused by Babesia microti Most dogs exposed to Lyme antigens their agents in exposed dogs. B. microti antibodies do will have positive Lyme tests and be If the dog is Lyme positive, it has been not cross-react with B. canis antigens, and asymptomatic. In some areas in New exposed to Ixodes ticks. Ixodes ticks in Babesia PCR is expensive. Studies are Jersey and New York, up to 90% of Lyme-endemic areas may also be carrying needed to help determine if dogs asymptomatic normal dogs have other infectious agents. In some Lyme- exposed to B. microti have any positive titers. You will get a sense of endemic areas, almost half the dogs with clinicopathologic changes such as the seroprevalence in your area by using positive Lyme titers are also positive for anemia, thrombocytopenia, proteinuria, the SNAP®-3® test. In my opinion, antibodies against Ehrlichia equi etc. The same holds true for exposure to asymptomatic positive dogs do not (Anaplasma phagocytophilum). E. equi Bartonella spp. need to be treated. Overuse of antibiotics may be a cause of signs attributed to Dogs exposed to field ticks such as may cause side effects in some dogs Lyme disease, such as arthritis and PLN. Ixodes may also be exposed to other field and resistance of organisms in our As a doxycycline-responsive disease, ticks such as Dermacentor, which may environment. Finding an asymptomatic ehrlichiosis may have been a missed carry Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of positive dog alerts me to do the diagnosis in the past. Antibodies directed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Luckily, following: against E. equi are not picked up on the this is another doxycycline-responsive SNAP®-3® Ehrlichia canis test or on disease. Check the dog for proteinuria other tests for E. canis antibodies. In Although Koch’s postulates have not order to find the seroprevalence of E. equi Educate owners been proven for “Lyme nephropathy,” in your area, you need to request separate If a dog is Lyme positive, Ixodes ticks protein-losing nephropathy (PLN) is E. equi serology tests or do Ehrlichia in the area are carrying B. burgdorferi and2 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • JUNE 2004 • VOL. 2, NO. 2
  3. 3. possibly other agents. We would like to legged nymphs that are active in the For Lyme nephropathy, we usuallydecrease the risk of transmission of these spring/summer, and about the larger adults treat with doxycycline for many months,agents by using good tick control. I seen in the summer/fall. Let them know along with the ACE inhibitor, low doseshighly recommend using an amitraz tick that the tiny six-legged larva, active in the of baby aspirin, and other therapies forcollar (Preventic® Tick Collars [Virbac]) summer, does not transmit Lyme disease. renal failure and hypertension asbecause it has been proven to protect Educate them about how to check for necessary. Many dogs succumb in the firstdogs against seroconversion and B. ticks and about tick removal. Explain the few months due to renal failure and/orburgdorferi infection when they are difference between clinical signs in thromboembolic events. Previous Lymeexposed to Lyme-carrying Ixodes ticks. humans and dogs. Although one dose of tests often remained positive for yearsThese collars prevent tick attachment; doxycycline was shown to prevent Lyme after treatment and were not helpful inwithout the blood meal, there is no risk disease in humans if taken within 72 hours deciding whether we could stopof transmission of infectious agents. The of pulling off an engorged Ixodes tick, no antibiotics. Finding a marked declinecollar needs to be put on tightly in such study has been done yet in dogs. when comparing pre- and 6-monthorder to have contact with the skin. I posttreatment values using the new Lymerecommend hiding the amitraz collar How long do you treat a Quantitative C6 Antibody Test (Idexxunderneath a wider cloth or nylon collar. symptomatic Lyme-positive dog? Laboratories) may help us feel moreAmitraz collars should not be used No one really knows how long is confident about choosing to stopif the dog is taking certain behavior long enough. In experimental studies, antibiotics. We continue the othermedications. The antidote yohimbine adult beagles exposed to B. burgdorferi medications indicated for PLN and ofmust be given if the collar is ingested. If seroconverted but did not become ill. course continue using good tick control.the dog swims, amitraz washes off the Exposed puppies showed self-limitingskin, and other tick control measures are lameness, anorexia, and fever for 4 days What steps should be taken toneeded. Fipronil (Frontline® Top Spot® (after a 2- to 5-month incubation period) reduce or prevent Lyme[Merial]) applied monthly does not and did not require treatment. Some of the exposure?wash off, but it does not prevent tick puppies had similar intermittent episodes Usually, exposure to Lyme organismsattachment. Although B. burgdorferi is but recovered without antibiotics and did causes no clinical illness in dogs. Classicnot transmitted until ticks have fed for not show chronic lameness or Lyme signs of fever, lameness, and anorexia,about 2 days, other tick-borne agents may nephropathy for more than a year. These seen in less than 5% of those exposed,be transmitted much earlier during tick studies indicate that most of the time are usually self-limiting or responsivefeeding. Thus products that kill ticks Lyme disease is asymptomatic or self- to a short course of oral antibiotics.hours after they attach may not prevent limiting and needs little or no treatment. The most serious forms of Lymethese diseases. Products that repel as On the flip side, some experimentally disease in dogs are not easily treatedwell as kill ticks include those with infected dogs treated with high doses of with antibiotics and appear to bepermethrins (K9 Advantix® [Bayer antibiotics for 4 weeks still showed positive immune-mediated sequelae triggeredAnimal Health]), phenothrin (Hartz® cultures and/or PCR testing, showing they by Lyme antigens.ADVANCED CARE Brand® Flea & had not been cleared. In dogs, we worry about immune-Tick Drops Plus+ [Hartz Mountain In the past, many veterinarians treated mediated glomerulonephritis triggeredCorp.]), or chrysanthemum products. acute classic Lyme arthritis with about 2 by Lyme antigens. OspA was found inBefore applying any flea and tick weeks of either doxycycline or a sick dog’s kidney cortex with a mousetreatment, be sure to read the entire label amoxicillin. We would see fast and full monoclonal anti-OspA antibody stain.and instructions and follow them exactly. recovery. Now we know that some OspA is injected whenever we use a Veterinarians can also take this experimental dogs remain infected Lyme bacterin or OspA subunitopportunity to educate owners about despite high doses given for longer times, vaccine.public health. A Lyme-positive pet dog is and we worry that in some dogs Lyme For the prevention of Lyme disease,a sentinel for Lyme-carrying ticks in the disease might cause more serious I primarily advocate good tick control.owner’s environment. Talk to owners about polyarthropathy or even Lyme Since we live in an area with tickswildlife, mowing back the brush where nephropathy, although Koch’s postulates carrying Ehrlichia, Babesia, Rickettsia,questing ticks are, and about the 2-year are not satisfied. More veterinarians today and Bartonella spp, we need good tickixodid tick life cycle. Discuss how birds treat Lyme arthritis with 4 weeks of control anyway.can bring ticks to their backyard even doxycycline (10 mg/kg/day), although For more information and for the references used forthough it is fenced off from deer. Educate some experimental dogs appear to remain this article, see Littman MP: Canine borreliosis. Vetthem about the small size of the eight- infected despite double that daily dose. Clin Small Anim Pract 33(4):827–862, 2003. HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • JUNE 2004 • VOL. 2, NO. 2 3
  4. 4. Vitamins: Are They “Vital” Nutrients for Pets? Korinn E. Saker, MS, DVM, PhD, DACVN Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine Virginia Tech Blacksburg, Virginia The pet food industry has lightened lipids (fat) or water. Specifically, vitamins and organelles but are not used as energyour burden of ensuring nutritional A, D, E, and K are in the “fat soluble” sources by the body. Conversely, theadequacy for our pets by formulating cat category, whereas B vitamins (thiamin water-soluble, B-complex vitamins areand dog diets that are nutritionally [B1], riboflavin [B2], pyridoxine [B6], intimately involved in the use of food andbalanced and complete. If this is indeed niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, the production of energy in the body.how pet feeding programs are designed to cobalamin [B12], biotin, choline) andwork, why are there so many pet vitamin vitamin C are recognized as “water Evaluating Necessitysupplements on the market? soluble.” Vitamins within a category share Stating that vitamins are the metabolicUnderstanding the necessity and common functions but also have specific glue behind virtually all anabolic andpotential benefits of vitamins will help physiologic roles associated with clinical catabolic processes in animals certainlyyou be a more informed pet feeder. abnormalities in states of deficiency or hints at their necessity. The major role of excess. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed B-complex vitamins is as co-enzymes forWhat is a Vitamin? from the small intestine and stored specific cellular enzymes involved in The two main categories of vitamins primarily in the liver. They support energy metabolism and tissue synthesis.are defined by their miscibility in either growth and maintenance of cells, tissues, Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, A D VA N C E D C A R E ® RE® Hartz® nce ADVANCED CARE Hartz® Everyday ADVANCED Chewable CARE® Vitamins Enteric-Coated Aspirin For Dogs • For the temporary relief of . everyday aches and pains. p y ne • Specifically formulated to to help support healthy joint function. • Available for Dogs and Puppies and Cats and Kittens reduce stomach upset, •A ilable for both d s and cats. a common side effect • Highly palatable liver flavor of aspirin. • An excellent source of vitamins and minerals that help maintain healthy skin and a shiny coat www.hartz.com AD-192 If you would like to receive a copy of the Hartz® Veterinary Catalog, please call (800) 999-3000 x5118
  5. 5. pantothenic acid, and biotin are involved adequate supply in the diet. Therefore, flounder. Normal cooking denaturesin food use and are part of the complex serious vitamin deficiencies are highly thiaminase. Polyunsaturated fatty acidsphysiologic functions of nutrient uncommon in companion pets. From this (PUFAs) have been touted as havingdigestion, absorption, and utilization. perspective, it would not be necessary to beneficial effects on inflammatory skinFolic acid, cobalamin, and choline are provide a daily vitamin supplement to and gastrointestinal disorders, immunevitally important for cell synthesis, pets fed a nutritionally complete function, and haircoat. Yellow fat diseasemaintenance, and growth. A common commercial life-stage diet. It is important occurs in cats fed diets containing highclinical example is anemia, or insufficient to remember, however, that there are PUFA and marginal to low vitamin Ered blood cells, associated with folic acid always possible exceptions to generalized levels. These examples suggest thatdeficiency reported in both animals and recommendations. Improper feeding vitamin supplementation above thehumans. B vitamins play a pivotal role in practices, select genetic vitamin general recommended level for uncookedthe production of energy because they are deficiencies, and extremely high stress homemade diets might be warranted.required at approximately 24 specific situations are exceptions that couldmetabolic sites to keep the energy warrant vitamin supplementation. Health Status Influences Necessityproduction cycle functioning. Ascorbic It is absolutely necessary to include a An entirely separate aspect is theacid (vitamin C) is synthesized in the vitamin supplement in homemade diet vitamin requirements of a pet duringbody by most mammals and promotes recipes. There are a variety of homemade acute and chronic disease states. Reportscollagen formation. Collagen is the recipes available for healthy adult and abound in the human literature indicatingprimary component of dentin (teeth), growing dogs or cats. Despite the the benefits of select vitamin (A, D, E, C,osteoid (bone), and connective tissue, so variability in suggested protein, grain, and and K) supplementation in intensive careit is paramount for normal bone fat sources, every homemade recipe, settings, chronic disease, and illnessesformation. whether cooked or raw, should have a associated with altered vitamin intake, Specific functions of the fat-soluble multiple vitamin–mineral supplement in absorption, and loss. Anorexia,vitamins are in the mode of antioxidants, the ingredient list. Veterinary supplements malabsorptive–maldigestive disorders,especially vitamin E, a vitamer, and β- can contribute 0% to 300% of the daily vomiting, and diarrhea are clinicalcarotene, a provitamin. A vitamer has the vitamin requirements of cats and dogs, manifestations of illness that will inhibitsame chemical make-up as a vitamin but suggesting enormous variability between daily vitamin intake or increase dailycan exert varying physiologic effects commercial veterinary vitamin products. losses. Vitamin supplementation in thesedepending on its isomeric form. A great Raw food diets have become popular types of clinical scenarios is oftenexample is tocopherol (vitamin E): α- in recent years. It is wise to keep in mind delivered at extra-label doses and wouldtocopherol has potent antioxidant that raw foodstuffs can cause select be used more for short-term benefitproperties in animals; conversely, the vitamin deficiencies. A few common rather than daily supplementation forpotency of γ-tocopherol is recognized in examples include egg whites, which healthy pets.the food product. A provitamin requires contain avidin, a secretory proteinan activation step to become biologically produced by the hen. When consumed, Measurable Benefit to Vitaminactive. A well-identified provitamin is β- this protein combines with biotin in the Supplementationcarotene, and once enzymatically split intestine and prevents biotin absorption. Are there situations in which vitamininto two retinol (vitamin A) molecules, it Egg yolk is biotin-rich and offsets the supplementation can be beneficial to petscan become functional in a biologic potential risk of a biotin deficiency. that are fed an appropriate life-stage,system. Vitamin A is also a component of Additionally, cooking denatures avidin commercially formulated diet?visual proteins and epithelial cell and destroys its biotin-binding ability. Consideration should be given todevelopment. Vitamin K is necessary to Eggs should be cooked when included in situations of chronic or extensive stress.control bleeding problems. The necessity a homemade recipe; if cooking is not an Tissue damage associated with excessiveof vitamin D is primarily linked to its option, the whole egg should be used production of oxidative productsrelationship with calcium, phosphorus, rather than just the egg white.2 Thiamine produced during stress can be minimizedand skeletal development and health. deficiency can result from feeding a diet by vitamin antioxidant supplementation. consisting of raw fish. Not all fish contain Common oxidative stress-associatedDiet Type Constitutes Necessity thiaminase, the enzyme that destroys factors include high-performance Commercially formulated pet foods thiamin, but several have been shown to endurance dog work, excessiveare nutritionally balanced based on have high enzyme activity, including carp, reproductive demands, aging, rapidpublished AAFCO1 recommendations. salt-water herring, whitefish, pike, cod, weight loss, extended anesthesia, andThis implies that vitamins are in clam, goldfish, mullet, shark, and disease and trauma states. Vitamins E HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • JUNE 2004 • VOL. 2, NO. 2 5
  6. 6. (α-tocopherol and α-/γ-mixtures), C commonly via the parenteral (injectable) enhancement of immunocompetence in(ascorbic acid), and β-carotene have been route for dogs and cats; therefore, it older pets with vitamin E dosed from 250the major focus of investigation in cat should be under the supervision of a to 500 IU/kg of diet.5 Oral vitaminand dog nutrition. Cobalamin deficiency veterinarian. More recently, vitamin supplements also commonly supply water-has been reported in both dogs and cats premixes have become available for pets. soluble vitamins. B vitamins have minimalwith gastrointestinal disease.3 Weekly Supplementation with both these types of to no toxicity concerns. Vitamin C is notsubcutaneous injections of B12 (500 products is relatively short-term to commonly included in multipleµg/dose) for 4 to 5 weeks have manage a specific clinical problem. vitamin–mineral supplements becausedemonstrated benefit.4 Daily oral vitamin supplementation is dogs and cats synthesize it endogenously. often unsupervised and/or not initiated by Specific products addressing joint healthConsumer Report for Pet Vitamins a veterinarian. These are generally will often contain vitamin C at levels Vitamin source and level in multiple-vitamin products supplying both between 25 and 250 mg/tablet.commercial, over-the-counter pet vitamin fat- and water-soluble vitamins in aproducts can vary. Published palatable form. Macro- and microminerals, Referencesrecommendations for minimum and and occasionally a protein source, are 1. Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO), 2003.maximum levels of vitamins in pet foods commonly included. The guaranteed 2. Case LP, Carey DP, Hirakawa DA, et al: Canine andare higher than what is supplied in a analysis should list the vitamins supplied Feline Nutrition. St. Louis, Mosby, 2000.vitamin supplement product. The actual in the product and the level of vitamin per 3. Simpson K: Feline inflammatory disease: Beyondcontent of vitamin in a product labeled as tablet or per ounce. Vitamins A, E, and qualitative histopathology. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 26(2A):46–50, 2004.a specific vitamin supplement is outlined (less commonly) D are included. Vitamin 4. Cave NJ, Marks SL: Mechanisms and clinicalbased on the form of the vitamin. When A toxicity does occur, and levels below applications of nutrition in inflammatory bowelchoosing a specific single vitamin source, 1,600 IU/tablet appear safe for healthy disease. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 26(2A):51–57, 2004.compare the product label with available dogs and cats. Vitamin E has a minimal 5. Meydani SN, Hayek MG, Wu D, et al: Vitamin Epublished recommendations1 to ensure the toxicity concern. Over-the-counter and immune response in aged dogs, in Reinhart GA,product you choose is supplying the levels supplements contain a wide range of Carey DP (eds): Recent Advances in Canine and Feline Nutrition: Proceedings of Iams 1998 Nutritionneeded for the desired effect. This type of vitamins A (450 to 1,500 IU) and E (3 Symposium. Wilmington, OH, Orange Frazer Press,supplementation is administered more to 200 IU). Studies indicate a potential 2000, pp 295–303. ™ dental K-9 Cleaner ™ Chew n Clean ® Strong and durable polyurethane and nylon construction. Chewing with raised tips helps massage gums and remove tartar. Bacon flavor attracts dogs for longer play time. Flashn Teether ™ Twist n Lite ™ Chew ™ • CHEWING K-9 CLEANER ™ HAS BEEN CLINICALLY PROVEN TO REDUCE PLAQUE AND TARTAR BY 56%! • Developed with Veterinarians • Chewing with rubber tips and • Lights up! • Excellent for puppies • Twists & turns rotating rings helps massage gums Combines Dental Cleaning with Fun! www.hartz.com AD-193
  7. 7. Albert Ahn, DVM, is a veterinarian, Corporate Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer at The Hartz Mountain Corporation. ASK TH E VETQ Could you compare the spectrum of flea and tick spot-on products? Comparison of Active Ingredients of Topical Spot-on ProductsA Phenothrin Methoprene Combo Kills Fleas Yes Inhibits Flea Eggs and Larvae Yes Stops Flea Development Yes Repels Fleas Yes Kills and Repels Ticks Yes Kills and Repels Mosquitoes Yes Dosage Monthly Usage Dogs and Cats Fipronil Methoprene Combo Yes Yes Yes No Kills No Monthly Dogs and Cats Imidacloprid Yes No No No No No Monthly Dogs and Cats Lufenuron No Yes Yes No No No Monthly Dogs and Cats Imidacloprid Permethrin Combo Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Monthly Dogs only Permethrin Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Monthly Dogs only Methoprene No Yes Yes No No No Monthly Dogs and CatsQ In reference to Dr. Paster’s December 2003 article “Senior Pets and Joint Health,” could you please give a dosing aspirin, their combination theoretically should provide enhanced COX-2 inhibition with risk of COX-1–mediated side effects remaining rate for meloxicam in felines when used unchanged. However, the studies of meloxicam as in combination with aspirin? compared with other NSAIDs in COX selectivity do not prove, undoubtedly, that meloxicam isA Author Responds: Because both are nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), I would not advise giving both; give one or the other. Cats are extremely sensitive entirely COX-2 selective. My advice would be to choose one or the other based on what suits the patient best, which has the best activity you are seeking (analgesic, antiinflammatory or decreased to NSAIDs and can potentially have severe side platelet aggregation), and which is best tolerated effects, and I would not advise giving cats or even by the patient. Specific questions regarding the dogs a combination. Also keep in mind that pharmacology of meloxicam should be addressed meloxicam is not approved for use in the United to the manufacturer. States, so to avoid potential litigation the client must be made fully aware of this prior to use. Erin Paster, DVM School of Veterinary Medicine You may argue that since meloxicam is a COX-2– University of Pennsylvania selective NSAID, versus the COX non-selectivity of Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaArticles found in the Hartz Companion Animal sm newsletter can be copied and distributed to your colleagues, staff, and clients. Additional newsletters may also be obtained by contacting us at feedback@hartz.com or by phone at 800-275-1414. We want to hear from you! • Have questions or comments? Call our Consumer Relations Department at 800-275-1414 and ask to speak to a Hartz staff veterinarian or email us at feedback@hartz.com. • To obtain a Hartz Veterinary Catalog of products, please call 800-999-3000 x5118 or email us at feedback@hartz.com. HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • JUNE 2004 • VOL. 2, NO. 2 7
  8. 8. Hartz Announces its 2003“Veterinarian of the Year” Dr. Tami Shearer (Grand Prize Winner) with Dr. Albert Ahn (Corporate V.P. and Chief Scientific Officer) The Hartz Mountain Corporation announces the Following is an excerpt from the Grand Prize winner of the 2003 Hartz “Veterinarian of the Year” Winning essay: Contest. Dr. Tami Shearer of the Shearer Pet Hospital Tami Shearer, DVM, does not wear a cape or flash a magic in Columbus, Ohio, was nominated by one of her wand, but she does not need to. One visit to Shearer Pet Hospital patients and selected by Hartz to be the recipient of in Columbus, Ohio is all it takes to understand that Dr. Shearer the 2003 Hartz Veterinarian of the Year award. is a hero at heart. Dr. Shearer’s intelligence and compassion are “Dr. Shearer has shown exceptional compassion and evident every time my silky terrier, Agnes, and I see her. Agnes dedication to her patients as well as their owners. She experiences anxiety when she needs to have a surgical procedure. not only devotes her time to her patients at the Due to Agnes’ anxiety, Dr. Shearer tries to schedule her as the hospital, but also teaches the veterinarians of first patient of the day so Agnes can be reunited with me sooner. tomorrow,” stated Bob Devine, President and CEO of Dr. Shearer has a special interest in learning noninvasive The Hartz Mountain Corporation. “Hartz is proud to techniques to improve animal care. She offers laser surgery and sponsor an award that recognizes a veterinarian’s therapy, endoscopy and ultrasound. She has a gift for explaining important role in pet health care.” technical information in simple terms and schedules long Pet owners were asked to nominate vets who have appointments so she can take her time with pets and owners. excelled in the medical field as well as in their passion Her goal is to educate adults and children to be compassionate for nurturing animals. Pet owners were asked to caregivers. She has been teaching classes to the public for 10 years describe how their veterinarians exemplify the and offers a two-day Vet Camp for kids. At this camp, kids human–animal bond with vet service and community/ observe and assist Dr. Shearer at the hospital. She is founder of volunteer programs. Approximately 300 heartfelt essays the Pet Education Center and the Pet Hospice and Education from pet owners across the country illustrated the Center, one of the Midwest hospice centers for pets. continuous dedication of this group of professionals. Nominated by Lisa Farina, Columbus, OhioVeterinary Learning Systems PRESORTED STANDARD780 Township Line Road U.S. POSTAGEYardley, PA 19067 PAID BENSALEM, PA PERMIT #118 400414