Hartz Companion Animal - Tickborne Diseases of Cats


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In general, our knowledge of tickborne
diseases in cats is substantially less than
our knowledge of the comparable disease
in dogs or human patients. One exception
to this generality is cytauxzoonosis, a
protozoal disease of cats caused by
Cytauxzoon felis. The organism is
supposedly transmitted from bobcats,
the primary reservoir host, to domestic
cats via a tick vector (the ixodid tick
Dermacentor variabilis). Because of the
rapidly fatal nature of C. felis–induced
illness, the domestic cat has usually been
considered an accidental dead-end host
for this infectious agent. Typical clinical
manifestations include depression,
lethargy, anorexia, fever, and jaundice.

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Hartz Companion Animal - Tickborne Diseases of Cats

  1. 1. A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS AUGUST 2005 VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3 Tickborne Diseases of Cats Edward B. Breitschwerdt, DVM Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases College of Veterinary Medicine North Carolina State University In general, our knowledge of tickborne states, cytauxzoonosis is now reported disease transmission. Most tick-transmitteddiseases in cats is substantially less than throughout the southeastern, south pathogens require a 24- to 48-hourour knowledge of the comparable disease central, and mid-Atlantic states. As period of attachment to the host beforein dogs or human patients. One exception such, cytauxzoonosis is an important successful transmission of an infectiousto this generality is cytauxzoonosis, a emerging tickborne disease of cats with organism is possible. Fastidious groomingprotozoal disease of cats caused by an expanding geographic distribution. may result in the early removal of mostCytauxzoon felis. The organism is In C. felis–endemic regions, acaracides ticks from cats and, thereby, thesupposedly transmitted from bobcats, should be recommended routinely for cats prevention of disease transmission.the primary reservoir host, to domestic in an effort to prevent this highly fatal Alternatively, serologic testing in catscats via a tick vector (the ixodid tick infection. has led to confusing and somewhatDermacentor variabilis). Because of the Recent molecular evidence indicates discordant data. Therefore, as describedrapidly fatal nature of C. felis–induced that cats can also be infected with below, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)illness, the domestic cat has usually been Anaplasma phagocytophilum and an testing should be used more frequently inconsidered an accidental dead-end host Ehrlichia canis–like organism. The the future to clarify the role of tickbornefor this infectious agent. Typical clinical infrequent diagnosis of anaplasmosis organisms as a cause of disease in cats.manifestations include depression, and ehrlichiosis in cats may be relatedlethargy, anorexia, fever, and jaundice. to a number of factors, including aCats often die less than a week from the general underrecognition of tickborne IN THIS ISSUE:initial onset of clinical signs. Some cats, diseases in cats, potentially decreased Tickborne Diseases of Cats ........ 1however, survive C. felis infections and pathogenicity of tickborne organisms inafter recovery may remain asymptomatic cats as compared with dogs or people, Tickborne Diseases of Dogs....... 4carriers for months to years. Initially and the rapid removal of ticks from cats Ask the Vet ................................ 7reported in Missouri and surrounding resulting in decreased opportunity for
  2. 2. Although various Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, comparable E. canis DNA sequences A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS and Neorickettsia spp have been reported obtained from canine E. canis isolates. AUGUST 2005 VOLUME 3, NUMBER to cause disease in cows, sheep, dogs, Because no isolates were made from 3 horses, and humans, the role of any these cats, a more complete genetic Consulting Editors specific species as a pathogen in cats characterization was not possible; Albert Ahn, DVM remains less clearly defined. The first therefore, we are currently describing Vice President of Corporate evidence for naturally occurring feline these feline infections as E. canis–like. Communications and Veterinary ehrlichiosis was provided by Charpentier Antibodies could not be detected in Operations and Groulade in France. Feline these cats by immunofluorescent assay The Hartz Mountain Corporation ehrlichiosis was subsequently reported in using E. canis antigens. Serum from all Bruce Truman 1989 by Buoro and colleagues when they three cats from Canada and the United Senior Director described intracytoplasmic inclusions in States contained antinuclear antibodies. Animal Health and Nutrition The Hartz Mountain Corporation monocytes and lymphocytes derived from The predominant disease manifestations three cats in Kenya. By both light and included polyarthritis accompanied Associate Editors electron microscopy, the inclusions were by fever in one cat, bone marrow Jill A. Richardson, DVM morphologically similar to Ehrlichia sp hypoplasia or dysplasia accompanied Director—Consumer Relations morulae, as observed on blood smears by pancytopenia in one cat, and anemia The Hartz Mountain Corporation obtained from other animals. Subsequently, and thrombocytopenia in one cat. In David Levy morulae were described in stained blood dogs, neutrophilic polyarthritis has Assistant Manager smears obtained from cats in the United been most frequently associated with Animal Health and Nutrition The Hartz Mountain Corporation States, France, Brazil, and Sweden. To E. ewingii infection. Neutrophilic date, no Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp have polyarthritis in the one cat was confirmed HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMAL SM been cultured from the blood of a cat; by cytologic analysis of joint fluid at is produced for The Hartz Mountain however, Bjoersdorff and colleagues 1 and 3 years of age, suggesting the Corporation by Veterinary Learning amplified and sequenced 16S rDNA possibility of chronic E. canis–like Systems, 780 Township Line Rd., (from an EDTA blood sample obtained infection. Previous serologic studies Yardley, PA 19067. from a 14-month-old shorthaired cat have reported an association between Copyright © 2005 The Hartz Mountain from Sweden) that was 100% similar to thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, Corporation. All rights reserved. canine and equine A. phagocytophilum and polyarthritis in cats that had E. canis Hartz® and other marks are owned by strains from the same region. antibodies. Other nonspecific clinical The Hartz Mountain Corporation. Experimentally, inoculation of cats with abnormalities, including lethargy, Printed in U.S.A. No part of this A. phagocytophilum resulted in anorexia, conjunctivitis, swelling in the publication may be reproduced in any asymptomatic infection or mild fever ventral neck region, and mild interstitial form without the express written and depression, and the development lung disease, were reported in these cats permission of the publisher. of neutrophilic and eosinophilic and can be observed in association with For more information on The Hartz morulae. Recently, several laboratories, canine ehrlichiosis. Mountain Corporation, visit including the North Carolina State There is increasing evidence that ticks, www.hartz.com. University Vector Borne Diseases as well as fleas, can transmit Bartonella Diagnostic Laboratory, have amplified spp. The extent to which various tick perpetuating future generations of A. phagocytophilum DNA from the blood species are vector competent to transmit tickborne organisms. of acutely ill cats with fever, lethargy, various Bartonella spp to cats, dogs, or To further define the spectrum of inappetence and thrombocytopenia. humans is unknown. There are numerous feline tickborne infections and until such These feline cases have been identified in recent reviews of bartonellosis that time as serologic testing is thoroughly geographic regions that are endemic for provide veterinarians with an excellent validated in experimentally or naturally canine, equine, or human anaplasmosis. background for these emerging zoonotic infected cats, PCR testing will be Our research group has also described infectious organisms. Two reviews are necessary. In addition, until E. canis and E. canis–like infection in young cats from cited in the suggested readings. Similar to other tickborne pathogens have been the southeastern United States, eastern Ehrlichia spp, Bartonella spp can cause isolated from cats and several isolates are Canada, and France. Based on PCR long-lasting intravascular infections in available from disparate geographic amplification and DNA sequencing, the cats and dogs. As with other vectorborne regions for detailed comparative genetic Ehrlichia DNA amplified from the blood organisms, blood serves as a food source study, the molecular evidence supporting of these cats was 100% similar to the for fleas and ticks and as a means of E. canis infection in cats must be2 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • AUGUST 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 3
  3. 3. interpreted with caution. Because tick should be avoided because it denatures ■ If the PCR test is properly designedexposure has not been clearly established DNA with prolonged exposure. and performed, a false-positive resultin cats with E. canis–like infection, it is should not occur. PCR contamination ■ After completion of treatment topossible that an Ehrlichia genotype, with can result in a false-positive result. confirm therapeutic elimination ofcomplete or partial 16S rDNA homology However, good molecular diagnostic the infection (i.e., failure to detectwith E. canis, is capable of infecting cats laboratories run several controls to help DNA supports treatment success):and may have evolved with a different avoid or detect PCR contamination. Conceptually, veterinarians can thinkmode of transmission as compared with Newer PCR approaches such as of PCR testing as using the sametick transmission of E. canis to dogs. real-time PCR greatly decrease the logic and approach as when culturing To facilitate the generation of possibility of PCR contamination as urine. It is best to perform PCRnew information related to tickborne compared to older, conventional PCR before antibiotic administration orinfections in cats, veterinarians will assays. after treatment has been stopped. Ifhave to become more knowledgeable treatment has not eliminated the ■ PCR assays performed by differentabout molecular versus serologic testing infection, waiting 2 to 3 weeks after laboratories can vary substantially inmodalities. I will briefly review some treatment should allow the number of the quality of the assay and testconsiderations when requesting molecular- organisms to increase in the blood or results. Always know your laboratory.based diagnostic testing on a cat with tissue sample to a level that can besuspected tickborne infection. detected by PCR. SUGGESTED READING Bjoersdorff A, Svendenius L, Owens JH, Massung RF: PCR testing should be used Feline granulocytic ehrlichiosis—A report of a new clinical entity and characterisation of the infectious more frequently to clarify the role of tickborne agent. J Small Anim Pract 40:20–24, 1999. Bondy PJ, Cohn LA, Kerl ME: Feline cytauxzoonosis. organisms as a cause of disease. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 27:69–75, 2005. Bouloy RP, Lappin MR, Holland CH, et al: Clinical ehrlichiosis in a cat. JAVMA 204:1475–1478, 1994.MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS ■ When the species of an infectious Breitschwerdt EB, Abrams-Ogg ACG, Lappin M, et al:AND PCR TESTING: agent is important for determination Molecular evidence supporting Ehrlichia canis-likeDO’S AND DON’TS of the appropriate type of drug to use infection in cats. J Vet Intern Med 16:642–649, 2002. PCR is a highly sensitive diagnostic for treatment: For example, different Breitschwerdt EB, Kordick DL: Bartonella infection in drugs would be used to treat Babesia animals: Carriership, reservoir potential,technique that can be used to detect small pathogenicity, and zoonotic potential for humanquantities of bacterial, viral, or protozoal canis and Babesia gibsoni infections in infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 13:428–438, 2000.DNA or RNA in a patient’s blood, fluid, dogs. Species-specific PCR allows Buoro IBJ, Atwell RB, Kiptoon J, et al: Feline anemiaor tissue specimens. PCR does not differentiation of the infecting species. associated with Ehrlichia-like bodies in three domestic shorthaired cats. Vet Rec 125:434–436, 1989.amplify or detect antibodies or antigens, Charpentier F, Groulade P: Probable case of ehrlichiosisonly DNA or RNA. Therefore, the PCR: Points to Ponder in a cat. Bull Acad Vet Fr 59:287–290, 1986.targeted organism must be in the sample ■ Although this is a very sensitive test, Chomel B, Kasten RW, Sykes JE, et al: Clinical impactfor its DNA or RNA to be detected. a negative PCR result will never of persistent Bartonella bacteremia in humans and definitively eliminate the possibility animals. Ann N Y Acad Sci 990:1–12, 2003.When to Use PCR Testing of an infectious agent. Kidd L, Breitschwerdt EB: Transmission times and prevention of tick-borne diseases in dogs. Compend■ Before administration of an antibiotic ■ Repeated negative PCR results from Contin Educ Pract Vet 25:742–750, 2003. or antiprotozoal drug to confirm Lappin MR, Breitschwerdt EB, Jensen WA, et al: the same patient would strongly active infection (i.e., presence of Molecular and serologic evidence of Anaplasma support therapeutic elimination of the DNA equals presence of the organism): phagocytophilum infection in cats in North America. infectious agent. JAVMA 225(6):893–896, 2004. Antibody tests confirm exposure to Luria BJ, Levy JK, Lappin MR, et al: Prevalence of the organism and may or may not be ■ In most instances, the use of infectious diseases in feral cats in northern Florida. reflective of active infection. When in glucocorticoids will increase the J Feline Med Surg 6:287–296, 2004. doubt, store an EDTA-anticoagulated number of infectious particles in Meinkoth J, Kocan AA: Feline cytauxzoonosis. Vet Clin blood sample in the refrigerator the blood. Therefore, corticosteroid North Am Small Anim Pract 35:89–101, 2005. before administering treatments. It is administration, particularly at Stubbs CJ, Holland CJ, Reif JS, et al: Feline ehrlichiosis: Literature review and serologic survey. Compend better to have a pretreatment sample immunosuppressive doses, can Contin Educ Pract Vet 22:307–317, 2000. and not need it than to need the enhance PCR detection of an Wagner JE: A fatal cytauxzoonosis-like disease in cats. sample and not have it. Formalin infectious agent. JAVMA 168:585–588, 1976. HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • AUGUST 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 3 3
  4. 4. Tickborne Diseases of Dogs Edward B. Breitschwerdt, DVM Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases College of Veterinary Medicine North Carolina State University Despite substantial progress in and tick-transmitted organisms need the comparative medical understanding our understanding of the disease a “home” for the maintenance and of these seemingly elusive infectious manifestations caused by several tick- perpetuation of future generations. agents. transmitted pathogens, numerous Therefore, on a daily basis, veterinarians challenges continue to confront the and pet owners are confronted with an CASE EXAMPLE veterinary profession. This is particularly evolutionary cycle that has been ongoing To highlight the clinical complexity true in the context of canine tickborne for millions of years. and the challenges to our current infections. Depending on their geographic Without question, veterinarians play understanding of tick-transmitted location, local environmental exposure a central role in the diagnosis, treatment, infectious diseases, I would like to use the to brush and high grass (well confined and prevention of tick-transmitted following example from a consultation or allowed to roam), utility (hunting, infectious diseases of companion animals. with a practice owner in Iowa. The search and rescue, herding, household They also play an important role in veterinarian contacted me because one of companion), and individual personalities, advising the public as to the zoonotic his “associates” had evaluated a dog that dogs will experience highly variable potential of pathogens that are transmitted initially presented with acute onset of degrees of tick infestation. For example, it by ticks to cats, dogs, and humans. weakness and mild anemia (hematocrit is uncommon for a golden retriever or Based on scientific evidence that has 27%). Following “symptomatic therapy,” Labrador retriever to stay on the sidewalk been generated during the past several the hematocrit normalized for several and not run through high grass and low decades, tick-transmitted pathogens can weeks (rechecked at least four times); brush, the favorite habitats of most ticks. induce clinical manifestations ranging however, on a subsequent recheck, In addition, management practices, from acute fatal illnesses (e.g., Rocky the hematocrit was 12%, immune- particularly for kennel dogs, will greatly Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichiosis, and mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) influence the frequency and severity of babesiosis) to chronic debilitating disease was diagnosed, and the dog was tick infestations. For these reasons, tick states (e.g., ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, immediately referred to the University exposure and tickborne infections, although borreliosis, bartonellosis). The family dog of Iowa College of Veterinary Medicine. more frequent in medium- to large-breed is an exceptional environmental sentinel In conjunction with the medical dogs or hunting and herding breeds, can for establishing the potential for management of IMHA, serum was sent be found in all dog breeds and in most infection with tickborne organisms in a to the North Carolina State University parts of the world. Clearly, the routine use given locality. Although controversial, Vector Borne Diseases Diagnostic of acaracide products plays an important exposure surveillance for a spectrum of Laboratory (VBDDL) for a tickborne role in killing ticks before pathogens can tickborne organisms in dogs can be used pathogen serology panel. Unfortunately, be effectively transmitted; however, to educate clients and physicians as to the dog died before test results were veterinarians should not assume that the potential for human infection. available, which is not surprising. Several any available product or combination Clearly, minimizing or eliminating tick recent studies indicate that approximately of products will be 100% effective in infestations in companion animals is 50% of IMHA referrals to tertiary care preventing transmission of tickborne perhaps of greater importance to the centers die because of their disease. In pathogens. Tick transmission of a pet-owning public today than during any our laboratory, immunofluorescent assay spectrum of microorganisms constitutes previous time in history. In addition to detected Babesia canis antibodies (titer a highly complex process that on an facilitating improvements in health care 1:64), and additional review of the dog’s evolutionary basis seems to favor the tick for companion animals, veterinarians are history determined that the dog had and the microorganism. Ticks need blood, contributing in a substantial manner to traveled to Arkansas during the previous4 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • AUGUST 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 3
  5. 5. year. Conclusions we can draw from this COMPLICATING FACTORS IN When multiple factors simultaneouslyexample are as follows: CLINICAL CONFIRMATION induce chronic changes in structural, I believe that the above example biochemical, and physiologic processes1. A diagnosis of IMHA secondary to of vectorborne infection is repeated over a protracted period of time, disease babesiosis was made (perhaps), but on a daily basis in veterinary practices expression can be highly variable, too late to benefit the dog or the throughout the United States, only even among a specific dog population. owner. with different organisms, different dogs, Because the factors that influence disease2. Serologic evidence of B. canis exposure different owners, and different attending expression can differ significantly among does not confirm active Babesia clinicians. The same evolutionary individuals within a given population, infection. Polymerase chain reaction adaptations that facilitate the persistence clinicians should anticipate a broad (PCR) testing would have documented of many tickborne infections in dogs spectrum of clinical, hematologic, or active infection by detecting B. canis– also complicate clinical confirmation of biochemical abnormalities when focusing specific DNA sequences in the dog’s disease causation. This is particularly true diagnostic emphasis on a single factor blood sample. EDTA-anticoagulated when assessing diagnostic test results for or test result. For example, diverse blood was not submitted to the an individual dog residing in a highly disease manifestations, including VBDDL at the same time the serum endemic area for vectorborne infections. epistaxis, IMHA, immune-mediated sample was submitted, so PCR testing For example, our research group has thrombocytopenia, glomerulonephritis, was not a possibility. Because Babesia generated PCR evidence (i.e., finding polyarthritis, and myelofibrosis, have spp are intraerythrocytic organisms, organism-specific DNA) for the presence been historically attributed to Ehrlichia DNA must be extracted from the of six different tickborne pathogens in a canis infection in dogs. For a variety of erythrocytes for PCR amplification. single EDTA blood sample, obtained reasons, it is increasingly clear that3. Arkansas is highly endemic for B. from a Walker hound with extensive tick canine ehrlichiosis is a disease complex canis. Iowa is not endemic for B. canis. exposure. Most dogs in this kennel also that is influenced by the infecting The dog most likely acquired the infection from a brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) while in The same evolutionary adaptations that facilitate Arkansas. the persistence of tickborne infections alsoOther considerations include: complicate clinical confirmation of disease causation.1. Because of research by Dr. Adam Birkenheuer at NCSU (and others had antibodies to nearly every tickborne Ehrlichia sp, the host immune response, around the country), babesiosis is organism for which we tested. Therefore, coinfection with other vectorborne or becoming recognized as an emerging clinicians need to recognize that the nonvectorborne pathogens, and perhaps canine and human infectious disease mammalian body functions as a component numerous other factors yet to be in the United States. of numerous complex ecosystems, which clarified. In addition to E. canis, other facilitates the evolutionary perpetuation species (Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia2. Babesiosis is a definitive cause of of vectorborne bacteria, protozoa, and ruminatum, and Ehrlichia ewingii) can IMHA in dogs. viruses. In practical terms, this means cause ehrlichiosis in dogs and people. In3. Based on recent studies, both that the detection of antibodies, conjunction with numerous highly visualization of Babesia organisms on antigens, DNA, RNA, or the culture variable host factors, the infecting blood smears and serologic testing are of microorganisms from a sick dog in a Ehrlichia sp can influence disease insensitive diagnostic tests as compared highly endemic tick environment does expression. For instance, polyarthritis in with PCR. not directly support a cause and effect dogs is more frequently associated with4. Dogs, owners, and other animals travel relationship between detection of the E. ewingii infection than with E. canis or farther and more frequently than at microorganism and those disease E. chaffeensis infection. It is also possible any other time in history. Recent manifestations found in an individual that genetic variation in organism examples of infectious agents that patient. virulence can influence disease severity. “travel” include SARS, monkeypox, It is also increasingly obvious For instance, dogs infected with E. canis West Nile virus, and canine that disease expression is frequently in Greece are likely to develop severe leishmaniasis. multifactorial, particularly in those bone marrow suppression that is5. It takes only one brown dog tick to instances in which vectorborne organisms frequently not therapeutically responsive transmit B. canis. use blood or the vasculature as a reservoir. to doxycycline. Both of these HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • AUGUST 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 3 5
  6. 6. observations are in direct contrast to the E. chaffeensis, Rickettsia rickettsii, and the potential for the transmission of these overall experience with E. canis infections other less pathogenic spotted fever group pathogens. Also useful would be a means in the United States (i.e., pancytopenia rickettsiae, such as Rickettsia montana and of tracking companion animal infectious is rare and most dogs, despite chronic Rickettsia rhipicephalus. These geographic diseases maintained by an organization illness, respond hematologically after differences can be problematic when such as the Centers for Disease Control doxycycline administration). In addition, determining the causative pathogen, and Prevention or the Infectious Diseases recent data indicate that the common particularly because many tick-transmitted Society of America. Currently, no evolutionary history of Anaplasma, infections result in a prolonged subclinical database exists to address local, regional, Babesia, Bartonella, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, course. Therefore, a dog or cat might be or national concerns about these diseases and Rickettsia spp has resulted in infected in an endemic area where in companion animals. complex polymicrobial interactions that veterinarians are very familiar with the influence the pathophysiology of disease disease manifestations but become ill SUGGESTED READING expression in dogs and human patients. months to years later after moving to an Adelson ME, Rao RV, Tilton RC, et al: Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Babesia microti, For clinicians and diagnostic laboratories, area where the disease is not endemic and and Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes scapularis ticks confirming active infection caused by veterinarians are far less familiar with the collected in northern New Jersey. J Clin Microbiol 42:2799–2801, 2004. a single tickborne pathogen can be disease manifestations. This emphasizes Birkenheuer AJ, Breitschwerdt EB: Canine babesiosis. challenging, particularly when evaluating the importance of obtaining a travel Stand Care Emerg Crit Care Med 6(2):1–4, 2004. chronic rather than acute illness. history for all sick animals when a vector- Birkenheuer AJ, Levy MG, Breitschwerdt EB: Development and evaluation of a seminested PCR for detection and differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) and B. canis DNA in canine blood Development of a “tick vaccine” that would samples. J Clin Microbiol 41:4172–4177, 2003. Breitschwerdt EB, Atkins CE, Brown TT, et al: prevent transmission of tickborne pathogens Bartonella vinsonii supsp. berkhoffi and related would seem to have great medical utility. members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria in dogs with cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis. J Clin Microbiol 37:3618–3626, 1999. Breitschwerdt EB, Blann KR, Stebbins ME, et al: Seroconversion, culture, and PCR can transmitted infectious disease is a Clinicopathologic abnormalities and treatment response in 24 dogs seroreactive to Bartonella vinsonii all be used to support causation in an diagnostic consideration. (berkhoffii) antigens. JAAHA 40:92–101, 2004. acutely infected individual. However, Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, Hancock SI: Sequential the microbiologic confirmation of CONCLUSIONS evaluation of dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia polymicrobial tickborne infections in a Tick-transmitted infectious diseases ewingii or Bartonella vinsonii. J Clin Microbiol chronically ill patient using these same will continue to challenge the creativity 36:2645–2651, 1998. Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hayatt AD: Emerging diagnostic modalities can be extremely of the medical professions. Future infectious diseases of wildlife—Threats to biodiversity difficult or in certain instances research efforts must substantially and human health. Science 287:443–449, 2000. impossible to achieve. improve our ability to detect the presence Goodman RA, Hawkins EC, Olby NJ, et al: Molecular identification of Ehrlichia ewingii infection in dogs: Geographic variation in the prevalence of tick-transmitted pathogens in our 15 cases (1997–2001). JAVMA 222:1102–1107, 2003. of tick-transmitted pathogens also presents patients. For several tick-transmitted Kidd L, Breitschwerdt EB: Transmission times and an important challenge for veterinary diseases, there is a serious need for better prevention of tick-borne diseases in dogs. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 25:742–750, 2003. clinicians. It has become increasingly treatment modalities. The currently Kordick SK, Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, et al: obvious that ticks in different geographic available treatments for diseases such Coinfection with multiple tick-borne pathogens in a Walker Hound kennel in North Carolina. J Clin regions or localities can transmit as babesiosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, Microbiol 37:2631–2638, 1999. different pathogens. For example, in and borreliosis may only induce a state Lappin MR, Breitschwerdt EB, Jensen WA, et al: the northeastern United States, Ixodes of remission, rather than eliciting a Molecular and serologic evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in cats in North America. scapularis can transmit Anaplasma therapeutic cure. Because the diagnosis JAVMA 225(6):893–896, 2004. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and treatment of these diseases will Mylonakis ME, Koutinas AF, Breitschwerdt EB, et al: Babesia microti, and Bartonella vinsonii remain challenging for the clinician and Chronic canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): A retrospective study of 19 natural cases. JAAHA (arupensis). In the southeastern United expensive for the client, development 40:174–184, 2004. States, dogs are more frequently exposed of a “tick vaccine” that would prevent Tuttle AD, Birkenheuer AJ, Juopperi T, et al: Concurrent to Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma transmission of all or most tickborne bartonellosis and babesiosis in a dog with persistent thrombocytopenia. JAVMA 233:1306–1310, 2003. americanum, and Rumex sanguineus, pathogens would seem to have great Weinkle TK, Center SA, Randolph JF, et al: Evaluation which could result in infection with medical utility. In the interim, the use of of prognostic factors, survival rates, and treatment protocols for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in Anaplasma platys, B. canis, Bartonella products that kill ticks before or shortly dogs: 151 cases (1993–2000). JAVMA 226:1869– vinsonii (berkhoffii), E. canis, E. ewingii, after attachment to the pet will minimize 1880, 2005.6 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • AUGUST 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 3
  7. 7. Albert Ahn, DVM, is Vice President of Corporate Communications and Veterinary Operations at The Hartz Mountain Corporation. ASK TH E VETQ A client of mine mentioned that she saw something on the news regarding the discontinuation of the Hartz Advanced Q What is the dose of grapes and raisins that can cause poisoning in dogs? Care Flea and Tick drops for cats. Could you explain what is going on with this situation? A According to current information,1 the lowest documented toxic grape and raisin doses are 0.7 oz/kg and 0.11 oz/kg, respectively. The mechanism of action and toxic principal are unknown at thisA Hartz has decided to voluntarily discontinue sales of our Hartz® ADVANCED CARE® 4 in 1® Flea and Tick Drops Plus+ for Cats and Hartz® ADVANCED CARE® time but are currently being studied. Reported histopathologic lesions seen with raisin and/or grape poisoning include proximal renal tubular degeneration and necrosis. 3 in 1® Flea and Tick Drops for Cats as of March 31, 2006. In addition, Hartz has implemented label changes to these products this summer. REFERENCE 1. Gwaltney-Brant S, Holding JK, Donaldson CW, et al: Renal failure associated with ingestion of grapes or raisins in dogs [letter]. JAVMA 218(10):1555–1556, 2001. This move is being made following discussions with the Environmental Protection Agency, which regulates topical insecticides. Those discussions were prompted by concerns over the number of adverse reactions that have been reported by cat owners. If you or your clients have any questions about this situation, please contact the Hartz Consumer Relations Department at 800-275-1414. Please be assured that Hartz will offer you any support needed to address customer concerns.Articles found in the Hartz Companion Animal SM newsletter can be copied and distributed to your colleagues, staff, and clients. Additional newsletters may also be obtained by contacting us at feedback@hartz.com or by phone at 800-275-1414. WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU! • Have questions or comments? Call our Consumer Relations Department at 800-275-1414 and ask to speak to a Hartz staff veterinarian or email us at feedback@hartz.com. • To obtain a Hartz Veterinary Catalog of products, please call 800-999-3000 x5118 or email us at feedback@hartz.com. HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • AUGUST 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 3 7
  8. 8. For more than 10 years, the AmericanThese Pals are Veterinary Medical Foundation (AVMF) has helped thousands of animals in emergency situations, like earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, Life Savers! life savers Savers floods and even terrorist attacks. In honor of their dedicated service, Hartz® is pleased to announce the new Vet PalsTM plush toy line. Hartz® Vet PalsTM tell the stories of animals helped during times of emergency. But that’s not all. For each Hartz® Vet Pal™ ™ sold, Hartz® donates a portion of the proceeds VETPALS to the AVMF to help in future aid efforts. We need your help. Offer Hartz® Vet PalsTM Plush pet toys designed to make a difference! to your clients, and together we can make a difference in the lives of so many more animals. Together, we can save lives. To order, visit www. Vetpals.org or call 1-888-281-6400. only $ 30 00 for the entire 6 piece collection R American Veterinary Medical Foundation AD-347Veterinary Learning Systems780 Township Line Road PRESORTED STANDARDYardley, PA 19067 U.S. POSTAGE PAID BENSALEM, PA PERMIT #118 401303