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Hartz Companion - Animal Introducing Etofenprox: A Broad-Spectrum, Comprehensive Ectoparasiticide

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Comprehensive ectoparasite control …

Comprehensive ectoparasite control
remains a top priority for pet owners and
the veterinary medical community.
According to the American Pet Product
Manufacturers Association (APPMA), the
number of cats being treated with flea and
tick products increased 15% between 2002
and 2004.1 That means an estimated 36
million cats are currently being treated for
fleas and ticks, and the majority of pet
owners use topical applications.1

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  • 1. A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS JUNE 2006 VOLUME 4, NUMBER 2 Introducing Etofenprox: A Broad-Spectrum, Comprehensive Ectoparasiticide Albert Ahn, DVM Vice President of Corporate Communications and Consumer Relations The Hartz Mountain Corporation Comprehensive ectoparasite control adult and immature fleas, deer ticks, and adulticidal activity of a flea preventive isremains a top priority for pet owners and mosquitoes. The active ingredients in crucial to prevent FAD.the veterinary medical community. Hartz® UltraGuard plus™ Drops for Anemia is a common sequela of fleaAccording to the American Pet Product Cats are etofenprox and (S)-methoprene. infestation, particularly for young puppiesManufacturers Association (APPMA), the and kittens, and can be life threatening innumber of cats being treated with flea and ECTOPARASITES AND DISEASE cats. C. felis are hearty feeders capable oftick products increased 15% between 2002 Fleas consuming up to 15 times their bodyand 2004.1 That means an estimated 36 The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis weight in blood daily.3 Seventy-two femalemillion cats are currently being treated for (Figure 1), is the most common species fleas can consume 1 ml of blood in a day.4fleas and ticks, and the majority of pet affecting dogs and cats.2 C. felis is not Substantial flea infestations can result inowners use topical applications.1 merely a nuisance; it poses many health severe clinical signs associated with Cat owners want a product that is risks to the feline population. Flea allergy anemia, and severe anemia can be fatal.safe, effective, easy to use, and affordable, dermatitis (FAD) accounts for at least In addition to inducing skinand they want one that is able to protect half of all dermatologic problems seen by inflammation and causing blood loss, fleasagainst fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes. veterinarians.3 When fleas feed on a host, are linked to several other health threats.While many cat owners turn to their saliva is transferred. Flea saliva contains This ectoparasite can serve as a vector forveterinarian for prescription ectoparasite proteolytic enzymes and histamine-like the transmission of Rickettsia typhi (thecontrol products, others prefer to purchase substances, which cause the inflammatoryover-the-counter products. Hartz is and pruritic signs associated with FAD.3pleased to announce the introduction Cats with FAD can present with self- ALSO IN THIS ISSUE:of Hartz® UltraGuard plus™ Drops excoriations, moist and miliary dermatitis,for Cats. This easy-to-use topical alopecia, papules, and eosinophilic Ask the Vet ................................ 7formulation provides protection against granuloma complex lesions.3 Rapid
  • 2. emerges. The entire life cycle typically A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS occurs in 3 to 4 weeks. The majority of JUNE 2006 VOLUME 4, NUMBER 2 the flea’s life cycle takes place in the environment, not on the host. It is Consulting Editors therefore imperative to address both the Albert Ahn, DVM pet and the environment for a successful Vice President of Corporate flea eradication plan.4 Communications and Consumer Relations Ticks The Hartz Mountain Corporation The importance of tick prevention Bruce Truman extends beyond the aesthetically Senior Director displeasing nature of the ectoparasite Animal Health and Nutrition Figure 1. The cat flea, (Figure 2). A proactive approach to The Hartz Mountain Corporation Ctenocephalides felis. preventing tick bites is important to reduce the number of protozoal, bacterial, Associate Editors causative agent of murine typhus), and viral pathogens transmitted by these Jill A. Richardson, DVM Rickettsia felis (rickettsiosis), Bartonella vectors. Tick-borne diseases such as Director henselae (cat scratch fever), and Dipylidium borreliosis (Lyme disease), ehrlichiosis, Consumer Relations caninum (tapeworm),4 all of which pose a rickettsiosis (Rocky Mountain spotted The Hartz Mountain Corporation zoonotic risk. Fleas can also transmit fever), babesiosis, and viral encephalitis David Levy Mycoplasma haemophilus (formerly called have many health implications for both Assistant Manager Hemobartonella felis), the agent responsible humans and animals.6 Animal Health and Nutrition for feline infectious anemia. The Hartz Mountain Corporation The potential impact of fleas on humans Mosquitoes HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMAL SM extends beyond the aforementioned The mosquito (Figure 3) is another infectious agents. Papular urticaria is an ectoparasite that serves as a vector for is produced for The Hartz Mountain Corporation by Veterinary Learning annoying rash that humans develop as a infectious diseases in both humans and Systems, 780 Township Line Rd., result of flea bite hypersensitivity; animals. Mosquitoes are responsible for Yardley, PA 19067. children tend to be affected more than the transmission of heartworm disease adults.5 Home flea infestations can also (HWD). Although cats are less Copyright © 2006 The Hartz Mountain be frustrating and costly to eliminate. susceptible to HWD than dogs, cats can Corporation. All rights reserved. An understanding of the biology of develop more severe clinical signs. It is Hartz® and other marks are owned by fleas provides insight into how these also harder to diagnose HWD in cats The Hartz Mountain Corporation. parasites rapidly infest their environment than in dogs; in fact, because cats often and provides the key to their eradication. are not microfilaremic and have low worm Printed in U.S.A. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any Under ideal temperature and humidity burdens and less-specific clinical signs form without the express written conditions, one mating female flea can than dogs, feline HWD remains permission of the publisher. produce more than 20,000 adults and underdiagnosed. more than 160,000 preadult fleas in 2 Many owners may not be aware of the For more information on The Hartz months.4 Because of the remarkable heartworm risk their cats face. Although Mountain Corporation, visit reproductive capacity of C. felis, an studies have shown that cats that spend www.hartz.com. effective insecticide against this pest must time outdoors are predisposed to include a “birth control” component. heartworm infection, a surprising one- Female fleas lay eggs on the host and third of affected cats are reported to live and lack of safe and effective treatment deposit them in the environment. The strictly indoors.7 options for feline HWD warrant effective smooth, oval eggs are not sticky, so eggs The clinical signs associated with mosquito prevention and prophylaxis. laid on the host quickly fall to the ground. feline heartworm infection are distressing West Nile virus (WNV) is a newly Under ideal conditions, fleas usually hatch to patients and their owners. The death emerging disease that poses risk for both within 36 hours to 10 days. The emerging or migration of adult worms can result in humans and animals. WNV is also spread larvae feed on debris and adult flea feces. acute dyspnea, tachycardia, shock, cough by the bites of infected mosquitoes. As of After two molts, the final larval stage or hemoptysis, dementia, blindness, February 2006, there have been reports of spins a cocoon from which the adult flea seizures, and death.7 The grave prognosis birds, mammals, or mosquitoes being2 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • JUNE 2006 • VOL. 4, NO. 2
  • 3. then, the safety and efficacy of (S)-methoprene has been upheld in numerous studies.11–13 The World Health Organization has approved adding (S)-methoprene to drinking water to control mosquito populations and, in 1999, classified methoprene as “unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use.”12 This statement remains undisputed. Methoprene is a selective, stable, and potent larvicide. Its selective mode of toxicity to insects is based on interferenceFigure 2. Ticks are capable of Figure 3. Mosquitoes are responsible with metamorphosis; there is no clearlytransmitting a variety of illnesses to pets for transmitting heartworms and West defined analogous mechanism by which itand humans. Nile virus. can exert a harmful impact on mammals. (S)-Methoprene has been used forinfected with WNV in every state except hemolymph (i.e., insect blood) is found more than 20 years to fight infestationsAlaska and Hawaii. in high concentrations. This regulatory of mosquitoes, flies, ants, fleas, and Cats have tested positive for WNV,8 hormone prevents metamorphosis, and other insects. It prevents flea eggsand a recent study evaluated the risks the flea remains in the larval stage.11 from hatching, which is an importantposed by WNV to experimentally A synthetic JH analog tricks the insect component of a flea-prevention program.infected dogs and cats. All of the test into a persistent immature phase, whichanimals exposed to mosquitoes were results in death. Further research led to Etofenproxconfirmed to be carriers of WNV. In this the development of JH mimetics, which Etofenprox (also called ethophenprox)laboratory-controlled study, the four fall into two categories: the terpenoids is a very effective insecticide with a widecanine subjects developed low and and nonterpenoids. (S)-Methoprene, a margin of safety in mammals. Thetransient virus levels, but the four feline terpenoid compound, was found to be a mechanism of action of this compound issubjects developed titers higher than more effective insecticide than naturally similar to that of the pyrethroid class ofthose seen in the dogs. Three of four cats occurring JH.11 pesticides.14developed mild lethargy and spikes in Until the early 1980s, (S)-methoprene Etofenprox shares structural similaritybody temperature.9 Interestingly, the was the only approved insect growth with type I ester pyrethroids (Figure 5),study also showed that ingestion of regulator (IGR). It was initially but it has a unique ether composition,infected prey animals (mice) can induce administered orally to cattle to help which gives it a much higher medianviremia, suggesting that prey animals can control the surrounding fly population. lethal dose (LD50). This structuralserve as an important reservoir of Treated cattle subsequently produced difference is what differentiatesinfection to predators.9 feces containing concentrations of etofenprox from pyrethroids and provides (S)-methoprene that were beneficial in it with a high level of safety for warm-PARASITICIDES controlling developing fly larvae. Since blooded animals. Because of its unique Many agents have been developedto help eradicate parasitic insectsdetrimental to humans, animals, and CH3 CH3 Hcrops. Pharmacologic advances haveyielded products that are safe and available CH3 C CH2 CH2 CH2 CH CH2 C CH3as user-friendly topical applications. C C O O(S)-Methoprene H C C H3C (S)-Methoprene (Figure 4) is asynthetic juvenile insect hormone analog H O CH CH3that prevents the completion of the flealife cycle and thus diminishes the number Empirical Formula: C19H34O3 CH3of emerging adults.10 During the flea’slarval stages, juvenile hormone ( JH) in the Figure 4. Chemical structure of (S)-methoprene. HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • JUNE 2006 • VOL. 4, NO. 2 3
  • 4. containing 40% etofenprox Cats has been shown to kill and repel and 3.6% (S)-methoprene.15 Culex spp and Aedes spp mosquitoes,15 CH Both of these EPA- and 90% of deer ticks were killed in 4 3 O HC 3 C CH2 registered products provide weeks. protection against adult and Hartz® UltraGuard plusTM Drops for O CH 2 immature fleas, deer ticks, Cats is labeled for external use on cats and mosquitoes. 12 weeks of age or older. This topical Selective toxicity—the product is applied between the cat’s ability to kill the offending shoulder blades once a month.10 As with pest without causing harm any product, pet owners should contact O Empirical Formula: C H O 25 28 3 to the species being their veterinarian before using on cats that CH2 CH 3 protected—is a desired are geriatric, sick, pregnant, or nursing. feature of ectoparasiticide After application, the cat should not be Figure 5. Chemical structure of etofenprox. products. The combination bathed for at least 24 hours, and cats of ingredients in Hartz® within the same household should not UltraGuard plus™ Drops be permitted to groom each other until ether (as opposed to ester) structure and for Cats achieves this goal. Hartz® the product is completely dry.17 Hartz® molecular composition, it imparts a rat UltraGuard plus™ Drops for Cats has along with many experts, including oral LD50 of more than 42,880 mg/kg been subjected to multiple efficacy, safety, the Companion Animal Parasite and a mouse oral LD50 of more than and toxicology tests. Hartz® UltraGuard Council (CAPC), recommends the use 107,200 mg/kg. plus™ Drops for Cats received EPA of ectoparasite products on a year- Etofenprox is an important chemical registration for use on pets in 2004. It is round basis.18 in the fight against ectoparasites affecting in the Level 4 Toxicity Category, the With the advent of clinically- animals and humans and is also widely lowest possible toxicity ranking. No proven, effective, and easy-to-use used to protect crops from insect pests. “Danger,” “Warning,” or “Caution” ectoparasiticides, there is no reasonable It is effective against an array of pests, statement is required on the label, and no excuse for pets and their owners to suffer including ants, cockroaches, wasps, special safety precautions (e.g., wearing the consequences of these pests. Greater hornets, and beetles.15 The British eye protection or gloves as required by attention drawn to the various vector- Army has deemed etofenprox a safe and other flea and tick products) are required borne diseases carried by fleas, ticks, and effective additive to nets and screens when applying the product on cats. mosquitoes will likely result in improved used in controlling arthropod vectors The product was evaluated in cats compliance by pet owners. The use of of disease.16 The World Health at one, three, and five times the ectoparasiticides helps to ensure the Organization classified etofenprox as recommended dosages. Test subjects healthy and happy lifestyles of pets and unlikely to present an acute hazard in were evaluated for clinical signs of illness, their caregivers. 14 normal use. changes in appetite or body weight, Studies have been conducted to and clinical pathology test results. No evaluate the metabolism and toxicity of systemic adverse effects were observed. Benefits of etofenprox. The agent is primarily Even at five times the recommended Hartz® UltraGuard plus™ excreted in feces and to a lesser extent in dose in cats, only mild skin changes, Drops for Cats urine. There was no evidence to suggest similar to those associated with any that etofenprox is genotoxic or topical pesticide, were seen. Tests ■ Kills deer ticks that may transmit Lyme disease for up to 1 month carcinogenic.14 showed no adverse effects if Hartz® UltraGuard plusTM Drops for Cats ■ Kills and repels mosquitoes that may ® ™ transmit heartworm disease Hartz UltraGuard plus contacts the eyes.15 Drops for Cats Efficacy studies showed that 98% ■ Kills fleas that may cause flea allergy The synergistic combination of of adult fleas were killed 2 weeks after dermatitis, flea bite anemia, and (S)-methoprene and etofenprox provides topical application and a 95% or greater tapeworm infestation a scientifically proven and effective reduction in flea egg hatch was noted ■ Kills flea eggs for up to 1 month product for controlling the primary after 4 weeks. The IGR and flea ■ Quick acting ectoparasites that threaten cats and their adulticide combination provides fast and ® caregivers. Hartz UltraGuard plus™ long-lasting protection against C. felis. ■ Long lasting Drops for Cats is an innovative product Hartz® UltraGuard plusTM Drops for4 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • JUNE 2006 • VOL. 4, NO. 2
  • 5. REFERENCES and prevention of heartworm disease in cats. Kirks’s Evaluations, Methoprene and (S)-Methoprene. Available at www.inchem.org/documents/ Current Veterinary Therapy XIII Small Animal1. APPMA: 2005–2006 APPMA National Pet Owners Practice. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2000, pp jmpr/jmpmono/2001pr01.htm; accessed April Survey. Greenwich, CT, American Pet Product 782–787. 2006. Manufacturers Association, pp 96-97, tables 22A and 23. 8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: West 13. Pesticide Residues in Food—1984. Available at Nile Virus Questions and Answers. www.cdc.gov/ www.inchem.org/documents/jmpr/jmpmono/2. Keil K, Wellington J, Ciszewski D: Efficacy of v84pr31.htm; accessed April 2006. ncidod/dvbid/westnile/qa/transmission.htm; imidacloprid in controlling flea allergy dermatitis in accessed April 2006. 14. 1993 FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide cats. Proc 2nd Int Flea Control Symp:15, 2001. 9. Austgen LE, Bowen RA, Bunning ML, et al: Residues: Etofenprox: Available at www.fao.org/3. Keil K, Wellington J, Ciszewski D: Efficacy of Experimental infection of cats and dogs with West ag/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/JMPR/Download/ advantage in controlling flea allergy dermatitis in Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases (serial 93_rep/Report1993.pdf; accessed April 2006. cats. Proc 3rd Int Flea Control Symp:6, 2002. online) 2004 Jan (date cited). Available from 15. Data on file. The Hartz Mountain Corporation,4. Scott DW, Miller WH, Griffin CE: Muller and www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no1/02-0616.htm; Secaucus, NJ. Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology. Philadelphia, WB accessed April 2006. 16. Croft AM, Baker D, von Bertele MJ: An Saunders, 2001, pp 490–508. 10. Young DR, Jeannin PC, Boeckh A: Efficacy evidence-based vector control strategy for5. Stibich AS, Schwartz RA, Chaffer C: Papular of fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination spot- military deployments: The British army Urticaria. Available at www.emedicine.com/ on for dogs against shed eggs, emerging and experience. Med Trop (Mars) 61(1):91–98, 2001. DERM/topic911.htm; accessed April 2006. existing adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis, 17. Product Label: Hartz® UltraGuard plus™6. Otranto D, Paolo Lia R, Cantacessi C, et al: Bouche). Vet Parasitol 125:397–407, 2004. Drops for Cats. Secaucus, NJ, The Hartz Efficacy of a combination of imidacloprid 11. Garg RC, Donahue WA: Pharmacologic Mountain Corporation, 2006. 10%/permethrin 50% versus fipronil 10%/(S)- profile of methoprene, an insect growth 18. Companion Animal Parasite Council: methoprene 12%, against ticks in naturally infected regulator, in cattle, dogs, and cats. JAVMA Controlling Internal and External Parasites in dogs. Vet Parasitol 130:293–304, 2005. 194(3):410–412, 1989. Dogs and Cats: 2005 CAPC Guidelines. Available7. Atkins CE, Ryan WG: CVT update: Diagnosis 12. Pesticide Residues in Food 2001: Toxological at www.capcvet.org; accessed April 2006.Your Clients haveFlea & TickQuestions. We Have Solutions. w w w. f leaan dticksolutions.com HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • JUNE 2006 • VOL. 4, NO. 2 5
  • 6. Albert Ahn, DVM, is Vice President of Corporate Communications and Consumer Relations at The Hartz Mountain Corporation. ASK TH E VETQWhat type of insecticide does Hartz®UltraGuard plus™ Drops for Cats contain? QA Hartz® representative visited my college last week and gave out samples of this newsletter; could you tell me ifAHartz® UltraGuard plus™ Drops for Cats is for use oncats and comes in two sizes; one for cats weighing veterinary students are eligible for subscriptions?up to 5 pounds and one for cats weighing 5 poundsand over. This product contains the active ingredientsetofenprox and (S)-methoprene. Etofenprox is effective against fleas, ticks, and AYes, all students are welcome to sign up for free membership for this newsletter and also for any other Hartz® publication. To do so, email your name and mailing address, along with the publication name, tomosquitoes and is considered to be low in toxicity feedback@Hartz.com, or you can call 800-275-1414.to mammals. (S)-methoprene is a synthetic insect growthregulator or juvenile hormone mimetic and isfurther classified as a terpenoid. Juvenile hormonesmaintain the larval stage in the insect or prevent QI went to the Hartz® booth at the Western Veterinary Conference in February and received a signed copy ofmetamorphosis; when the level of juvenile hormone Arden Moore’s Come, Sit, Stay. This bookdrops, pupal and adult developmental stages begin. is a fantastic addition to our waiting room. I love this book and want to know more about the author.QWhat kind of safety profiles doetofenprox and (S)-methoprene have? AArden Moore held book signings for Hartz® at both the 2005 and 2006 Western Veterinary Conferences. At this year’s convention, she signed more than 400 copies of her two new books, Come, Sit, Stay and Tricks and Treats. Her words have inked the pages ofAEtofenprox shares structural similarity with type I esterpyrethroids, but it has a unique ether composition,which gives it a much higher median lethal dose(LD50) (which is over 42,880 mg/kg in rats and over Prevention Magazine, Dog Fancy, Catnip, Veterinary Practice News, and dozens of national and international publications. Since 1999, she has written, co-authored, ghostwritten, and contributed to nearly 30 books on107,200 mg/kg in mice). The oral LD50 of etofenprox human health, dogs, cats, fitness, herbs, homein dogs is more than 5,000 mg/kg. improvements, and caregiving. To learn more about Of the 17 pesticides approved for indoor flea this incredible writer, visit www.ardenmoore.com.control, (S)-methoprene has the highest LD50 for oraland dermal doses in rabbits and rats. Because of the WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU!minimal absence of risk to humans, animals, or the • Have questions or comments? Call our Consumer Relationsenvironment, (S)-methoprene has been approved by Department at 800-275-1414 and ask to speak to a Hartzthe World Health Organization for use in drinking staff veterinarian or email us at feedback@hartz.com.water to control mosquitoes. In dogs, the acute oral • To obtain a Hartz Veterinary Catalog of products, please call 800-275-1414 or email us atLD50 is 5,000 to 10,000 mg/kg. (S)-Methoprene is feedback@hartz.com.not irritating to the skin or eyes. Additional newsletters may be obtained by contacting us at feedback@hartz.com or by phone at 800-275-1414. HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • JUNE 2006 • VOL. 4, NO. 2 7
  • 7. These Pals are For more than 10 years, the American Veterinary Medical Foundation (AVMF) has helped thousands of animals in emergencyLife Savers!life savers Savers situations, like earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, floods and even terrorist attacks. In honor of their dedicated service, Hartz® is pleased to announce the new Vet PalsTM plush toy line. Hartz® Vet PalsTM tell the stories of animals helped during times of emergency. But that’s not all. For each Hartz® Vet Pal™ sold, Hartz® donates a portion of the proceeds VETPALS ™ to the AVMF to help in future aid efforts. We need your help. Offer Hartz® Vet PalsTMPlush pet toys designed to make a difference! to your clients, and together we can make a difference in the lives of so many more animals. Together, we can save lives. To order, visit www. Vetpals.org or call 1-888-281-6400. only $ 30 00 for the entire 6 piece collection R American Veterinary Medical Foundation AD-347Veterinary Learning Systems PRST STD780 Township Line Road U.S. POSTAGEYardley, PA 19067 PAID YORK, PA PERMIT #200 402293