Creating                           Effective Teaching                            and Learning                           En...
Creating Effective Teaching andLearning Environments    First Results from TALIS  Teaching And Learning International Survey
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION                           AND DEVELOPMENT     The OECD is a unique forum where the ...
3                                              ForewordThe challenges facing education systems and teachers continue to in...
ForewordThe TALIS questionnaires were developed by an Instrument Development Expert Group (IDEG), led by theOECD Secretari...
Table of ContentsForeword....................................................................................................
Table of contentsSupport received by teachers for professional development. .................................................
Table of contents                                                                                                         ...
Table of contentsChapter 6  Leading to Learn: School Leadership and Management Styles . .....................................
Table of contents                                                                                                         ...
10                          Table of contents List of boxes Box 1.1 	  The TALIS design. ....................................
Table of contents                                                                                                         ...
12                 Table of contents Table 3.1	     Participation of teachers in professional development in the previous ...
Table of contents                                                                                                         ...
15                                Reader’s Guidestatistics and analysisThis report presents statistics and analysis derive...
16                Reader’s Guide Rounding of figures Because of rounding, some figures in tables may not exactly add up to...
17                             Chapter 1                  Introduction        18 Overview of TALIS        19 Origins and a...
18                chapter 1  Introduction Overview of TALIS The OECD’s Teaching and Learning International Survey is the f...
Introduction  chapter 1                                                                                                   ...
20                chapter 1  Introduction population surveyed and sampling options The international sampling and operatio...
Introduction  chapter 1                                                                                                   ...
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  1. 1. Creating Effective Teaching  and Learning Environments First Results from TALIST e a c h i n g A n d L e a r n i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l S u r v e y
  2. 2. Creating Effective Teaching andLearning Environments First Results from TALIS Teaching And Learning International Survey
  3. 3. ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of 30 democracies work together toaddress the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation. The OECD is also atthe forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developmentsand concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of anageing population. The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policyexperiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinatedomestic and international policies. The OECD member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic,Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea,Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic,Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Commission ofthe European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD. OECD Publishing disseminates widely the results of the Organisation’s statistics gathering andresearch on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as the conventions, guidelines andstandards agreed by its members. This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organisation or of the governments of its member countries.Cover illustration:© Mike Kemp/Rubberball Productions/Getty Images© Laurence Mouton/PhotoAlto Agency RF Collections/Inmagine ltb.Corrigenda to OECD publications may be found on line at: www.oecd.org/publishing/corrigenda.© OECD 2009You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from OECD publications, databases and multimediaproducts in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgment of OECD as sourceand copyright owner is given. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to rights@oecd.org. Requests forpermission to photocopy portions of this material for public or commercial use shall be addressed directly to the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC)at info@copyright.com or the Centre français d’exploitation du droit de copie (CFC) at contact@cfcopies.com.
  4. 4. 3 ForewordThe challenges facing education systems and teachers continue to intensify. In modern knowledge-basedeconomies, where the demand for high-level skills will continue to grow substantially, the task in many countriesis to transform traditional models of schooling, which have been effective at distinguishing those who are moreacademically talented from those who are less so, into customised learning systems that identify and developthe talents of all students. This will require the creation of “knowledge-rich”, evidence-based education systems,in which school leaders and teachers act as a professional community with the authority to act, the necessaryinformation to do so wisely, and the access to effective support systems to assist them in implementing change.The OECD’s Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) provides insights into how education systemsare responding by providing the first internationally comparative perspective on the conditions of teachingand learning. TALIS draws on the OECD’s 2005 review of teacher policy, which identified important gaps ininternational data, and aims to help countries review and develop policies to make the teaching professionmore attractive and more effective. TALIS is conceptualised as a programme of surveys, with successiverounds designed to address policy-relevant issues chosen by countries.With a focus in this initial round on lower secondary education in both the public and private sectors, TALISexamines important aspects of teachers’ professional development; teacher beliefs, attitudes and practices;teacher appraisal and feedback; and school leadership in the 23 participating countries.The results from TALIS suggest that, in many countries, education is still far from being a knowledge industry in thesense that its own practices are not yet being transformed by knowledge about the efficacy of those practices. The23 countries that have taken part in TALIS illustrate the growing interest in the lessons that might be learned fromteacher policies and practices employed elsewhere. TALIS provides a first, groundbreaking instrument to allowcountries to see their own teaching profession in the light of what other countries show can be achieved. Naturally,policy solutions should not simply be copies of other educational systems or experiences, but comparative analysiscan provide an understanding of the policy drivers that contribute to successful teacher policies and help to situateand configure these policy drivers in the respective national contexts.TALIS is a collaborative effort by member countries of the OECD and partner countries within the TALISorganisational framework. In addition, collaboration and support from the European Commission has helpedTALIS address important information needs of the Commission in its monitoring of progress towards theLisbon 2010 goals.The report was produced by the Indicators and Analysis Division of the OECD Directorate for Education.The project has been led by Michael Davidson, who with Ben Jensen, co-ordinated the drafting andanalysis for the report. The principal authors of the analytical chapters were: Michael Davidson (Chapter 3),Ben Jensen (Chapters 2, 5 and 7), Eckhard Klieme and Svenja Vieluf (Chapter 4), and David Baker (Chapter 6).Additional advice as well as analytical and editorial support was provided by Etienne Albiser, Tracey Burns,Ralph  Carstens, Eric Charbonnier, Pedro Lenin García de León, Corinne Heckmann, Donald  Hirsch,Miyako Ikeda, Maciej Jakubowski, David Kaplan, Juan Leon, Plamen Mirazchiyski, Soojin Park, Leslie Rutkowski,Andreas Schleicher, Diana Toledo Figueroa, Fons van de Vijver, Elisabeth Villoutreix and Jean Yip. Administrativesupport was provided by Isabelle Moulherat. Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3 © OECD 2009
  5. 5. ForewordThe TALIS questionnaires were developed by an Instrument Development Expert Group (IDEG), led by theOECD Secretariat and comprising David Baker, Aletta Grisay, Eckhard Klieme and Jaap Scheerens. Theadministration of the survey and the preparation of the data underlying the report were managed by theData Processing and Research Centre of the International Association for the Evaluation of EducationalAchievement (IEA), the appointed international contractor, together with its consortium members StatisticsCanada and the IEA Secretariat. Dirk Hastedt and Steffen Knoll acted as co-directors of the consortium.The development of the report was steered by the TALIS Board of Participating Countries, which is chaired byAnne-Berit Kavli (Norway). Annex A3 of the report lists the members of the various TALIS bodies as well asthe individual experts and consultants who have contributed to this report and to TALIS in general. Barbara Ischinger Director for Education, OECD© OECD 2009 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
  6. 6. Table of ContentsForeword.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3Reader’s Guide .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 15Chapter 1   Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................................. 17Overview of TALIS............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 18Origins and aims of TALIS. ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 19Design of the TALIS survey........................................................................................................................................................................................... 19Population surveyed and sampling options...................................................................................................................................................... 20Choosing the policy focus of the first round of TALIS................................................................................................................................ 20Developing TALIS............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21Interpretation of the results.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 22Organisation of the report............................................................................................................................................................................................ 22Chapter 2  A Profile of the Teacher Population and the Schools in which they Work................ 25Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 26A profile of lower secondary education teachers......................................................................................................................................... 26 Demographic profile of teachers................................................................................................................................................................. 26 Teachers’ educational attainment............................................................................................................................................................... 28 Teachers’ job experience and contractual status.............................................................................................................................. 29A profile of the schools in which teachers work........................................................................................................................................... 31 School sector. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 School size................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 31 School resources. ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32 School admission policies. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 34 School autonomy................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 School climate......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Chapter 3  The Professional Development of Teachers..................................................................................................... 47 Highlights. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 48 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 49 Chapter outline........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 51 Level and intensity of participation in professional development..................................................................................................... 52 Participation rates. ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 52 Intensity of participation................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 Are there trade-offs between participation and intensity?.......................................................................................................... 53 How much variation is there in the intensity of participation?............................................................................................... 54 How does participation vary by teacher and school characteristics?................................................................................. 55Types of professional development........................................................................................................................................................................ 57Unsatisfied demand and development needs................................................................................................................................................. 59 What are the areas of greatest development need?........................................................................................................................ 60 Overall index of professional development need............................................................................................................................ 62 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3 © OECD 2009
  7. 7. Table of contentsSupport received by teachers for professional development. ............................................................................................................... 64 Compulsory professional development.................................................................................................................................................. 64 Financial support. .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 65 Salary supplements............................................................................................................................................................................................... 66 Scheduled time........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 66 What is the relation between support received and levels of participation?................................................................. 66 Induction and mentoring.................................................................................................................................................................................. 70Barriers that prevent meeting demand................................................................................................................................................................. 72 No suitable development................................................................................................................................................................................. 72 Conflict with work schedule. ......................................................................................................................................................................... 73 Too expensive........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 73 Other barriers........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 73Impact of professional development..................................................................................................................................................................... 74 How does perceived impact relate to participation?..................................................................................................................... 75 Conclusions and implications for policy and practice.............................................................................................................................. 76 How much does the amount and profile of teachers’ professional development vary within and among countries?. ....................................................................................................................................................................... 76 How well are teachers’ professional development needs being met?............................................................................... 77 How best should unsatisfied demand for professional development be addressed?............................................... 78 Further analysis of teachers’ professional development.............................................................................................................. 79Additional material. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 Chapter 4  Teaching Practices, Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 87 Highlights. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 89Theoretical background and analytical framework..................................................................................................................................... 89 Chapter outline........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 92Beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning. ...................................................................................................................................... 92 Country differences in profiles of beliefs about instruction. ..................................................................................................... 94 Correlations between direct transmission and constructivist beliefs. ................................................................................. 95 Variance distribution across levels............................................................................................................................................................. 96 Classroom teaching practice....................................................................................................................................................................................... 97 Country differences in profiles of classroom teaching practices. .......................................................................................... 97 Domain specificity of profiles of instructional practices............................................................................................................. 99 Variance distribution across levels.......................................................................................................................................................... 100Teacher’s professional activities: co-operation among staff................................................................................................................ 101 Country differences in profiles of co-operation among staff. ................................................................................................ 101 Variance distribution across levels.......................................................................................................................................................... 103Classroom environment.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 103 Country differences in classroom environment.............................................................................................................................. 104 Variance distribution across levels.......................................................................................................................................................... 107School-level environment: school climate..................................................................................................................................................... 108 Country differences in teacher-student relations........................................................................................................................... 108 Variance distribution across levels.......................................................................................................................................................... 110Job-related attitudes: self-efficacy and job satisfaction.......................................................................................................................... 111 Country differences in self-efficacy and job satisfaction.......................................................................................................... 111 Variance distribution across levels.......................................................................................................................................................... 111© OECD 2009 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
  8. 8. Table of contents Understanding teachers’ professionalism: first steps in linking the school context and teachers’beliefs and practices to teachers’ perceived efficacy and the quality of the learning environment........................ 113 Significance of context and background variables....................................................................................................................... 113 Effects of professional development activities................................................................................................................................. 116 Effects of beliefs on instructional practices ...................................................................................................................................... 118 Effects of instructional practices on classroom disciplinary climate................................................................................ 118 Effects of teachers’ co-operation on teacher-student relations............................................................................................. 119 Determinants of teacher job satisfaction............................................................................................................................................. 119 Conclusions and implications for policy and practice ......................................................................................................................... 120 Teachers generally support modern constructivist beliefs about instruction, but there is scope for strengthening this support..................................................................................................................................................................... 120 Teachers need to use a wider range of instructional strategies and techniques....................................................... 121 There is scope to improve teacher effectiveness by extending teacher co-operation and linking this to an improved school climate. ....................................................................................................................................................... 122 Support of teachers’ classroom management techniques and a positive attitude towards the job.............. 122Additional material. ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 123 Chapter 5  School Evaluation, Teacher Appraisal and Feedback and the Impact  on Schools and Teachers. ............................................................................................................................................................................. 137Highlights. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 138Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 139 Framework for evaluating education in schools: data collected in TALIS. ................................................................... 139 Data collected in TALIS. ................................................................................................................................................................................. 140Nature and impact of school evaluations....................................................................................................................................................... 142 Frequency of school evaluations.............................................................................................................................................................. 142 Focus of school evaluations......................................................................................................................................................................... 144 Influence of school evaluations. ............................................................................................................................................................... 147 Publication of information on school evaluations ...................................................................................................................... 148 Form of teacher appraisal and feedback . ....................................................................................................................................................... 149 Frequency of appraisal and feedback.................................................................................................................................................... 149 Focus of appraisal and feedback ............................................................................................................................................................. 151 Teaching in a multicultural setting and teaching students with special learning needs...................................... 153 Outcomes of feedback and appraisal of teachers...................................................................................................................................... 154 Impact of teacher appraisal and feedback...................................................................................................................................................... 158 Teachers’ perceptions of the fairness of appraisal and feedback........................................................................................ 158 Impact of appraisal and feedback on teaching and teachers’ work.................................................................................. 159Teacher appraisal and feedback and school development.................................................................................................................. 161 Links across the framework for evaluating education in schools.................................................................................................... 163 Conclusions and implications for policy and practice........................................................................................................................... 169 Teacher appraisal and feedback has a positive impact on teachers................................................................................. 169 School evaluation and teacher appraisal and feedback are relatively rare in a number of education systems, and do not always have consequences for teachers............................................................................................... 169 Teachers reported that they would receive little, if any, recognition for improving their teaching, as teacher effectiveness is not linked to the recognition and rewards they receive............................................... 170 School evaluations can be structured so that they and teacher appraisal and feedback lead to developments in particular aspects of school education......................................................................................................... 171Additional material. ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 172 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3 © OECD 2009
  9. 9. Table of contentsChapter 6  Leading to Learn: School Leadership and Management Styles . ............................................. 189 Highlights. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 190 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 191 From bureaucratic administrator to leader for learning............................................................................................................ 191 Goals of the TALIS survey of principals. .............................................................................................................................................. 192 Chapter outline..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 193 Salient dimensions of secondary school management behaviour of school principals................................................... 193 Management behaviour.................................................................................................................................................................................. 193 Management styles and school leadership........................................................................................................................................ 195 Management styles and decision making ......................................................................................................................................... 196 Management styles and characteristics of principals and schools. ................................................................................... 197 Management styles and characteristics of evaluations of school performance. ....................................................... 198Aspects of teachers’ work and school management................................................................................................................................ 198 Beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning........................................................................................................................ 199 Classroom practices of teachers................................................................................................................................................................ 200 Teachers’ professional activities................................................................................................................................................................ 200 Teachers’ classroom environment and school climate for learning.................................................................................. 200 Teachers’ attitudes towards their job. .................................................................................................................................................... 200Teacher appraisal and feedback and school management.................................................................................................................. 201 Learning outcomes, teachers’ practices and professional development as appraisal criteria......................... 201 Objectives of the appraisal........................................................................................................................................................................... 202 Feedback and consequences of the appraisal................................................................................................................................. 202 Teachers’ professional development...................................................................................................................................................... 202 Conclusions and implications for policy and practice........................................................................................................................... 203 New trends in school leadership are evident to varying degrees in countries’ educational systems. ....... 203 While neither leadership style is consistently associated with teachers’ beliefs and practices, there is evidence to suggest that instructional leadership is related to important aspects of the management of effective instruction in schools . .......................................................................................................................... 204Additional material. ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 205Chapter 7  Key Factors in Developing Effective Learning Environments: ClassroomDisciplinary Climate and Teachers’ Self-Efficacy................................................................................................................... 219 Highlights. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 220 Introduction and conceptual framework......................................................................................................................................................... 221 Analytical model................................................................................................................................................................................................. 221 A focus on self-efficacy and classroom disciplinary climate................................................................................................. 222 Estimations of classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ reported self-efficacy.............................................. 223 Modelling strategy: country-by-country analysis. ......................................................................................................................... 224Descriptive statistics for teachers’ reported self-efficacy. ..................................................................................................................... 225Descriptive statistics for classroom environment....................................................................................................................................... 226Teachers’ characteristics and classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ self-efficacy.............................................. 227Teachers’ professional development and classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ self-efficacy................... 229Teaching practices, beliefs and attitudes and classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ self-efficacy.......... 231 Teaching practices, beliefs and attitudes and classroom disciplinary climate. ......................................................... 231 Teaching practices, beliefs and attitudes and teachers’ self-efficacy. .............................................................................. 233Teacher appraisal and feedback and classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ self-efficacy............................. 234© OECD 2009 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
  10. 10. Table of contents School leadership and classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ self-efficacy. ........................................................... 238School autonomy and school climate and classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ self-efficacy................ 239Conclusions and implications for policy and practice........................................................................................................................... 241Additional material. ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 241References. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 259Annex A1  Technical Notes on Survey Procedures and Analysis. ......................................................................... 267 Annex A1.1  Construction of indices and other derived measures................................................................................... 268 Annex A1.2  TALIS sampling procedures and response rates................................................................................................ 277 Annex A1.3  Quality assurance................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Annex A1.4  Technical notes on multiple regression analyses............................................................................................. 282Annex A2  Selected Characteristics of Data Collected from the Netherlands................................... 299 Annex A3  List of Contributors................................................................................................................................................................ 303 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3 © OECD 2009
  11. 11. 10 Table of contents List of boxes Box 1.1  The TALIS design. ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 20 Box 3.1  Types of professional development..................................................................................................................................................... 50 Box 4.1  Teachers’ beliefs about teaching........................................................................................................................................................... 93 Box 4.2  Cross-cultural validity of the indices for teachers’ beliefs, practices and attitudes. ....................................................... 93 Box 4.3  Computation of ipsative scores............................................................................................................................................................. 94 Box 4.4  Description of regression analysis.................................................................................................................................................... 114 Box 5.1  Path analysis methodology................................................................................................................................................................... 164 Box 7.1  Classroom disciplinary climate, teachers’ reported self-efficacy and the stability of employment...................... 229 Box 7.2  Professional development and classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ reported self-efficacy.................. 230 Box 7.3  Disciplinary climate and teachers’ reported self-efficacy and teaching practices and beliefs............................... 234 Box 7.4  Classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ reported self-efficacy and teachers’ appraisal and feedback........ 238 Box 7.5  Classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ reported self-efficacy and school leadership.................................. 239 Box 7.6  Classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ reported self-efficacy and various school-level factors. ............. 240 Box A1.4.1  Summary of four final models per country................................................................................................................................... 287 List of Figures Figure 1.1 Countries participating in TALIS. .......................................................................................................................................................... 18 Figure 2.1 Gender and age of teachers (2007-08).............................................................................................................................................. 27 Figure 2.2 Job experience of teachers (2007-08). ............................................................................................................................................... 30 Figure 2.3 Percentage of teachers in schools where the principal reported the following as pre-requisites or high priorities for admittance to school (2007-08)................................................................................................................. 35 Figure 2.4 School autonomy factors (2007-08).................................................................................................................................................... 37 Figure 2.5 Percentage of teachers whose school principal reported that the following teacher behaviours hindered the provision of instruction in their school a lot or to some extent (2007-08)................................................................. 39 Figure 3.1 Percentage of teachers who undertook some professional development in the previous 18 months (2007-08)................................................................................................................................................................................. 52 Figure 3.2 Comparison of the level and intensity of participation in professional development (2007-08)............................. 53 Figure 3.3 Days of professional development taken – Interquartile range (2007-08). ........................................................................ 54 Figure 3.4 Participation rates by type of professional development activity (2007-08)...................................................................... 57 Figure 3.5 Percentage of teachers who wanted more development than they received in the previous 18 months (2007-08)................................................................................................................................................................................. 59 Figure 3.6 Areas of greatest development need (2007-08)............................................................................................................................. 60 Figure 3.7 Index of professional development need (2007-08).................................................................................................................... 62 Figure 3.8 Comparison of unsatisfied demand for professional development and amount undertaken (2007-08)............... 63 Figure 3.9 Types of support received for professional development (2007-08)..................................................................................... 65 Figure 3.10 Average days of development taken by teachers according to personal payment level (2007-08)......................... 67 Figure 3.11 Level of personal payment by type of development activity (2007-08). ............................................................................. 68 Figure 3.12 Percentage of teachers receiving scheduled time compared to average days of development undertaken (2007-08)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 69 Figure 3.13 Percentage of teachers in schools with no formal induction or mentoring programmes (2007-08)....................... 71 Figure 3.14 Reasons for not taking more professional development (2007-08)....................................................................................... 72 Figure 3.15 Comparison of impact and participation by types of development activity (2007-08)................................................ 75 © OECD 2009 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
  12. 12. Table of contents 11Figure 4.1 Framework for the analysis of teaching practices and beliefs.................................................................................................. 91Figure 4.2 Country profiles of beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning (2007-08)........................................................... 95Figure 4.3 Distribution of total variance across the three levels of analysis for teachers’ beliefs about instruction (2007-08)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 96Figure 4.4 Country profiles of classroom teaching practices (2007-08).................................................................................................... 98Figure 4.5 Subject profiles of classroom teaching practices (2007-08)..................................................................................................... 99Figure 4.6 Distribution of total variance across the three levels of analysis for teaching practices (2007-08)...................... 100Figure 4.7 Country profiles for co-operation among staff (2007-08)....................................................................................................... 102Figure 4.8 Distribution of total variance across the three levels of analysis for co-operation among staff (2007-08). ...... 103Figure 4.9 Distribution of time spent in the classroom during an average lesson (2007-08)........................................................ 104Figure 4.10 Percentiles of time on task (2007-08).............................................................................................................................................. 105Figure 4.11 Country means for two indicators of the quality of the classroom environment (2007-08).................................... 106Figure 4.12 Distribution of total variance across the three levels of analysis for indicators of classroom climate (2007-08)...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 107Figure 4.13 Teacher-student relations: precentiles of the standardised factor scores.......................................................................... 109Figure 4.14 Distribution of total variance across the three levels of analysis for teacher-student relations (2007-08)......... 110Figure 4.15 Country means of teacher self-efficacy and job satisfaction (2007-08)............................................................................ 112Figure 4.16 Distribution of total variance across the three levels of analysis for self efficacy and job satisfaction (2007-08)..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 112Figure 5.1 Structure for evaluation of education in schools: data collected in TALIS...................................................................... 142Figure 5.2 Criteria of school evaluations (2007-08)........................................................................................................................................ 145Figure 5.3 Teachers who received no appraisal or feedback and teachers in schools that had no school evaluation in the previous five years (2007-08). ............................................................................................................................................... 150Figure 5.4 Criteria for teacher appraisal and feedback (2007-08)............................................................................................................ 153Figure 5.5 Impact of teacher appraisal and feedback (2007-08)............................................................................................................... 156Figure 5.6 Impact of teacher appraisal and feedback upon teaching (2007-08)................................................................................ 160Figure 5.7 Perception of teachers of appraisal and feedback and its impact in their school (2007-08)................................... 162Figure 5.8 Path analysis for teaching students with special learning needs.......................................................................................... 165Figure 5.9 Path analysis for teaching in a multicultural setting.................................................................................................................. 166Figure 5.10 Path analysis for teachers’ classroom management. ................................................................................................................. 166Figure 5.11 Path analysis for teachers’ handling of student discipline and behaviour problems................................................... 166Figure 5.12 Path analysis for teachers’ knowledge and understanding of main subject field. ........................................................ 167Figure 5.13 Path analysis for teachers’ knowledge and understanding of instructional practices in their main subject field ................................................................................................................................................................... 167Figure 6.1 Composition of the indices for instructional and administrative leadership.................................................................. 195Figure 6.2 School principals according to their management styles (2007-08).................................................................................. 197Figure 6.3 Effects of greater use of instructional or administrative leadership styles........................................................................ 203List of TablesTable 2.1 Gender and age distribution of teachers (2007-08)..................................................................................................................... 41Table 2.2 Teachers’ educational attainment (2007-08)................................................................................................................................... 41Table 2.3 Employment status and job experience of teachers (2007-08). .............................................................................................. 42Table 2.4 School personnel characteristics and the percentage of teachers in public schools (2007-08)................................ 42Table 2.5 School resources (2007-08).................................................................................................................................................................... 43Table 2.6 School admission policies (2007-08)................................................................................................................................................. 43Table 2.7 School autonomy (2007-08)................................................................................................................................................................... 44Table 2.8 School climate – teacher-related factors (2007-08)...................................................................................................................... 45Table 2.8a School climate – student-related factors (2007-08). .................................................................................................................... 45 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3 © OECD 2009
  13. 13. 12 Table of contents Table 3.1 Participation of teachers in professional development in the previous 18 months (2007-08). ................................. 80 Table 3.1a Amount of professional development undertaken by teachers in the previous 18 months (2007-08) – teacher characteristics............................................................................................................................................................................... 81 Table 3.1b Amount of professional development undertaken by teachers in the previous 18 months (2007-08) – school characteristics................................................................................................................................................................................ 82 Table 3.2 Types of professional development undertaken by teachers (2007-08).............................................................................. 82 Table 3.3 Teachers who wanted to participate in more development than they did in the previous 18 months (2007-08)......... 83 Table 3.4 Teachers’ high professional development needs (2007-08). .................................................................................................... 84 Table 3.5 Support for professional development undertaken by teachers (2007-08)........................................................................ 85 Table 3.6 Frequency of mentoring and induction programmes (2007-08)............................................................................................. 85 Table 3.7 Reasons for not participating in more professional development (2007-08).................................................................... 86 Table 3.8 Impact of different types of professional development undertaken by teachers (2007-08)........................................ 86 Table 4.1 Correlation between direct transmission and constructivist beliefs about teaching (2007-08).............................. 125 Table 4.2 Correlation between time on task and classroom disciplinary climate (2007-08)...................................................... 125 Table 4.3 Relationship between teacher characteristics and teachers’ beliefs, attitudes and practices and the learning environment (2007-08)................................................................................................................................................ 125 Table 4.4 Relationship between classroom context and teaching practices (2007-08)................................................................. 126 Table 4.5 Relationship between school context and teacher-student relations (2007-08)........................................................... 127 Table 4.6 Relationship between teachers’ professional development activities and their teaching beliefs about instruction (2007-08).............................................................................................................................................................................. 128 Table 4.7 Relationship between teachers’ professional development activities and teaching practices (2007-08).......... 129 Table 4.8 Relationship between teachers’ professional development activities and teacher co-operation (2007-08). ........ 130 Table 4.9 Relationship between teachers’ beliefs about instruction and teaching practices (2007-08)................................. 131 Table 4.10 Relationship between teaching practices and classroom disciplinary climate (2007-08)........................................ 132 Table 4.11 Relationship between teacher co-operation and teacher-student relations (2007-08). ............................................. 133 Table 4.12 Relationship between teachers’ beliefs about instruction, classroom teaching practices, the learning environment, self-efficacy, and teachers’ job satisfaction (2007-08)................................................................................. 134 Table 4.13 Relationship between classroom disciplinary climate, teacher-student relations and job satisfaction (2007-08)...... 135 Table 5.1 Frequency and type of school evaluations (2007-08). ............................................................................................................. 174 Table 5.1a Criteria of school evaluations (2007-08)........................................................................................................................................ 175 Table 5.2 Impacts of school evaluations upon schools (2007-08).......................................................................................................... 176 Table 5.2a Publication of school evaluations (2007-08). .............................................................................................................................. 177 Table 5.3 Frequency and source of teacher appraisal and feedback (2007-08)................................................................................ 177 Table 5.4 Criteria for teacher appraisal and feedback (2007-08)............................................................................................................ 179 Table 5.5 Outcomes of teacher appraisal and feedback (2007-08)........................................................................................................ 181 Table 5.6 Actions undertaken following the identification of a weakness in a teacher appraisal (2007-08)....................... 182 Table 5.7 Teacher perceptions of the appraisal and/or feedback they received (2007-08).......................................................... 185 Table 5.7a Teacher perceptions of the personal impact of teacher appraisal and feedback (2007-08). ................................... 186 Table 5.8 Impact of teacher appraisal and feedback upon teaching (2007-08)................................................................................ 187 Table 5.9 Teacher appraisal and feedback and school development (2007-08)............................................................................... 188 Table 6.1 School principal leadership behavioral items (2007-08)........................................................................................................ 206 Table 6.2 School principal leadership behavioral indices (2007-08).................................................................................................... 206 Table 6.3 Management leadership styles (2007-08)...................................................................................................................................... 207 Table 6.4 Relationship between school leadership style and teachers’ beliefs about instruction (2007-08). ...................... 207 Table 6.5 Relationship between school leadership style and teaching practices (2007-08). ...................................................... 208 Table 6.6 Relationship between school leadership style and co-ordination and professional collaboration among teachers (2007-08)................................................................................................................................................................... 209 Table 6.7 Relationship between school leadership style and classroom disciplinary climate, time on task and teacher-student relations indices (2007-08). ................................................................................................................................ 210 © OECD 2009 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
  14. 14. Table of contents 13Table 6.8 Relationship between school leadership style and teacher’s job satisfaction and self-efficacy (2007-08)............. 211Table 6.9 Relationship between school leadership style and objectives of teacher appraisals (2007-08). ........................... 212Table 6.10 Relationship between school leadership style and outcomes of teacher appraisals (2007-08)............................. 213Table 6.11 Relationship between school leadership style and the professional development of teachers (2007-08)........ 214Table 6.12 Relationship between the background characteristics of the principals and their school and the use of instructional leadership style (2007-08). .................................................................................................................................. 215Table 6.13 Relationship between the background characteristics of the principals and their school and the use of administrative leadership style (2007-08)................................................................................................................................ 216Table 6.14 Correlation between leadership styles and types of evaluation (2007-08).................................................................... 217Table 7.1 List of independent variables.............................................................................................................................................................. 243Table 7.2 Index of self-efficacy (2007-08)......................................................................................................................................................... 244Table 7.3 Classroom disciplinary climate index (2007-08). ...................................................................................................................... 244Table 7.4 Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 1 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating classroom disciplinary climate......................................................................................... 244Table 7.4a Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 1 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating teacher’s reported self-efficacy......................................................................................... 245Table 7.5 Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 2 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating classroom disciplinary climate......................................................................................... 246Table 7.5a Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 2 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating teacher’s reported self-efficacy......................................................................................... 247Table 7.6 Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 3 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating classroom disciplinary climate......................................................................................... 248Table 7.6a Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 3 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating teacher’s reported self-efficacy......................................................................................... 249Table 7.7 Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 4 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating classroom disciplinary climate......................................................................................... 250Table 7.7a Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 4 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating teacher’s reported self-efficacy......................................................................................... 252Table 7.8 Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 5 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating classroom disciplinary climate......................................................................................... 254Table 7.8a Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 5 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating teacher’s reported self-efficacy......................................................................................... 255Table 7.9 Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 6 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating classroom disciplinary climate......................................................................................... 256Table 7.9a Significant variables and the direction of coefficients of Bloc 6 variables in the gross, net and final net models estimating teachers’ reported self-efficacy......................................................................................... 257Table A1.2.1 Unweighted participation rates weighted estimated size of the teacher population by country. ......................... 279Table A1.4.1 List of independent variables in the Chapter 4 regression analyses................................................................................... 289Table A1.4.2 List of independent variables in the Chapter 6 regression analyses................................................................................... 290Table A1.4.3 Sample sizes for the Chapter 7 regression analyses.................................................................................................................. 291Table A1.4.4 Between-school variance in classroom disciplinary climate and teachers’ reported self-efficacy for each country. ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 291Table A1.4.5 List of independent variables in the Chapter 7 regression analyses................................................................................... 292Table A1.4.6 The percentage of missing cases for each country for each variable included in the Chapter 7 regression analyses.................................................................................................................................................................................. 293Table A2.1 The professional development of teachers: selected data for the Netherlands............................................................. 300Table A2.2 Teaching practices beliefs and attitudes: selected data for the Netherlands.................................................................. 300Table A2.3 School evaluation, teacher appraisal and feedback, and the impact on schools and teachers: selected data for the Netherlands..................................................................................................................................................... 301Table A2.4 School leadership: selected data for the Netherlands.............................................................................................................. 301 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3 © OECD 2009
  15. 15. 15 Reader’s Guidestatistics and analysisThis report presents statistics and analysis derived from the survey responses of teachers of lower secondaryeducation (level 2 of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED-97)) and the principals oftheir schools.Classification of levels of educationThe classification of the levels of education is based on the revised International Standard Classification ofEducation (ISCED-97). ISCED is an instrument for compiling statistics on education internationally anddistinguishes among six levels of education: • Pre-primary education (ISCED level 0). • Primary education (ISCED level 1). • Lower secondary education (ISCED level 2). • Upper secondary education (ISCED level 3). • Post-secondary non-tertiary level of education (ISCED level 4). • Tertiary-type A education (ISCED level 5A). • Tertiary-type B education (ISCED level 5B). • Advanced Research Qualifications (ISCED level 6).Calculation of international averageA TALIS average was calculated for most indicators presented in this report. The TALIS average is calculatedas the unweighted mean of the data values of the TALIS countries included in the table. The TALIS averagetherefore refers to an average of data values at the level of the national systems.Symbols for missing dataThe following symbols are employed in the tables and charts to denote missing data: a The category does not apply in the country concerned. Data are therefore missing. m Data are not available as the underlying data were either not collected or withdrawn.Abbreviations used in this reportThe following abbreviations are used in this report: CFI Comparative Fit Index ISCED International Standard Classification of Education RMSEA Root Mean Square Error of Approximation rxy Correlation coefficient (S.E.) Standard error SRMR Root Mean Square Residual Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3 © OECD 2009
  16. 16. 16 Reader’s Guide Rounding of figures Because of rounding, some figures in tables may not exactly add up to the totals. Totals, differences and averages are always calculated on the basis of exact numbers and are rounded only after calculation. All standard errors in this publication have been rounded to two decimal places. Where the value 0.00 is shown, this does not imply that the standard error is zero, but that it is smaller than 0.005. Territorial entities In the whole document the Flemish Community of Belgium is referred to as “Belgium (Fl.)”. Further documentation For further information on TALIS documentation, the instruments and methods, see the TALIS Technical Report (forthcoming) and the TALIS website (www.oecd.org/edu/TALIS). This report uses the OECD’s StatLinks service. Below each table and chart is a url leading to a corresponding Excel workbook containing the underlying data. These urls are stable and will remain unchanged over time. © OECD 2009 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
  17. 17. 17 Chapter 1 Introduction 18 Overview of TALIS 19 Origins and aims of TALIS 19 Design of the TALIS survey 20 Population surveyed and sampling options 20 Choosing the policy focus of the first round of TALIS 21 Developing TALIS 22 Interpretation of the results 22 Organisation of the reportCreating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3 © OECD 2009
  18. 18. 18 chapter 1  Introduction Overview of TALIS The OECD’s Teaching and Learning International Survey is the first international survey to focus on the working conditions of teachers and the learning environment in schools. Its aim is to help countries to review and develop policies that foster the conditions for effective schooling. TALIS focuses on lower secondary education teachers and the principals of their schools and seeks to provide policy-relevant data and analysis on the following key aspects of schooling: • the role and functioning of school leadership; • how teachers’ work is appraised and the feedback they receive; • teachers’ professional development; and • teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about teaching and their pedagogical practices. In view of the important role that school leadership can play in creating effective schools, TALIS describes the role of school leaders and examines the support they give to their teachers. Because retaining and developing effective teachers is a priority in all school systems, TALIS looks at how teachers’ work is recognised, appraised and rewarded and how well their professional development needs are being addressed. Finally, TALIS provides insights into the beliefs and attitudes about teaching that teachers bring to the classroom and the pedagogical practices that they adopt. TALIS is a collaborative effort by member countries of the OECD and partner countries which has been conceptualised as a programme of surveys. This report presents the initial results from the first round of TALIS, which was implemented in 2007-08. Figure 1.1 Countries participating in TALIS OECD countries Partner countries Australia Brazil Austria Bulgaria Belgium (Flemish Community) Estonia Denmark Lithuania Hungary Malaysia Iceland Malta Ireland Slovenia Italy Korea Mexico Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Spain Turkey Note: TALIS was also conducted in the Netherlands but as the required sampling standards were not achieved, their data are not included in the international comparisons. Source: OECD, TALIS Database. © OECD 2009 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
  19. 19. Introduction  chapter 1 19In all, 24 countries participated in this first round of TALIS (see Figure 1.1). However, as the Netherlands did notmeet the sampling standards, their data are not included in the international tables and analyses. A summary ofthe results for the Netherlands can be found in Annex A2 of this report.origins and aims of TALISTALIS has been developed as part of the OECD Indicators of Education Systems (INES) project. Over the past20 years or so, INES has sought to create a coherent set of indicators that provide a reliable basis for thequantitative comparisons of the functioning and performance of education systems in OECD and partnercountries. The main product from the INES project is the annual Education at a Glance (OECD, 2008a).Although the INES programme has made considerable progress over the years in developing indicators onthe learning environment and organisation of schools, as well as learning outcomes, significant gaps in theknowledge base on teachers and teaching remained. As a result, the INES General Assembly in 2000 in Tokyocalled for increased attention to teachers and teaching in future work. At the meeting of deputy Ministers ofEducation in Dublin in 2003, the need for better information on the quality of learning and how teachinginfluences learning was further affirmed.To address these deficiencies, a strategy was developed to improve the indicators on teachers, teaching andlearning. One aspect was an international survey of teachers, which evolved into the TALIS programme.Another important impetus for TALIS came from the OECD review of teacher policy, which concludedwith the report Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers (OECD, 2005) andemphasised the need for better national and international information on teachers. The framework used inthat policy review and the specific gaps in the data and priorities it highlighted were instrumental in thedesign of TALIS.The overall objective of the TALIS surveys is therefore to provide, in a timely and cost-effective manner, robustinternational indicators and policy-relevant analysis on teachers and teaching in order to help countries toreview and develop policies that create the conditions for effective schooling. Cross-country analyses providethe opportunity to compare countries facing similar challenges and to learn about different policy approachesand their impact on the learning environment in schools.The guiding principles underlying the survey strategy are:• Policy relevance. Clarity about the policy issues and a focus on the questions that are most relevant for participating countries are both essential.• Value added. International comparisons should be a significant source of the study’s benefits.• Indicator-oriented. The results should yield information that can be used to develop indicators.• Validity, reliability, comparability and rigour. Based on a rigorous review of the knowledge base, the survey should yield information that is valid, reliable and comparable across participating countries.• Interpretability. Participating countries should be able to interpret the results in a meaningful way.• Efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The work should be carried out in a timely and cost-effective way.design of the TALIS surveyTALIS is conceived as a sequence of surveys which over time, will survey school teachers from all phases ofschooling. Within this broad survey design, specific plans for further rounds of TALIS will be reviewed after thefirst round is completed. Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3 © OECD 2009
  20. 20. 20 chapter 1  Introduction population surveyed and sampling options The international sampling and operational parameters applied in TALIS are shown in Box 1.1 and further details, including teacher and school participation rates by country are given in Annex A1.2. Box 1.1  The TALIS design • International target population: lower secondary education teachers and the principals of their schools. • Sample size: 200 schools per country, 20 teachers in each school. • Within school samples: representative samples of schools and teachers within schools. • Target response rates: 75% of the sampled schools (school considered responding if 50% of sampled teachers respond), aiming for a 75% response from all sampled teachers in the country. • Questionnaires: separate questionnaires for teachers and principals, each requiring around 45 minutes to complete. • Mode of data capture: questionnaires filled in on paper or on line. • Survey windows: October-December 2007 for Southern Hemisphere countries and March-May 2008 for Northern Hemisphere countries. The participating countries decided that the main focus of the first round of TALIS should be teachers of lower secondary education (level 2 of the 1997 revision of the International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED 97) and their school principals. The design of the first round also proposed international options which allowed countries to survey as well a representative sample of teachers of primary and/or upper secondary education and the principals of their schools. Another option was to survey a representative sample of teachers of 15-year-olds in schools that took part in PISA 2006 and principals of these schools. As too few countries expressed an interest in these options, they were not covered at the international level; however, Iceland and Mexico adopted some national sampling options. TALIS defines teachers of ISCED level 2 as those who, as part of their regular duties, provide instruction in programmes at ISCED level 2. Teachers in the schools sampled who teach a mixture of programmes at different levels, including ISCED 2 programmes, were included in the target population. There was no minimum cut-off for the amount of their ISCED level 2 teaching. The following were excluded from the teacher target population: teachers only teaching special need students; substitute, emergency or occasional teachers; teachers teaching adults exclusively; teachers on long-term leave; and teachers who were also the principals of their schools. Choosing the policy focus of the first round of TALIS The original conceptual framework for the TALIS programme was developed by a joint taskforce comprising experts from the INES Network A (learning outcomes) and Network C (learning environment and school organisation). The taskforce was asked to develop a data strategy on teachers, teaching and learning in order to identify gaps in data at the international level and help make the coverage of the INES indicators more complete. A major part of that strategy was a survey programme which developed into TALIS. © OECD 2009 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
  21. 21. Introduction  chapter 1 21The original conceptual framework was adapted to the policy issues that had been studied in the OECD teacherpolicy review (OECD, 2005): attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers; school policies; andeffectiveness and quality teachers and teaching (see the forthcoming TALIS Technical Report for details of theframework). On the basis of the indicators included in the framework, the participating countries chose thefollowing themes as the policy focus of the first round of TALIS:• school leadership;• appraisal of and feedback to teachers; and• teaching practices, beliefs and attitudes.TALIS also chose the professional development of teachers as an important theme. In part this was because ofsynergies with the three main themes and in part because it allowed TALIS to serve as a way for countries of theEuropean Union to collect information on teachers which the Education Council had identified as important tomonitor progress towards the Lisbon 2010 goals. In particular, the data on professional development ofteachers are relevant for monitoring the common objective of improving the education and training of teachersand trainers (Council (Education) of the EU (2002; 2005; 2007)).Aspects of other themes were also included in the survey when they were seen to provide importantcomplementary analytical value to the main themes. In particular, aspects of “School climate” and “Division ofworking time” and a single item on “Job satisfaction” were also included.Separate questionnaires for teachers and the principals of their schools were prepared to explore the policy andanalytical questions agreed by the participating countries under these policy themes. Considerable effort wasdevoted to achieving cultural and linguistic validity of the survey instruments, and stringent quality assurancemechanisms were applied both for their translation and for the sampling and data collection (see Annex 1.3).Developing TALISThe development of TALIS has been the result of productive co-operation between the member countries of theOECD and the partner countries participating in the first round. Engagement with bodies representing teachersand regular briefings and exchanges with the Trades Union Advisory Council at the OECD (TUAC) have beenvery important in the development and implementation of TALIS. In particular, the co-operation of the teachersand principals in the participating schools has been crucial in ensuring the success of TALIS.A Board of Participating Countries, representing all of the countries taking part in the first round of TALIS, set outthe policy objectives for the survey and established the standards for data collection and reporting. An InstrumentDevelopment Expert Group (IDEG) was established to translate the policy priorities into questionnaires in orderto address the policy and analytical questions that had been agreed by the participating countries.Participating countries implemented TALIS at the national level through National Project Managers (NPMs)and National Data Managers (NDMs), who were subject to rigorous technical and operational procedures. TheNPMs played a crucial role in helping to secure the co-operation of schools, to validate the questionnaires,to manage the national data collection and processing and to verify the results from TALIS. The NDMs co-ordinated the data processing at the national level and liaised in the cleaning of the data.The co-ordination and management of implementation at the international level was the responsibility ofthe appointed contractor, the Data Processing Centre of the International Association for the Evaluation ofEducational Achievement (IEA). The IEA Secretariat was responsible for overseeing the verification of thetranslation and for quality control in general. Statistics Canada, as a sub-contractor of the IEA, developedthe sampling plan, advised countries on its application, calculated the sampling weights and advised on thecalculation of sampling errors. Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3 © OECD 2009

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