Data-based decision making means planning what to teach to whom based on ongoing, frequent assessment. Point to the first bullet. It means planning the content of daily instruction on the basis of frequent, ongoing assessment data. From such data, you match the content of what you teach to the observed needs of your students. Point to the second bullet. Another aspect of data-based instructional planning means using data to group and regroup students for small-group instruction according to needs observed through assessment data. By grouping and regrouping students based on observed need, you will help students master all of the objectives of the TEKS more easily. When students master the TEKS, what else will they pass? Participants: TAKS. Point to TAKS poster. Just remember, the way to the TAKS is to teach the TEKS well. (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986, Kameenui et al, 2002; Walter-Thomas & Brownell, 2001)
You are going to use the Concept of Definition Map to explore Differentiated Instruction with your partner. Explain the following steps. Point to each bullet discussed. Activity: l With your partner, write your own definition of differentiated instruction. - You will do this in the top box l Brainstorm examples of how a teacher might differentiate instruction. Write these in the Examples column. l Brainstorm examples that do NOT depict differentiated instruction. Write these in the non-examples column. l Identify synonyms that describe what differentiated instruction is like. Write those in the box at the bottom of the map. Tell participants, that if they teach students primarily in Spanish, they should complete this activity in Spanish on the Concept Map in Spanish. Allow @ 5 minutes
Cover sections of the map with sticky notes or index cards until discussed. The only parts that should show initially is Differentiated Instruction in the center and titles of each section. Note: CD version is animated. Now we will discuss our maps. Point to “What is it?” How did you define Differentiated Instruction? Elicit several responses. l Discuss the extent to which they are getting at the same idea. l Show the prewritten definition on the map, and point out that everyone is defining differentiated in a similar context. l Tell participants to make any changes they want on their maps based on the discussion and example. Point to “What is it like?” What did you think differentiated instruction is like ? Elicit several responses. l Briefly discuss the responses. l Uncover the prewritten "What is it like?" on the slide. l Point out items they identified during discussion. l Tell participants to make any changes they want on their maps based on the discussion and example. Note: Explain that the following concepts as necessary. Data-based instruction = using assessment to guide instruction scaffolded = providing supports Now, give some examples of what differentiated instruction looks like in action. Elicit several responses. l Briefly discuss the responses. l Uncover the prewritten "Examples" section on the slide. l Point out items they identified during the discussion. l Tell participants to make any changes they want on their maps based on the discussion and example. Now, give some examples of what differentiated instruction does NOT look like in action. Elicit several responses. l Briefly discuss the responses. l Uncover the prewritten " Non-examples" section on the slide. l Point out items they identified during discussion. l Tell participants to make any changes they want on their maps based on the discussion and example. Note: Be prepared to discuss learning styles and/or multiple intelligences theories if they come up during discussion. Teaching to preferred learning styles or intelligence is not differentiated instruction, because there is no research showing that this approach accelerates reading. If these ideas come up in the discussion, emphasize that there is no evidence to support theories of preferred learning styles or intelligence. (Kameenui, Carnine, Dixon, Simmons, Coyne, 2002; Moody et al., 2000; Simmons, Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes, Hodge, 1995; Taylor, 2002)
Before discussing effective differentiated instruction, we first need to define it. Point to each bullet as discussed. Differentiated instruction means varying instruction to meet the needs of all students within the same classroom. It means taking students from where they are academically and moving them forward. For children who are behind, this means teaching them where they are, but accelerating their rate of progress to move them academically to where they need to be by the end of the year. It means flexibly grouping and regrouping students across the day and year as their reading strengths and needs change. (Moody, Vaughn, Hughes, & Fischer, 2000; Tomlinson, 2000; Walter-Thomas & Brownell, 2001)
We know from observational research that teachers typically teach to average learners. However, in most classrooms, there are at least three categories of learners: Advance and Gifted, typical, and struggling readers. |The advanced and gifted learners in the typical classroom already read well and know much of what is being taught in the standard curriculum. If provided only the standard curriculum, how are these students likely to respond to your instruction? Take a moment to discuss this with the other members of your table. Allow @ 1 minutes. Elicit several participant responses from multiple tables Main ideas a) students will be bored,b) students are more likely to be disruptive, c) other related ideas. On the other end of the continuum, there are students who are struggling readers. They may lack skills that we think of as being first- or second-grade skills. If you teach only the standard third-grade curriculum to these students. What is likely to happen? Discuss this briefly with the other members of your table. Allow @ 1 minutes. Elicit several participant responses from multiple tables Main Ideas: a) They get farther behind, b) They learn to hate school, they experience more failure, their self- esteem drops, Other related ideas. None of us want any students to be bored with school. Likewise, we do not want any of our students to experience failure in achieving academic expectations. What do we all want for our students? Elicit several responses. As you have just stated, we all want students to be successful, motivated to learn and energized by the prospect of new learning.
To illustrate how easy and inexpensive it is to use response cards in your class, we are going to have you make a set just as you can have your own students make a set before answering a series of questions. Now, take four index cards from you materials box. and write in bold letters the four techniques for increasing academic engagement. Write one technique per card Allow 1 minute Activity: 1. Read the following items and ask participants to identify the technique that would be most appropriate for each. 2. If participants make responses that differ from the answers listed, discuss to determine possible correctness. 3. Allow participants to hold up more than one card at a time. Discuss |Participants may have good rationale for responses not given below. Allow brief discussion Items 1. The students identify main idea of a paragraph. (White Board) 2. The students agree or disagree with another student's response. (Thumbs-up/Down, Response Cards). 3. The students match vocabulary words to definitions given by the teacher. (Response Cards) 4. The students identify the main character of a short story. (White Board) 5. The teacher makes a statement and students determine if the statement is true or false. (Thumbs-up/Down, Response cards). 6. The teacher asks the students to determine if a statement from a text selection is fact or opinion. (Everybody Question, Response Cards) 7. After introducing the suffix -ly, the teacher asks the students to say words with -ly added. For instance the teacher says, "say happy with -ly." (Everybody Question)
Keeping the other students actively engaged in academically profitable activities is a challenge, but it is not an insurmountable challenge. There are proven techniques for keeping the other students, with whom the teacher is not working, academically and profitably engaged. We will talk about a few of these effective ways, including workstations, computers, peer-assisted learning strategies, and collaborative groups.
On the next page of your participant notes, you will find a Reflections page. Please take that out. Allow 15 seconds. Point to each column as you discuss it. In the "Currently Do" column, write down each technique that we've discussed or that you saw in the film that you already use in your classroom. Allow 2 minutes. Now, in the "New Techniques" row, write down techniques that you've learned today that you believe you could implement. Allow 2 minutes. Now, place a check mark next to at least two techniques that you will commit to implementing in your classroom. Allow 1 minute. I want you to fill out the pledge at the bottom. This pledge says you will commit to implementing the two techniques you checked when you get back to your classroom. This pledge is both to yourself and to your students. Allow 2 minutes.
Here are some important facts to remember: Most reading difficulties can be prevented through explicit, systematic instruction. In order for students to make progress, targeted student instruction must be continually assessed The teacher is the best intervention strategy.
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Differentiation and Small Group Instruction Presented 10/17/12 By Building reading specialists
Data-Based Decision Making Planning the content of daily instruction based on frequent, ongoing assessment data DRA2, daily work, anecdotal records, data collected during interactive read aloud, conference records, progress monitoring data Grouping and regrouping students based on shared needs observed from data
Small Group InstructionStrategy Lessons BOTH Guided Reading•Studentspractice in •Smallgroups of •Students practice inindependent-level students work with the instructional-leveltexts teacher texts•Students practice in •Combination of •Students practice inself-selected or explicit and supported texts selected by theteacher-assigned texts instruction is used teacher•Structure includes •Teachers coach. •Structure oftenconnection, explicit •Students respond. includes bookteaching, active introduction, readingengagement, and a with coaching, andlink to students’ teaching point(s) orreading lives. discussion
Stop and Jot What techniques do you currently use to differentiate instruction for your students?What would you like to know more about?
Concept of Definition Map What is it? Examples: Teaching students according Nonexamples:Teaching targeted to their individual needs. Whole classsmall groups instructionFlexible grouping Small groups thatpatterns never changeUsing assessment Differentiated (tracking)data to planinstruction Instruction All students reading same textMatching text levelto student ability Same independent seatworkIndependent assignments toprojects tailored to What is it like? entire classstudent ability •Data-based instruction •Individualized instruction •Scaffolding
What isDifferentiated Instruction? Varying instructions to meet the needs of all students within the same classroom Taking students where they are and moving them forward Flexibly grouping and regrouping students according to shared needs and abilities
The Academic ContinuumAdvanced Readers • Read fluently and with expression • Read independently • Have advanced decoding skills • Have good comprehensionTypical Readers • Read less fluently • Developing independence • Developing advanced decoding skills • Developing strategies for comprehensionStriving Readers • Read with labored fluency • Have poor decoding skills • Comprehension hindered by poor reading
Purpose, Purpose, Purpose: Which when? Guided Reading Strategy Lessons To discuss the meaning of a To build specific skills text To provide an opportunity for To monitor how well students systematic and focused are applying skills to reading a practice on a relatively small text number of critical elements at a To support a reader’s time. development of strategies for To fill gaps in a student’s processing a new text at instructional background so increasingly challenging s/he can be successful with levels of difficulty. whole class instruction
Instructional Delivery Well organized Explicit Focused Data-based Doesn’t happen on the fly!
Time MattersThis means: Allocating more time to reading instruction is only a first step. Carefully choosing instructional materials and activities based on what research suggests is most effective.AND: Keeping a) frequent/voluminous reading, b) adequate time for students to respond to what they read, and c) explicit instruction central to our reading workshops is promotes reading achievement.
Grouping PatternsTeachers who get the best outcomes use multiple grouping patterns to accommodate student’s academic diversity. Whole Group Small Group Peer pairingEye on increasing active engagement.
Techniques for Active Engagement: Check for Understanding1. Everybody Questions2. Thumbs-Up, Thumbs-Down3. Use of White Boards4. Response Cards
Academic Engagement During Student-Directed Instruction1. Work stations2. Computers3. Peer-assisted learning4. Collaborative group routines
What about the students with whom the teacher is not working? Want to see lowest students getting “double dose.” Tier 1 Intervention (Tier 1 intervention occurs in regular classroom.) Every student knows routines. Students may be partnered. Students are reading and discussing text selection. Should be an educational buzz.
Reflections on Effective Differentiated Instruction Currently Do: New Thinking:
Remember... Reading is THINKING! How am I providing opportunities for readers to think deeply daily?