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Polinter13
Polinter13
Polinter13
Polinter13
Polinter13
Polinter13
Polinter13
Polinter13
Polinter13
Polinter13
Polinter13
Polinter13
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Polinter13

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  • 1. December 8, 2011
  • 2. Key questions <ul><li>How does the diffusion of ICTS affect the distribution of power? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it empower individuals and small groups or does it privilege large organizations and institutions? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it undermine existing hierarchies? </li></ul>
  • 3. Definitions of Power <ul><li>Capabilities-based power </li></ul><ul><li>Relational power </li></ul><ul><li>Structural power </li></ul>
  • 4. ICTs and Capabilities: Power Transitions among Big Firms <ul><li>IBM </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul>
  • 5. Relational power <ul><li>Definition: A has power over B if A can get B to act against his/her preferences but according to A’s preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Relational power can be coercive or non-coercive. </li></ul><ul><li>If A can persuade B to change his/her preferences to be more like A’s, then A has influenced B without using coercion. </li></ul>
  • 6. Structural Power <ul><li>Definition: the ability to control outcomes that derives from the ability to shape the rules of the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: the ability of the RIAA and MPAA to get the copyright laws they want. </li></ul>Example of attempt to alter structural power of copyright holders via the Creative Commons
  • 7. Definitions of Power <ul><li>Robert Dahl and Jack Nagel (relational power) </li></ul><ul><li>Bachrach and Baratz (non-decisions) </li></ul><ul><li>Steven Lukes (interests instead of preferences) </li></ul><ul><li>Susan Strange and Steven Lukes(structural power) </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph S. Nye (soft power) </li></ul>“A Position of Power” video
  • 8. ICTs and Relational Power <ul><li>Google vs. China </li></ul><ul><li>Google vs. print publishers/authors </li></ul><ul><li>Google vs. EU on digitized libraries </li></ul><ul><li>RIAA and MPAA vs. average consumer of digital music and video </li></ul><ul><li>Cyberdiplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber warfare </li></ul>
  • 9. What is Google? <ul><li>Founded 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin. </li></ul><ul><li>IPO 2004 ($23 billion) </li></ul><ul><li>World’s most popular search engine. </li></ul><ul><li>World’s most popular web site. </li></ul><ul><li>Built on PageRank technology. </li></ul>ASU students video on Google
  • 10. Google Executives <ul><li>Larry Page </li></ul><ul><li>Eric Schmidt </li></ul><ul><li>Sergei Brin </li></ul>TED video Ken Auletta talking about his book, Googled
  • 11. Google vs. China <ul><li>Jan 27, 2006 Google launches Google.cn </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese government forces Google.cn to censor certain Internet searches (Dalai Lama, Falun Gong) </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese government hacks into Gmail accounts of Chinese human rights activists </li></ul><ul><li>Google redirects Google.cn searches to Google.hk (Hong Kong), search results not filtered there </li></ul><ul><li>Google establishes “ evil meter ” to monitor traffic restrictions around the world </li></ul>Attack of the Show video
  • 12. Google’s Library of the Future <ul><li>Google makes deals with multiple libraries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google digitizes books for indexing on Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries get free access to full text versions of digitized books plus money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 2005, The Author’s Guild files a class action suit against Google in defense of copyrights </li></ul><ul><li>Nov 2008 settlement gives authors and publishers royalties on sales of digitized books in exchange for granting Google legal immunity from copyright infringement </li></ul>
  • 13. EU vs. Google <ul><li>European Union opposes Google policies of retaining user information; wants it to follow EU privacy policies </li></ul><ul><li>Google agrees to anonymize data after 18 months; EU not satisfied with this response </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliotheque Nationale de France begins project called Gallica 2 Project to digitize books of 50 European publishers; authors support this effort </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 2010: Google opens an e-bookstore, potential rival to Amazon </li></ul>
  • 14. Cyberwarfare <ul><li>Wikipedia entry </li></ul><ul><li>2008: Russian and Georgian sites attacked during the war in South Ossetia </li></ul><ul><li>2008: Defense Department reports espionage-oriented attack in the form of a USB flash drive </li></ul><ul><li>2009: cyber spy network called GhostNet , using servers in China, taps into classified documents about Tibet in 103 countries </li></ul><ul><li>2010: US government uses Stuxnet worm to attack nuclear enrichment facility in Natanz, Iran </li></ul>
  • 15. New Forms of Structural Power: Architectural and Algorithmic Power <ul><li>Who determines ICT architectures? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PC platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPod/iTunes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3G and 4G smart phones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who controls central algorithms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google search engine </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Lessons: Impact of Diffusion of ICTs <ul><li>Easier to organize and mobilize people who are separated by great distances </li></ul><ul><li>Internet users feel more empowered; seem to be more active in politics </li></ul><ul><li>Greater concern over the monopolization of control over channels for the diffusion of digitized content and power of large companies like Google </li></ul><ul><li>Google and open source software may be undermining the power of other companies and institutions; in some cases this empowers individuals and small groups but not always </li></ul><ul><li>An important counterexample in the decline of print media </li></ul>

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