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Polinter13
 

Polinter13

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    Polinter13 Polinter13 Presentation Transcript

    • December 8, 2011
    • Key questions
      • How does the diffusion of ICTS affect the distribution of power?
      • Does it empower individuals and small groups or does it privilege large organizations and institutions?
      • Does it undermine existing hierarchies?
    • Definitions of Power
      • Capabilities-based power
      • Relational power
      • Structural power
    • ICTs and Capabilities: Power Transitions among Big Firms
      • IBM
      • Microsoft
      • Google
      • Facebook
      • Twitter
    • Relational power
      • Definition: A has power over B if A can get B to act against his/her preferences but according to A’s preferences.
      • Relational power can be coercive or non-coercive.
      • If A can persuade B to change his/her preferences to be more like A’s, then A has influenced B without using coercion.
    • Structural Power
      • Definition: the ability to control outcomes that derives from the ability to shape the rules of the system.
      • Example: the ability of the RIAA and MPAA to get the copyright laws they want.
      Example of attempt to alter structural power of copyright holders via the Creative Commons
    • Definitions of Power
      • Robert Dahl and Jack Nagel (relational power)
      • Bachrach and Baratz (non-decisions)
      • Steven Lukes (interests instead of preferences)
      • Susan Strange and Steven Lukes(structural power)
      • Joseph S. Nye (soft power)
      “A Position of Power” video
    • ICTs and Relational Power
      • Google vs. China
      • Google vs. print publishers/authors
      • Google vs. EU on digitized libraries
      • RIAA and MPAA vs. average consumer of digital music and video
      • Cyberdiplomacy
      • Cyber warfare
    • What is Google?
      • Founded 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin.
      • IPO 2004 ($23 billion)
      • World’s most popular search engine.
      • World’s most popular web site.
      • Built on PageRank technology.
      ASU students video on Google
    • Google Executives
      • Larry Page
      • Eric Schmidt
      • Sergei Brin
      TED video Ken Auletta talking about his book, Googled
    • Google vs. China
      • Jan 27, 2006 Google launches Google.cn
      • Chinese government forces Google.cn to censor certain Internet searches (Dalai Lama, Falun Gong)
      • Chinese government hacks into Gmail accounts of Chinese human rights activists
      • Google redirects Google.cn searches to Google.hk (Hong Kong), search results not filtered there
      • Google establishes “ evil meter ” to monitor traffic restrictions around the world
      Attack of the Show video
    • Google’s Library of the Future
      • Google makes deals with multiple libraries
        • Google digitizes books for indexing on Google
        • Libraries get free access to full text versions of digitized books plus money
      • In 2005, The Author’s Guild files a class action suit against Google in defense of copyrights
      • Nov 2008 settlement gives authors and publishers royalties on sales of digitized books in exchange for granting Google legal immunity from copyright infringement
    • EU vs. Google
      • European Union opposes Google policies of retaining user information; wants it to follow EU privacy policies
      • Google agrees to anonymize data after 18 months; EU not satisfied with this response
      • Bibliotheque Nationale de France begins project called Gallica 2 Project to digitize books of 50 European publishers; authors support this effort
      • Dec 2010: Google opens an e-bookstore, potential rival to Amazon
    • Cyberwarfare
      • Wikipedia entry
      • 2008: Russian and Georgian sites attacked during the war in South Ossetia
      • 2008: Defense Department reports espionage-oriented attack in the form of a USB flash drive
      • 2009: cyber spy network called GhostNet , using servers in China, taps into classified documents about Tibet in 103 countries
      • 2010: US government uses Stuxnet worm to attack nuclear enrichment facility in Natanz, Iran
    • New Forms of Structural Power: Architectural and Algorithmic Power
      • Who determines ICT architectures?
        • PC platform
        • iPod/iTunes
        • 3G and 4G smart phones
      • Who controls central algorithms?
        • Google search engine
    • Lessons: Impact of Diffusion of ICTs
      • Easier to organize and mobilize people who are separated by great distances
      • Internet users feel more empowered; seem to be more active in politics
      • Greater concern over the monopolization of control over channels for the diffusion of digitized content and power of large companies like Google
      • Google and open source software may be undermining the power of other companies and institutions; in some cases this empowers individuals and small groups but not always
      • An important counterexample in the decline of print media