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  • 1. April 18, 2012
  • 2. Three Guiding Questions To what extent does the Internet media sector mimic the long-established patters of concentrated ownership in the broader print and broadcast media? To what extent has it altered the processes shaping a central area of media content: news production and distribution? What has been the effect of the phenomenon of file sharing, the rise of open-source software, and other intellectual property disputes? Chadwick, chap. 12, p. 289.
  • 3. Key Scholarly Works on MediaConcentration Ben Bagdikian, The Media Monopoly (6th edn. 2000) Eli Noam, Media Ownership and Concentration in America (2009) Robert McChesney, Rich Media, Poor Democracy (2000) Robert McChesney, The Political Economy of Media (2008)
  • 4. Concentration of Control
  • 5. The Big Seven General Electric Walt Disney News Corporation TimeWarner Viacom CBS Bertelsmann
  • 6. Media Concentration
  • 7. Film Studio Market Share, 2009
  • 8. Music Recording, 2008
  • 9. Key questions How does the diffusion of ICTS affect the distribution of power? Does it empower individuals and small groups or does it privilege large organizations and institutions? Does it undermine existing hierarchies?
  • 10. Definitions of Power Capabilities-based power Relational power Structural power Metapower
  • 11. Definitions of Power Robert Dahl and Jack Nagel (relational power) Bachrach and Baratz (non-decisions) Steven Lukes (interests instead of preferences) Susan Strange and Steven Lukes(structural power) Joseph S. Nye (soft power) “A Position of Power” video
  • 12. ICTs and Firm Capabilities: PowerTransitions among Big Firms  IBM  Microsoft/Intel  Google  Facebook  Twitter  What’s next?
  • 13. What is Google? Founded 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin. IPO 2004 ($23 billion) World’s most popular search engine. World’s most popular web site. Built on PageRank technology. ASU students video on Google
  • 14. Google Executives Larry Page Eric Schmidt Sergei Brin TED video Ken Auletta talking about his book, Googled
  • 15. ICTs and national capabilities US is ahead in movies, music, software and web-based businesses Taiwan and China are ahead in PCs Korea is ahead in broadband, but also in flat panel displays (with Taiwan) China is coming up but is not in the top tier yet
  • 16. Relational power Definition: A has power over B if A can get B to act against his/her preferences but according to A’s preferences. Relational power can be coercive or non-coercive. If A can persuade B to change his/her preferences to be more like A’s, then A has influenced B without using coercion.
  • 17. ICTs and Relational Power Google vs. China Google vs. print publishers/authors Google vs. EU on digitized libraries RIAA and MPAA vs. average consumer of digital music and video Cyberdiplomacy Cyber warfare
  • 18. Google vs. China Jan 27, 2006 Google launches Google.cn Chinese government forces Google.cn to censor certain Internet searches (Dalai Lama, Falun Gong) Chinese government hacks into Gmail accounts of Chinese human rights activists Google redirects Google.cn searches to Google.hk (Hong Kong), search results not filtered there Google establishes “evil meter” to monitor traffic restrictions around the world Attack of the Show video
  • 19. Google’s Library of the Future Google makes deals with multiple libraries  Google digitizes books for indexing on Google  Libraries get free access to full text versions of digitized books plus money In 2005, The Author’s Guild files a class action suit against Google in defense of copyrights Nov 2008 settlement gives authors and publishers royalties on sales of digitized books in exchange for granting Google legal immunity from copyright infringement
  • 20. EU vs. Google European Union opposes Google policies of retaining user information; wants it to follow EU privacy policies Google agrees to anonymize data after 18 months; EU not satisfied with this response Bibliotheque Nationale de France begins project called Gallica 2 Project to digitize books of 50 European publishers; authors support this effort Dec 2010: Google opens an e-bookstore, potential rival to Amazon
  • 21. Cyberwarfare Wikipedia entry 2008: Russian and Georgian sites attacked during the war in South Ossetia 2008: Defense Department reports espionage- oriented attack in the form of a USB flash drive 2009: cyber spy network called GhostNet, using servers in China, taps into classified documents about Tibet in 103 countries 2010: US government uses Stuxnet worm to attack nuclear enrichment facility in Natanz, Iran
  • 22. Structural Power Definition: the ability to control outcomes that derives from the ability to shape the rules of the system. Example: the ability of the RIAA and MPAA to get the copyright laws they want. Example: the ability of the US government to veto decisions by ICANN Example of attempt to alter structural power of copyright holders via the Creative Commons
  • 23. New Forms of Structural Power: Architecturaland Algorithmic Power Who determines ICT architectures?  PC platform  iPod/iTunes  3G and 4G smart phones Who controls central algorithms?  Google search engine
  • 24. Meta Power Who is able to frame the issues in a way that permits people and organizations to redefine their interests and preferences? How does this reframing occur? Consider the cases of net neutrality and SOPA/PIPA How important were ICTs in enabling the Arab Spring?
  • 25. Lessons: Impact of Diffusion of ICTs Easier to organize and mobilize people who are separated by great distances Internet users feel more empowered; seem to be more active in politics Greater concern over the monopolization of control over channels for the diffusion of digitized content and power of large companies like Google Google and open source software may be undermining the power of other companies and institutions; in some cases this empowers individuals and small groups but not always An important counterexample in the decline of print