China’s Intra/Internet Control StructureSource: Ziang (Alex) Tan: Telecommunications Policy 23 (1999), p. 272.
Pearson’s Correlation: 11 cases: Unit: per Year.Number of Internet Users in China by PressFreedom YEAR Number of Press Freedom Correlation Internet Users in * China (ml) 2000 22.5 80 .855 2001 33.7 80 2002 59.1 80 2003 69.0 80 2004 94.0 80 2005 103.0 82 2006 137.0 83 2007 162.0 84 2008 253.0 84 2009 384.0 85 2010 420.0 84 p= 0.01 level (2 tailed) *Freedom of the Press: Higher scores = less freedom Press Freedom Scale: 0-30: Free 31-60: Partly Free 61-100: Not Free, Source: Freedom House, www.freedomhouse.org/China
Some of our originalconcerns: Does the Internet make it possible for there to be more diversity in the political views expressed in the public sphere? How do we compare the media on the Internet to the media that were previously available? Does the greater amount of user-generated content in blogs and social networks result in stronger democracies?
User-Gener ated Content andApplications Blogs and Vlogs Web 2.0 applications Facebook Other social networking sites Twitter eBay Amazon reviews IMDB reviews and other content Craigslist Wikipedia Flickr
T he Long TailHypothesis Pareto Distribution (aka Power Law)
Another Way to Look atthe Long Tail
Questions Will the people on the left side of the long curve be hurt by the people on the right side? If so, what is gained and lost? Does bad behavior by the little guys ruin it for everybody? How can people protect themselves against network mischief?
Zittr ain Contr asts PCswith iPhones PC iPhone Type of Generative Appliancized/ Technology Tethered Type of Open Proprietary Software Type of Anarchic Controlled Network
Definition ofGener ativity “… a system’s capacity to produce unanticipated change through unfiltered contributions from broad and varied audiences…” (p. 70)
Featur es of aGener ative System (pp.71-73) Leverage Adaptability Ease of mastery Accessibiity Transferabiity
Basic Pr opositions(Zittr ain, p. 64) The IT ecosystem functions best with generative technology at its core. Generativity instigates a pattern both within and beyond the technological layers of the IT ecosystem. Proponents of generative IT systems ignore the drawbacks attendant to generativity’s success at their peril.
Advanta ges of Layer s Engineers can tinker with one layer without necessarily affecting the other layers. The hourglass shape means that there is lots of room for innovation above and below the operating systems and protocols levels.
Pr oblems with Gener ativeTechnologies and Anar chicNetwor ks Malware: worms, viruses, trojan horses Incompatibilities in hardware and software which create difficulties for beginners (steep learning curves) Use by criminals, political extremists, hate mongers, pornographers, child molesters, cyberstalkers Vulnerability to cyber attacks of various kinds that go beyond malware (e.g. denial of service attacks, identity theft)
Identity Theft The blanket term for any type of crime wherein the offender uses another individual’s legitimate personal information to commit acts of fraud or deception, typically for illicit financial gain Where a person’s identification details are obtained through various covert methods, from rifling through the contents of household dustbins to “phishing.’ Phishing is a form of fraud where the criminal pretends to be a reputable organization that needs information about some business you may have done with them
Identity Theft andFraud Identity theft is not really a specific kind of fraud, but an act that leads a person to be able to commit fraud Fraud generally is the attempt to convince for any reason that you are someone other then yourself. FTC video on identity theft
Examples of HateSpeech on the Internet Nazis and Neo-Nazis Sale of Nazi objects (involving EBay) French policies (involving Yahoo based sales of Nazi stuff) Hate groups Hate Watch
Danger s Inherent inTether ed Systems Network service can reprogram appliances at will (through their periodic updating of appliance software) Some appliances can record private information and make it available to those with access to the network (police for example) Tethered networks can be used for censorship Controversy over Amazon e-books
Examples ofCensor ship onTether ed Networ ks Skype in China is used to censor words like Falun Gong and Dalai Lama Google.cn makes searches for Falun Gong and Tibet fail FBI can use OnStar for surveillance Use of cameras in mobile phones? Flexispy software for cell phones
The News CorporationScandal News of the World tabloid in UK hacks into cell phones of Prince Harry and others to get sensational stories Photo of Prince Harry wearing a Nazi uniform to a fancy dress party 2002 kidnap and murder of a British schoolgirl, Milly Dowler Exposure of top level News Corporation approval of illegal phon
Should Cell Phones Networksbe more like the PC-BasedInternet? Cell phone operators clearly are opposed to this Should “net neutrality” be extended to cell phone networks? Should we personally favor PC-like Google-Android platforms over more tethered platforms like Apple’s iTunes, iPod, iPhone, iPad?