Y376 International Political Economy January 27, 2011
Types of  Regional Integration <ul><li>Regional cooperation agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Free trade areas </li></ul><ul><l...
Examples <ul><li>European Union  (EU) </li></ul><ul><li>North American Free Trade Agreement  (NAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Cen...
The European Union <ul><li>1957  Treaty of Rome  created the European Economic Community (6 members) </li></ul><ul><li>Cur...
Members of the EU 1952  Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands 1973  Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom 19...
Trade Creation  vs.  Trade Diversion <ul><li>How compatible are regional and multilateral trade regimes? </li></ul><ul><li...
Fortress Europe vs. Fortress North America <ul><li>Consider the case of  European antitrust enforcement  (Does it favor EU...
Table 7-3. Important Regional Trade Agreements   Region Name Acronym Europe European Union EU European Free Trade Associat...
Why Hasn’t Regional Integration Been Successful Outside Europe? <ul><li>Europe integrated mostly industrialized, wealthy c...
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Y376 International Political Economy, Lecture #6
January 27, 2011

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  1. 1. Y376 International Political Economy January 27, 2011
  2. 2. Types of Regional Integration <ul><li>Regional cooperation agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Free trade areas </li></ul><ul><li>Customs unions </li></ul><ul><li>Common markets </li></ul>Increasing difficulty
  3. 3. Examples <ul><li>European Union (EU) </li></ul><ul><li>North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Southern African Development Community (SADC) </li></ul>
  4. 4. The European Union <ul><li>1957 Treaty of Rome created the European Economic Community (6 members) </li></ul><ul><li>Current number of members = 27 </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of the Unified Market under the Maastricht Treaty of 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of the Euro in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Passports abolished under the Schengen agreement </li></ul>
  5. 5. Members of the EU 1952 Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands 1973 Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom 1981 Greece  1986 Portugal, Spain 1995 Austria, Finland, Sweden 2004 Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia 2007 Bulgaria, Romania
  6. 6. Trade Creation vs. Trade Diversion <ul><li>How compatible are regional and multilateral trade regimes? </li></ul><ul><li>Economists study whether the regional arrangement creates or diverts trade </li></ul><ul><li>If the agreement simply diverts trade from extraregional countries to intraregional trading partners, then it is trade diverting. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fortress Europe vs. Fortress North America <ul><li>Consider the case of European antitrust enforcement (Does it favor EU firms against US firms?) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the NAFTA regional content rules for the auto industry (Do they discriminate against Japan and Europe?) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Table 7-3. Important Regional Trade Agreements Region Name Acronym Europe European Union EU European Free Trade Association EFTA North America North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA Latin America and the Caribbean Latin American Integration Association LAIA Andean Common Market ANCOM Central American Common Market CACM Southern Cone Common Market Mercosur Caribbean Community CARICOM Africa Arab Maghreb Union UMA Economic Community of Central African States ECCAS Central African Customs and Economic Union CACEU Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS West African Economic Community CEAO Southern African Development Community SADC Asia Association of South-East Asian Nations ASEAN Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC Economic Cooperation Organization ECO South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC Middle East Gulf Cooperation Council GCC
  9. 9. Why Hasn’t Regional Integration Been Successful Outside Europe? <ul><li>Europe integrated mostly industrialized, wealthy countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The EU insists that members must have democratic governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Most other regions have considerably wider variations among potential members in size, wealth, degree of industrialization, and political systems (e.g. NAFTA). </li></ul>

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