Chapter 13The Trace Minerals    © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
The Trace Minerals--An        Overview• Trace minerals are needed in very  small quantities in the human body.  They perfo...
The Trace Minerals--An        Overview• Food Sources  Depends on soil and water   composition  Depends on processing  B...
The Trace Minerals--An        Overview• Deficiencies  Severe deficiencies of some minerals   are easy to recognize, while...
The Trace Minerals--An         Overview• Toxicities   Do not exceed Tolerable Upper Intake    Levels.   FDA does not lim...
Iron• Iron is an essential nutrient found in the  body as a part of hemoglobin and  myoglobin.• Iron is used for energy me...
Iron• Iron Roles in the Body   Ferrous iron is reduced and has a net    positive charge of two.   Ferric iron is oxidize...
Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism  Iron Absorption    • The protein ferritin stores iron in the      mucosal cells lin...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism  Heme and Nonheme Iron    • Heme iron      – Found in foods that are from the flesh ...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism  Absorption-Enhancing Factors      – MFP factor enhances the absorption of        no...
Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism   Absorption-Inhibiting Factors     • Phytates and fibers from legumes, grains, and ...
Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism  Individual Variation    • Dietary factors    • Health status    • Stage in life cyc...
Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism  Iron Transport and Storage    • Surplus is stored in bone marrow, spleen,      and ...
Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism  Iron Recycling    • The liver and spleen dismantle red blood      cells and package...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism  Iron Balance    • The absorption, transport, storage,      recycling, and loss of i...
Iron• Iron deficiency is the most common  nutrient deficiency.   Iron-deficiency anemia can affect    individuals in many...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Iron• Iron Deficiency  Blood Losses    • Can be from non-obvious sources such as      a bleeding ulcer    • Malaria and p...
Iron• Iron Deficiency  Assessment of Iron Deficiency    • Stage 1 – Iron stores diminish;      measured by serum ferritin...
Iron• Iron Deficiency  Iron Deficiency and Anemia    • Iron deficiency is when there is depletion      of the body’s iron...
Iron• Iron Deficiency   Iron Deficiency and Behavior     • Energy metabolism is impaired.     • Neurotransmitter synthesi...
Iron• Iron Toxicity  Iron Overload    • Hemochromatosis is generally a genetic      disorder that enhances iron absorptio...
Iron• Iron Overload   Hemosiderosis may develop from excessive    iron where there are large deposits of    hemosiderin i...
Iron• Iron Toxicity   Iron and Heart Disease – may be a link to    high iron stores   Iron and Cancer – may be a link wi...
Iron• Iron Recommendations and Sources  Recommended Iron Intakes (2001   RDA)    • RDA Men: 8 mg/day for adults 19-50    ...
Iron• Iron Recommendations and Sources   Iron in Foods    • Red meats, fish, poultry, and shellfish    • Eggs    • Legume...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Iron• Iron Recommendations and Sources  Maximizing Iron Absorption    • Bioavailability is high in meats, fish, and      ...
Iron• Iron Contamination and Supplementation   Contamination Iron     • Iron cookware takes up iron salts.     • Acidic f...
Zinc• Zinc is important in a multitude of chemical  reactions in the body.• The best sources of dietary zinc are protein- ...
Zinc• Zinc Roles in the Body  Supports the work of metalloenzymes    • Helps to make parts of DNA and RNA    • Manufactur...
Zinc• Zinc Roles in the Body   Involved in growth, development, and immune    function   Affects platelets in blood clot...
Zinc• Zinc Absorption and Metabolism  Zinc Absorption    • Rate of absorption depends on zinc      status; when more is n...
Zinc• Zinc Absorption and Metabolism  Zinc Recycling    • Enteropancreatic circulation – travels      from the pancreas t...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Zinc• Zinc Absorption and Metabolism  Zinc Transport    • Transported by the protein albumin    • Binds to transferrin   ...
Zinc• Zinc Deficiency   Not widespread   Occurs in pregnant women, young children,    the elderly, and the poor   Sympt...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Zinc• Zinc Toxicity  UL for Adults: 40 mg/day  Symptoms    • Loss of appetite    • Impaired immunity    • Low HDL    • C...
Zinc• Zinc Recommendations and Sources   Recommended intakes (2001 RDA)     • RDA Men: 11 mg/day     • RDA Women: 8 mg/da...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Iodine• Iodide is an essential component of  the thyroid hormone that helps to  regulate metabolism.• Iodine deficiency ca...
Iodine• Iodide Roles in the Body  Component of two thyroid hormones   (T3 and T4)  Regulates body temperature, growth,  ...
Iodine• Iodine Deficiency   Simple goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland    caused by iodine deficiency. Goiter ...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Iodine• Iodine Toxicity  UL 1100 μg/day  Symptoms include underactive   thyroid gland, elevated TSH, and   goiter.  Sup...
Iodine• Iodine Recommendations and Sources   Recommendations (2001 RDA) – Adults:    150 μg/day   Sources    •   Iodized...
Selenium• Selenium is an antioxidant nutrient  associated with protein foods.• It may provide some protection  against cer...
Selenium• Selenium Deficiency  Keshan disease – a pre-disposition to   heart disease where a virus causes   the cardiac t...
Selenium• Selenium and Cancer  May protect against certain forms of   cancer  Inconclusive evidence and more   research ...
Selenium• Selenium Recommendations and  Sources  Recommendations (2000 RDA) –   Adults: 55 μg/day  Sources include seafo...
Selenium• Selenium Toxicity  UL for Adults: 400 μg/day  Symptoms    • Loss and brittleness of hair and nails    • Skin r...
Copper• Copper is a component of several  enzymes associated with oxygen or  oxidation.• Copper deficiency is rare.• There...
Copper• Copper Roles in the Body  Absorption and use of iron in the   formation of hemoglobin  Part of several enzymes  ...
Copper• Copper Deficiency and Toxicity   Deficiency is rare in the U.S.; however,    symptoms include anemia and bone    ...
Copper• Copper Recommendations and  Sources  Recommendations (2001 RDA) –   Adults: 900 μg/day  Sources    • Seafood, nu...
Manganese• Manganese is a cofactor for several  enzymes involved in bone formation and  various metabolic processes.• Defi...
Manganese• Manganese Deficiency and Toxicity  Deficiency symptoms are rare.  Phytates, calcium and iron limit   absorpti...
Manganese• Manganese Recommendations and  Sources  Recommendations (2001 AI)    • AI Men: 2.3 mg/day    • AI Women: 1.8 m...
Fluoride• Fluoride makes bones stronger and  teeth more resistant to decay.• The use of fluoridated water can  reduce dent...
Fluoride• Fluoride Roles in the Body  Formation of teeth and bones  Helps to make teeth resistant to   decay  Fluorapat...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Fluoride• Fluoride and Toxicity   Tooth damage called fluorosis – irreversible    pitting and discoloration of the teeth ...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Fluoride• Fluoride Recommendations and  Sources  Recommendations (1997 AI)    • AI Men: 4 mg/day    • AI Women: 3 mg/day ...
Chromium• Chromium is an essential nutrient that  enhances insulin’s action.• It is widely available in unrefined foods.• ...
Chromium• Chromium Recommendations and Sources   Recommendations (2001 AI)    • AI Men: 35 μg/day    • AI Women: 25 μg/da...
Molybdenum• Molybdenum is a cofactor in several  enzymes.• It is needed in minuscule amounts.• It is available in legumes,...
Molybdenum• Recommendations (2001 RDA)  Adults: 45 μg/day  UL Adults: 2 mg/day• Food sources include legumes,  grains, a...
Other Trace Minerals• Much of the research on other trace  minerals is from animal studies.• Humans need very small amount...
Other Trace Minerals• Nickel is a cofactor for certain enzymes.• Silicon is used in bone and collagen  formation.• Vanadiu...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Contaminant Minerals• Contaminate minerals are also called  heavy metals.• These include mercury, lead, and  cadmium.• The...
Contaminant Minerals• Lead toxicity symptoms in children   Learning disabilities in children   Low IQ   Behavior proble...
Contaminant Minerals• Lead toxicity symptoms in adults  Hypertension  Reproductive complications  Kidney failure       ...
Phytochemicals and Functional Foods     © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
Phytochemicals and       Functional Foods• Phytochemicals are nonnutrient compounds.• Only a few of the thousands of phyto...
The Phytochemicals• The phytochemicals give foods taste,  aroma, color, and other characteristics.• Defending against Canc...
The Phytochemicals• Defending against Cancer  Lycopene    • Powerful antioxidant    • Inhibits the growth of cancer cells...
The Phytochemicals• Defending against Heart Disease  Flavonoids in foods    • Powerful antioxidants    • Protect against ...
The Phytochemicals• Defending against Heart Disease   Carotenoids in foods especially lutein and    lycopene     • Lower ...
© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
The Phytochemicals• The Phytochemicals in Perspective  Difficult to assess one food and its   benefits alone  Actions of...
Functional Foods• Foods as Pharmacy  Margarine enhanced with a   phytosterol may lower cholesterol.  May be more useful ...
Functional Foods• Unanswered Questions  Research is lagging behind food   manufacturers.  Consumer questions to ask    •...
Functional Foods• Future Foods  Use of gene research  Can we design foods to meet exact   health needs of each individua...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter 13 NUTR

992

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
992
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 13 NUTR

  1. 1. Chapter 13The Trace Minerals © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  2. 2. The Trace Minerals--An Overview• Trace minerals are needed in very small quantities in the human body. They perform many essential functions important to health.• Toxic levels can easily be reached with the use of supplements.• Humans can get the amounts of trace minerals needed by consuming a wide variety of foods. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  3. 3. The Trace Minerals--An Overview• Food Sources Depends on soil and water composition Depends on processing Bioavailability Wide variety of unprocessed foods © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  4. 4. The Trace Minerals--An Overview• Deficiencies Severe deficiencies of some minerals are easy to recognize, while others can be difficult to diagnose. Mild deficiencies are easily overlooked. Deficiencies have wide-reaching effects. Deficiencies affect all ages, but in children, they can affect growth. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  5. 5. The Trace Minerals--An Overview• Toxicities  Do not exceed Tolerable Upper Intake Levels.  FDA does not limit amounts in supplements.  Do not exceed 100% Daily Values.• Interactions  Common and coordinated to meet body needs  Can lead to nutrient imbalances © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  6. 6. Iron• Iron is an essential nutrient found in the body as a part of hemoglobin and myoglobin.• Iron is used for energy metabolism and enzyme activity.• Special proteins assist with iron absorption, transport, and storage.• Both iron deficiency and iron toxicity cause damage so balance is important.• Heme iron is better absorbed but nonheme iron absorption can be enhanced. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  7. 7. Iron• Iron Roles in the Body  Ferrous iron is reduced and has a net positive charge of two.  Ferric iron is oxidized and has a net positive charge of three.  Cofactor in oxidation-reduction reactions  Utilization of energy in cell metabolism  Part of the protein hemoglobin which carries oxygen in the blood  Part of the protein myoglobin in the muscles which makes oxygen available for muscle contractions © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  8. 8. Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism Iron Absorption • The protein ferritin stores iron in the mucosal cells lining the digestive tract. • Transfers iron to mucosal transferrin. • Transfers iron to blood transferrin • Transports iron to the cells • Excreted and replaced as needed © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  9. 9. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  10. 10. Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism Heme and Nonheme Iron • Heme iron – Found in foods that are from the flesh of animals (meat, poultry, and fish) – Represents only 10% of a days iron consumption, but has an absorption rate of 25% • Nonheme iron – Found in plant-derived and animal-derived foods – Has an absorption rate of 17% © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  11. 11. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  12. 12. Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism Absorption-Enhancing Factors – MFP factor enhances the absorption of nonheme iron. – When nonheme iron is consumed with vitamin C at the same meal, absorption of iron increases. – Citric acid and lactic acid from foods, HCl from the stomach, and sugars enhance nonheme iron absorption. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  13. 13. Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism  Absorption-Inhibiting Factors • Phytates and fibers from legumes, grains, and rice • Vegetable proteins in soybeans, legumes, and nuts • Calcium in milk • Tannic acid and other polyphenols in tea, coffee, grains, oregano, and red wine  Dietary Factors Combined • Difficult to assess iron absorption with meal consumption • Most relevant factors are MFP factor and vitamin C in enhancing absorption and phytates in inhibiting absorption © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  14. 14. Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism Individual Variation • Dietary factors • Health status • Stage in life cycle • Iron status © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  15. 15. Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism Iron Transport and Storage • Surplus is stored in bone marrow, spleen, and liver • Hemosiderin is a storage protein used when concentrations of iron are extremely high. • Storing excess iron is a protective measure because iron can act as a free radical. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  16. 16. Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism Iron Recycling • The liver and spleen dismantle red blood cells and package iron into transferrin. • Transferrin carries iron in the blood. • Bone marrow incorporates iron into hemoglobin and stores iron as ferritin. • Iron-containing hemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood. • Iron is lost when bleeding occurs and through the GI tract. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  17. 17. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  18. 18. Iron• Iron Absorption and Metabolism Iron Balance • The absorption, transport, storage, recycling, and loss of iron must be regulated in order to maintain iron balance. • Hepcidin is a hormone that inhibits the absorption and transport of iron to keep blood levels within normal ranges. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  19. 19. Iron• Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency.  Iron-deficiency anemia can affect individuals in many stages of life.  Vulnerable Stages of Life • Women in reproductive years due to menstruation • Pregnant women due to the needs of the infant, increases in blood volume, and loss of blood during the birthing process • Infants and young children due to rapid growth • Teenagers due to rapid growth in males and menstruation in females © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  20. 20. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  21. 21. Iron• Iron Deficiency Blood Losses • Can be from non-obvious sources such as a bleeding ulcer • Malaria and parasites • Giving a pint of blood results in a loss of about 2.5 mg iron. • Menstruation © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  22. 22. Iron• Iron Deficiency Assessment of Iron Deficiency • Stage 1 – Iron stores diminish; measured by serum ferritin • Stage 2 – Transport iron decreases; measured by transferrin saturation • Stage 3 – Hemoglobin production declines; erythrocyte protoporphyrin accumulates and hematocrit declines. Hemoglobin and hematocrit are late indicators of iron status. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  23. 23. Iron• Iron Deficiency Iron Deficiency and Anemia • Iron deficiency is when there is depletion of the body’s iron stores. • Iron-deficiency anemia is the severe depletion of iron stores. Also called microcytic (small) hypochromic (pale) anemia. • Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, headaches, apathy, pallor and poor resistance to cold temperatures. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  24. 24. Iron• Iron Deficiency  Iron Deficiency and Behavior • Energy metabolism is impaired. • Neurotransmitter synthesis is reduced. • Physical work capacity and mental productivity are reduced. • Symptoms of a deficiency may be confused with behavioral issues.  Iron Deficiency and Pica • Generally found in women and children from low- income groups • Eating ice, clay, paste, and other nonfood substances • Eating nonfood substances will not correct the deficiency. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  25. 25. Iron• Iron Toxicity Iron Overload • Hemochromatosis is generally a genetic disorder that enhances iron absorption and may be caused by a lack of hepcidin. • Iron overload can also be caused by: – Repeated blood transfusions – Massive doses of supplemental iron – Rare metabolic disorders © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  26. 26. Iron• Iron Overload  Hemosiderosis may develop from excessive iron where there are large deposits of hemosiderin in the liver, heart, joints, and other tissues.  Symptoms of iron overload include apathy, lethargy, and fatigue.  Problems include liver tissue damage and infections.  Higher risk of diabetes, liver cancer, heart disease, and arthritis  More common in men then in women © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  27. 27. Iron• Iron Toxicity  Iron and Heart Disease – may be a link to high iron stores  Iron and Cancer – may be a link with free radical activity resulting in damage to DNA  Iron Poisoning • UL for adults: 45 mg/day • Accidental supplement poisoning in children • Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, rapid heartbeat, weak pulse, dizziness, shock, and confusion © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  28. 28. Iron• Iron Recommendations and Sources Recommended Iron Intakes (2001 RDA) • RDA Men: 8 mg/day for adults 19-50 years of age • RDA Women: 18 mg/day for adults 19-50 years of age • RDA Women: 8 mg/day for adults over 51 years of age • Vegetarians need 1.8 times as much iron because of low bioavailability. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  29. 29. Iron• Iron Recommendations and Sources  Iron in Foods • Red meats, fish, poultry, and shellfish • Eggs • Legumes • Grain products (whole-grain, enriched, and fortified breads and cereals) • Dark greens and dried fruits  Iron-Enriched Foods • Often added to grain foods • Not absorbed as well © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  30. 30. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  31. 31. Iron• Iron Recommendations and Sources Maximizing Iron Absorption • Bioavailability is high in meats, fish, and poultry. • Bioavailability is intermediate in grains and legumes. • Bioavailability is low in vegetables. • Combined effect of enhancing and inhibiting factors © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  32. 32. Iron• Iron Contamination and Supplementation  Contamination Iron • Iron cookware takes up iron salts. • Acidic foods and long cooking times increase uptake of iron salts.  Iron Supplements • Best absorbable form is ferrous sulfate or an iron chelate • Take on empty stomach and with liquids other than milk, tea, or coffee • Vitamin C enhances food iron absorption, not supplement absorption. • Side effect of constipation © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  33. 33. Zinc• Zinc is important in a multitude of chemical reactions in the body.• The best sources of dietary zinc are protein- rich foods.• Zinc from pancreatic secretions is also available for absorption.• Phytates and fiber can bind zinc, therefore limiting absorption.• A special binding protein monitors the absorption of zinc.• Zinc deficiency symptoms include growth retardation and sexual immaturity. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  34. 34. Zinc• Zinc Roles in the Body Supports the work of metalloenzymes • Helps to make parts of DNA and RNA • Manufactures heme for hemoglobin • Assists in essential fatty acid metabolism • Releases vitamin A from liver stores • Metabolizes carbohydrates • Synthesizes proteins • Metabolizes alcohol • Disposes of damaging free radicals © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  35. 35. Zinc• Zinc Roles in the Body  Involved in growth, development, and immune function  Affects platelets in blood clotting and wound healing  Needed to produce the retinal form of vitamin A  Affects thyroid hormone function  Influences behavior and learning performance  Taste perception  Wound healing  Sperm development  Fetal development © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  36. 36. Zinc• Zinc Absorption and Metabolism Zinc Absorption • Rate of absorption depends on zinc status; when more is needed, more will be absorbed. • Phytates and fiber bind zinc and reduce absorption. • Metallothionein is a special protein that holds zinc in storage. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  37. 37. Zinc• Zinc Absorption and Metabolism Zinc Recycling • Enteropancreatic circulation – travels from the pancreas to the intestines and back • Losses occur in the feces, urine, shedding of skin, hair, sweat, menstrual fluids, and semen. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  38. 38. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  39. 39. Zinc• Zinc Absorption and Metabolism Zinc Transport • Transported by the protein albumin • Binds to transferrin • Excessive iron and copper can lead to a zinc deficiency and excessive zinc can lead to an iron and copper deficiency. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  40. 40. Zinc• Zinc Deficiency  Not widespread  Occurs in pregnant women, young children, the elderly, and the poor  Symptoms of deficiency • Growth retardation • Delayed sexual maturation • Impaired immune function • Hair loss, eye and skin lesions • Altered taste, loss of appetite, and delayed wound healing © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  41. 41. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  42. 42. Zinc• Zinc Toxicity UL for Adults: 40 mg/day Symptoms • Loss of appetite • Impaired immunity • Low HDL • Copper and iron deficiencies • Vomiting and diarrhea • Exhaustion • Headaches © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  43. 43. Zinc• Zinc Recommendations and Sources  Recommended intakes (2001 RDA) • RDA Men: 11 mg/day • RDA Women: 8 mg/day  Zinc in foods • Shellfish, meats, poultry, milk, and cheese • Whole grains and legumes• Zinc Supplementation  Developing countries use zinc to reduce incidence of disease and diarrhea.  Zinc lozenges for the common cold are controversial and inconclusive. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  44. 44. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  45. 45. Iodine• Iodide is an essential component of the thyroid hormone that helps to regulate metabolism.• Iodine deficiency can cause simple goiter and cretinism.• The iodization of salt has greatly reduced iodine deficiency in the United States and Canada. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  46. 46. Iodine• Iodide Roles in the Body Component of two thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) Regulates body temperature, growth, development, metabolic rate, nerve and muscle function, reproduction, and blood cell production. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  47. 47. Iodine• Iodine Deficiency  Simple goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiency. Goiter is enlargement of the thyroid gland due to malfunction of the gland, iodine deficiency or overconsumption of goitrogens.  Goitrogen (antithyroid) overconsumption – naturally occurring in cabbage, spinach, radishes, rutabaga, soybeans, peanuts, peaches, and strawberries.  Cretinism is a congenital disease characterized by mental and physical retardation and commonly caused by maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  48. 48. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  49. 49. Iodine• Iodine Toxicity UL 1100 μg/day Symptoms include underactive thyroid gland, elevated TSH, and goiter. Supplement use, medications, and excessive iodine from foods © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  50. 50. Iodine• Iodine Recommendations and Sources  Recommendations (2001 RDA) – Adults: 150 μg/day  Sources • Iodized salt • Seafood • Bread and dairy products • Plants grown in iodine-rich soils • Animals that feed on plants grown in iodine-rich soils © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  51. 51. Selenium• Selenium is an antioxidant nutrient associated with protein foods.• It may provide some protection against certain types of cancer.• Selenium Roles in the Body Defends against oxidation Regulates thyroid hormone © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  52. 52. Selenium• Selenium Deficiency Keshan disease – a pre-disposition to heart disease where a virus causes the cardiac tissue to become fibrous Prevalent in regions of China because the soil is low in selenium © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  53. 53. Selenium• Selenium and Cancer May protect against certain forms of cancer Inconclusive evidence and more research is needed Food sources are better than supplements. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  54. 54. Selenium• Selenium Recommendations and Sources Recommendations (2000 RDA) – Adults: 55 μg/day Sources include seafood, meat, whole grains, and vegetables (depends on soil content). © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  55. 55. Selenium• Selenium Toxicity UL for Adults: 400 μg/day Symptoms • Loss and brittleness of hair and nails • Skin rash, fatigue, irritability, and nervous system disorders • Garlic breath odor © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  56. 56. Copper• Copper is a component of several enzymes associated with oxygen or oxidation.• Copper deficiency is rare.• There are some diseases associated with excessive intakes.• Food sources of copper include legumes, whole grains, and seafood. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  57. 57. Copper• Copper Roles in the Body Absorption and use of iron in the formation of hemoglobin Part of several enzymes Some copper-containing enzymes are antioxidants. Required for many metabolic reactions © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  58. 58. Copper• Copper Deficiency and Toxicity  Deficiency is rare in the U.S.; however, symptoms include anemia and bone abnormalities.  In Menkes disease, copper cannot be released into the circulation.  Toxicity • UL for Adults: 10,000 μg/day (10 mg/day) • In Wilson’s disease, copper builds up in the liver and brain. • Excessive intake from supplements can cause liver damage. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  59. 59. Copper• Copper Recommendations and Sources Recommendations (2001 RDA) – Adults: 900 μg/day Sources • Seafood, nuts, seeds and legumes • Whole grains • In houses with copper plumbing, water can be a source. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  60. 60. Manganese• Manganese is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in bone formation and various metabolic processes.• Deficiencies are rare and toxicities are associated with environmental contamination.• Manganese is found in many foods.• Manganese Roles in the Body  Cofactor for several enzymes  Assists in bone formation  Pyruvate conversion © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  61. 61. Manganese• Manganese Deficiency and Toxicity Deficiency symptoms are rare. Phytates, calcium and iron limit absorption. Toxicity occurs with environmental contamination. UL for Adults: 11 mg/day Toxicity symptoms include nervous system disorders. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  62. 62. Manganese• Manganese Recommendations and Sources Recommendations (2001 AI) • AI Men: 2.3 mg/day • AI Women: 1.8 mg/day Sources • Nuts • Whole grains • Leafy vegetables • Tea © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  63. 63. Fluoride• Fluoride makes bones stronger and teeth more resistant to decay.• The use of fluoridated water can reduce dental caries.• Excess fluoride causes fluorosis—the pitting and discoloration of teeth. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  64. 64. Fluoride• Fluoride Roles in the Body Formation of teeth and bones Helps to make teeth resistant to decay Fluorapatite is the stabilized form of bone and tooth crystals Fluoride and Dental Caries • Widespread health problem • Leads to nutritional problems due to issues with chewing © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  65. 65. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  66. 66. Fluoride• Fluoride and Toxicity  Tooth damage called fluorosis – irreversible pitting and discoloration of the teeth  UL for Adults: 10 mg/day  Prevention of fluorosis • Monitor fluoride content of local water supply. • Supervise toddlers during tooth brushing. • Watch quantity of toothpaste used (pea size) for toddlers. • Use fluoride supplements only if prescribed by a physician. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  67. 67. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  68. 68. Fluoride• Fluoride Recommendations and Sources Recommendations (1997 AI) • AI Men: 4 mg/day • AI Women: 3 mg/day Sources • Fluoridated drinking water • Seafood and tea © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  69. 69. Chromium• Chromium is an essential nutrient that enhances insulin’s action.• It is widely available in unrefined foods.• Chromium Roles in the Body  Enhances insulin action  Low chromium levels can result in elevated blood sugar levels.  Glucose tolerance factors (GTF) are small organic compounds that enhance insulin’s action and some contain chromium. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  70. 70. Chromium• Chromium Recommendations and Sources  Recommendations (2001 AI) • AI Men: 35 μg/day • AI Women: 25 μg/day  Sources • Meat, especially liver • Whole grains • Brewer’s yeast• Chromium Supplements  Claims about reducing body fat and improving muscle strength remain controversial. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  71. 71. Molybdenum• Molybdenum is a cofactor in several enzymes.• It is needed in minuscule amounts.• It is available in legumes, grains, and organ meats.• Molybdenum functions as a cofactor for several enzymes.• No deficiency symptoms• No reported toxicity symptoms in humans © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  72. 72. Molybdenum• Recommendations (2001 RDA) Adults: 45 μg/day UL Adults: 2 mg/day• Food sources include legumes, grains, and organ meats. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  73. 73. Other Trace Minerals• Much of the research on other trace minerals is from animal studies.• Humans need very small amounts.• Determining exact needs, functions, deficiencies, and toxicities is difficult.• Some key roles of these other trace minerals have been identified. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  74. 74. Other Trace Minerals• Nickel is a cofactor for certain enzymes.• Silicon is used in bone and collagen formation.• Vanadium is for growth, development, and normal reproduction.• Cobalt is a key component of vitamin B12.• Boron may be key in brain activities.• Arsenic is useful in some types of leukemia. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  75. 75. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  76. 76. Contaminant Minerals• Contaminate minerals are also called heavy metals.• These include mercury, lead, and cadmium.• These minerals enter the food supply through soil, water, and air pollution.• They disrupt body processes and impair nutrition status. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  77. 77. Contaminant Minerals• Lead toxicity symptoms in children  Learning disabilities in children  Low IQ  Behavior problems  Slow growth  Dental caries  Iron-deficiency anemia  Sleep disturbances like night walking, restlessness, and head banging  Nervous system disorders and seizures  Slow reaction time and poor coordination  Impaired hearing © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  78. 78. Contaminant Minerals• Lead toxicity symptoms in adults Hypertension Reproductive complications Kidney failure © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  79. 79. Phytochemicals and Functional Foods © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  80. 80. Phytochemicals and Functional Foods• Phytochemicals are nonnutrient compounds.• Only a few of the thousands of phytochemicals have been researched.• There are many questions and few answers about their role in human health.• Foods that provide health benefits beyond those of nutrients are now called functional foods.• Some have an identified role in disease prevention. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  81. 81. The Phytochemicals• The phytochemicals give foods taste, aroma, color, and other characteristics.• Defending against Cancer  Phytoestrogens mimic estrogen • Found in soybeans, legumes, flaxseeds, whole grains, fruits and vegetables • Antioxidant activity • Slow the growth of breast and prostrate cancer • Supplements may stimulate the growth of cancers that depend upon estrogen. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  82. 82. The Phytochemicals• Defending against Cancer Lycopene • Powerful antioxidant • Inhibits the growth of cancer cells • Found in tomatoes and cooked tomato products, apricots, guava, papaya, pink grapefruits, and watermelon Five servings of fruits and vegetables are recommended every day. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  83. 83. The Phytochemicals• Defending against Heart Disease Flavonoids in foods • Powerful antioxidants • Protect against LDL cholesterol oxidation and reduce blood platelet stickiness • Lowers risk of chronic diseases • Found in whole grains, legumes, soy, vegetables, fruits, herbs, spices, teas, chocolate, nuts, olive oil, and red wines © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  84. 84. The Phytochemicals• Defending against Heart Disease  Carotenoids in foods especially lutein and lycopene • Lower risk of heart disease • Found in fruits and vegetables  Phytosterols • May protect against heart disease • Inhibit cholesterol absorption • Lower blood pressure • Act as antioxidants • Found in soybeans and other vegetables • Lignans, found in flax seed, are converted to phytosterols by intestinal bacteria. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  85. 85. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  86. 86. The Phytochemicals• The Phytochemicals in Perspective Difficult to assess one food and its benefits alone Actions of phytochemicals are complementary and overlapping © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  87. 87. Functional Foods• Foods as Pharmacy Margarine enhanced with a phytosterol may lower cholesterol. May be more useful in prevention and mild cases of disease. Drugs are used for severe cases of disease. © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  88. 88. Functional Foods• Unanswered Questions Research is lagging behind food manufacturers. Consumer questions to ask • Does it work? • How much does it contain? • Is it safe? • Is it healthy? © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  89. 89. Functional Foods• Future Foods Use of gene research Can we design foods to meet exact health needs of each individual? Can farmers grow the “perfect” foods? © 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×