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  2. 2. Male reproductive system
  3. 3. Male reproductive system  The human male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that form a part of the human reproductive process.  In this type of reproductive system, these sex organs are located outside the body, around the pelvic region.
  4. 4. Male reproductive system The main male sex organs are the penis and the testicles which produce semen and sperm, which, as part of sexual intercourse, fertilize an ovum in the female's body; the fertilized ovum (zygote) develops into a fetus, which is later born as a child.
  5. 5. PENIS The penis is the male copulatory organ. It has a long shaft and an enlarged bulbousshaped tip called the (glans penis), which supports and is protected by the foreskin. When the male becomes sexually aroused, the penis becomes erect and ready for sexual activity.
  6. 6. PENIS Erection occurs because sinuses within the erectile tissue of the penis become filled with blood. The arteries of the penis are dilated while the veins are passively compressed so that blood flows into the erectile cartilage under pressure.
  7. 7. SCROTUM The scrotum is a pouch-like structure that hangs behind the penis. It holds and protects the testes. It also contains numerous nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum remains connected with the abdomen or pelvic cavity by the inguinal canal.
  8. 8. VAS DEFERENS The vas deferens, also known as the sperm duct, is a thin tube approximately 30 centimetres (0.98 ft) long that starts from the epididymis to the pelvic cavity.
  9. 9. ACCESSORY GLANDS Three accessory glands provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and nourish the sperm cells. They are the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands (Cowper glands).
  10. 10. SEMINAL VESICLES Seminal vesicles are sac-like structures attached to the vas deferens at one side of the bladder. They produce a sticky, yellowish fluid that contains fructose. This fluid provides sperm cells energy and aids in their motility. 70% of the semen is its secretion.
  11. 11. PROSTATE GLAND • The prostate gland surrounds the ejaculatory ducts at the base of the male urethra, just below the bladder. The prostate gland is responsible for the proof semen, a liquid mixture of sperm cells, prostate fluid and seminal fluid.
  13. 13. Female Reproductive System The female genital system contains two main parts: the uterus, which hosts the developing fetus, produces vaginal and uterine secretions, and passes the male's sperm through to the fallopian tubes; and the ovaries, which produce the female's egg cells
  14. 14. VAGINA The vagina is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female mammals . The vagina is the place where semen from the male penis is deposited into the female's body at the climax of sexual intercourse, a phenomenon commonly known as ejaculation.
  15. 15. VAGINA The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal.
  16. 16. CERVIX The cervix is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina.  It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall.
  17. 17. CERVIX Approximately half its length is visible to the naked eye, the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view. The vagina has a thick layer outside and it is the opening where the fetus emerges during delivery. The cervix is also named the neck of the uterus.
  18. 18. UTERUS The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of humans. The uterus provides mechanical protection, nutritional support, and waste removal for the developing embryo (weeks 1 to 8) and fetus (from week 9 until the delivery).
  19. 19. UTERUS The uterus is a pearshaped muscular organ. Its major function is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose.
  20. 20. FALLOPIAN TUBE The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. On maturity of an ovum, the follicle and the ovary's wall rupture, allowing the ovum to escape and enter the Fallopian tube.
  21. 21. FALLOPIAN TUBE There it travels toward the uterus, pushed along by movements of cilia on the inner lining of the tubes. This trip takes hours or days. If the ovum is fertilized while in the Fallopian tube, then it normally implants in the endometrium when it reaches the uterus, which signals the beginning of pregnancy.
  22. 22. OVARIES The ovaries are small, paired organs that are located near the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity.  These organs are responsible for the production of the ova and the secretion of hormones.
  23. 23. OVARIES Ovaries are the place inside the female body where ova or eggs are produced. The process by which the ovum is released is called ovulation. The speed of ovulation is periodic and impacts directly to the length of a menstrual cycle.
  24. 24. OVARIES After ovulation, the ovum is captured by the oviduct, after traveling down the oviduct to the uterus, occasionally being fertilized on its way by an incoming sperm, leading to pregnancy and the eventual birth of a new human being.
  25. 25. CONTRACEPTION The deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy .
  27. 27. TYPES OF CONTRACEPTION SPACING A. Barrier B. Chemical  INTRA UTRINE DEVICES A. First Generation IUD’s B. Second Generation IUD’s C. Third Generation IUD’s
  28. 28. TYPES OF CONTRACEPTION Oral pills Menstrual Regulation Natural Method Natural Family Planning Male Sterilization Female Sterilization
  29. 29. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE COMBINED PILLS The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birthcontrol pill or colloquially as "the Pill", is a birth control method that includes a combination of an estrogen (estradiol) and a progestogen (progestin)
  30. 30. The progestogen-only pill • It contains the hormone progestogen but doesn't contain oestrogen. • Take the progestogen-only pill at or around the same time every day. • The progestogen-only pill thickens the mucus in the cervix, which stops sperm reaching an egg. In can also stop ovulation, depending on the type of progestogen-only pill you take.
  32. 32. Possible Side Effects • The birth control pill is a safe and effective method of birth control. Most young women who take the Pill have none to very few side effects. The side effects that some women have while on the Pill include:
  33. 33. Possible Side Effects • irregular menstrual bleeding • nausea, headaches, dizziness, and breast tenderness • mood changes • blood clots (rare in women under 35 who do not smoke)
  34. 34. Possible Side Effects • The Pill also has some side effects that most girls are happy about. It usually makes periods lighter, reduces cramps, and is often prescribed for women who have menstrual problems.
  35. 35. Possible Side Effects • Taking the Pill often improves acne, and some doctors prescribe it for this purpose. Birth control pills have also been found to protect against some forms of breast disease, anemia, ovarian cysts, and ovarian and endometrial cancers
  37. 37. TUBECTOMY Tubectomy also referred to, as Tubal Sterilization is a surgical procedure done on women as a permanent method of contraception. Gynecologists, general surgeons and laparoscopic surgeons perform Tubectomy.
  38. 38. TUBECTOMY
  39. 39. TUBECTOMY The Fallopian Tubes are two in number and are attached on either side of the uterus at one end and the other end is open in the abdomen.  The length of each Fallopian tube is about 10cm.When the ovum or egg is released from the ovary, it is picked up by Fallopian tube through which it moves into the uterus.
  40. 40. TUBECTOMY If sperms are present in the Fallopian tubes, the ovum is fertilized and the resulting embryo is transmitted to the uterus where it is embedded.  In short, we can say that Fallopian tubes are channels through which the eggs from the ovaries travel to the uterus.
  41. 41. TYPES OF TUBECTOMY • There are different surgical approaches for the tubal sterilization operations are:1. Laparoscopy 2. Micro laparoscopy 3. Laparotomy (concurrent with cesarean delivery) 4. Minilaparotomy 5. Hysteroscopy 6. Vaginal approaches.
  42. 42. TYPES OF TUBECTOMY • The most popular is using a laparoscope; where the patient has just a couple of small scars and is discharged home the same day. If laparoscopy is not available an open surgical operation maybe required. Here the tubes are completely divided and a section is excised. •
  43. 43. ADVANTAGES OF TUBECTOMY In Micro-laparoscopy small endoscopes of tiny diameter (5 to 7 mm) are involved using which suprapubic incisions is made. This surgery is the result of improved technology in light transmission and fiber optic bundles.
  44. 44. LAPROSCOPY
  45. 45. ADVANTAGES OF TUBECTOMY  The advantages that are most common in Tubectomy specifically Laparoscopic (the most popular type of Tubectomy) includes: • Small incisions • Easy and fast access to the fallopian tubes • Recovery is speedy
  46. 46. ADVANTAGES OF TUBECTOMY • However the difference is so nominal that it could never get very popular despite being available for almost 20 years.
  47. 47. DISADVANTAGES • • • • • Uterus may get puncture often Laceration of the cervix Fallopian tube also may get perforated Perforation of major vessels Cardiac arrhythmias because of CO2
  48. 48. PRECAUTIONS The follow-up visit for open or laparoscopic approaches is 1-2 weeks postoperatively.  Notify the health care provider if you develop fever (38°C or 100.4°F), increasing or persistent abdominal pain, or bleeding or purulent discharge from the incision.
  49. 49. PRECAUTIONS Medications should be taken as per the doctor’s prescription.  Ensure to complete the whole course of the antibiotic.  Refrain from sexual intercourse for about a week after surgery or as advised by your doctor
  50. 50. PRECAUTIONS If you have delayed periods, vaginal bleeding/spotting, and severe abdominal pain, consult the doctor immediately, as it could be an ectopic pregnancy.
  51. 51. VASECTOMY Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization and/or permanent birth control. During the procedure, the vasa differentia of a man are severed, and then tied/sealed in a manner such to prevent sperm from entering into the seminal stream (ejaculate).
  52. 52. VASECTOMY The vas deferens from each testicle is clamped, cut, or otherwise sealed.  This prevents sperm from mixing with the semen that is ejaculated from the penis. The vas deferens is then replaced inside the scrotum and the skin is closed with stitches that dissolve and do not have to be removed.
  53. 53. ADVANTAGES OF VASECTOMY Vasectomy is a minor surgery that is safe, highly effective and permanent. Whether done on men who did not want to have kids. Vasectomy is cheaper and fewer complications than tubule sterilization. Men have the opportunity to turn contraception with his wife.
  54. 54. DISADVANTAGE OF VASECTOMY Some men fear a vasectomy will affect his ability having sex or cause erection problems.  There is little pain and discomfort a few days after surgery, this pain can usually be relieved by the consumption of soft drugs.
  55. 55. DISADVANTAGE OF VASECTOMY  Often have to do with an ice pack for 4 hours to reduce swelling, bleeding and discomfort and had to wear pants that can support the scrotum for 2 days.  Vasectomy does not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections including HIV.
  56. 56. DISADVANTAGE OF VASECTOMY The operation is not effective immediately. Patients were required to wear a condom beforehand to clean the tube from the rest of the existing sperm. To know is sterile or not, microscopic examination is usually performed 20-30 times after ejaculation. Regret after vasectomy is greater if the man was still under the age of 25 years, there has been a divorce or a child who died.
  57. 57. DISADVANTAGE OF VASECTOMY It takes 1-3 years to really determine whether vasectomy could work effectively 100 percent or not. The man who wants to open a vasectomy can be done in a way that is reconnect the channel sperm, but the small chances of success
  58. 58. PRECAUTION The patients are normally advised to take painkiller or place ice packs over the wound (usually covered with a dressing) for 15 to 20 minutes every one hour, for the next 12 hours. This minimizes pain and reduces the swelling following the surgery.
  59. 59. PRECAUTION Bed rest for 24-72 hours following the surgery is preferable. It is important to refrain from shower, bathing for 24 hours following the surgery. This prevents the dressing from getting soaked and hence reduces the possibility of an infection.
  60. 60. PRECAUTION The dressing is usually left in place for 2-3 days, to absorb the bleeding if any at the site of incision. It is a good idea to get the dressing changed in a local hospital or at home once in every two days. It is very important that patients abide by the instructions for a speedy recovery.
  61. 61. PRECAUTION • The patient can resume their normal activities 72 hours after the procedure and are instructed about wearing a scrotal support for a short period (1 week). Some doctors advise patients to resume sexual activity once they feel comfortable. This of course varies from person to person and is dependent on the recovery rate, presence of complications such as infection etc.
  62. 62. PRECAUTION The couples must be advised to follow contraceptive precautions until the success of the surgery has been confirmed by semen analysis, (absence of sperms in the ejaculate confirms success of vasectomy) performed 4 to 6 weeks following the procedure.
  63. 63. NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING NFP is an umbrella term for certain methods used to achieve and avoid pregnancies. These methods are based on observation of the naturally occurring signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phases of a woman's menstrual cycle.
  64. 64. NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING  Couples using NFP to avoid pregnancy abstain from intercourse and genital contact during the fertile phase of the woman's cycle. No drugs, devices, or surgical procedures are used to avoid pregnancy.
  65. 65. NATURAL METHOD WITHDRAWAL The man withdraws his penis from the woman's vagina before he ejaculates. This doesn't always work; even before ejaculation, the penis releases small amounts of semen that can contain sperm, so this is only 60 to 80 percent successful at preventing pregnancy.
  66. 66. NATURAL METHOD THE MUCUS METHOD This involves tracking changes in the amount and texture of vaginal discharge, which reflect rising levels of estrogen in the body.  For the first few days after your period, there is often no discharge, but there will be a cloudy, tacky mucus as estrogen starts to rise..
  67. 67. NATURAL METHOD When the discharge starts to increase in volume and becomes clear and stringy, ovulation is near. A return to the tacky, cloudy mucus or no discharge means that ovulation has passed
  68. 68. NATURAL METHOD CALENDAR MEHOD Abstention from sex during the week the woman is ovulating. This technique works best when a woman's menstrual cycle is very regular. The calendar method doesn't work very well for couples who use it by itself (about a 75 percent success rate), but it can be effective when combined with the temperature and mucus methods described below.
  69. 69. NATURAL METHOD LACTATIONA AMENORRHEA METHOD Some experts believe that exclusively breastfeeding protects a woman from pregnancy by curbing hormones that trigger ovulation. However, every woman's body responds differently to the hormonal influences of breastfeeding, so this is an unreliable method.
  70. 70. SPACING BARRIER Barrier methods of birth control block sperm from entering the uterus. Using a spermicide with a barrier method gives you the best possible barrier method protection.
  71. 71. BARRIER • The spermicide kills most of the sperm that enter the vagina. • The barrier method then blocks any remaining sperm from passing through the cervix to fertilize an egg. • Unlike other methods of birth control, barrier methods are used only when you have sexual intercourse.
  72. 72. BARRIER Barrier methods include the:• Diaphragm, • Cervical cap, • Cervical shield • Male condom • Female condom and spermicidal foam, sponges, and film.
  73. 73. BARRIER-PHYSICAL METHOD CONDOM A condom is a barrier device commonly used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy and spreading sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV. It is put on an erect penis and physically blocks ejaculated semen from entering the body of a sexual partner.
  74. 74. ADVANTAGES OF CONDOM • Condoms are also used for collection of semen for use in infertility treatment. Because condoms are waterproof, elastic, and durable, they are also used for nonsexual purposes such as creating waterproof microphones and protecting rifle barrels from clogging.
  75. 75. ADVANTAGES OF CONDOM • As a method of birth control, male condoms have the advantage of being inexpensive, easy to use, having few side effects
  76. 76. DISADVANTAGES OF CONDOM • Condoms may slip off the penis after ejaculation, break due to improper application or physical damage (such as tears caused when opening the package), or break or slip due to latex degradation (typically from usage past the expiration date, improper storage, or exposure to oils
  77. 77. MALE CONDOMS
  78. 78. DISADVANTAGE OF FEMALE CONDOM • Most people can use female condoms with no problems for themselves or their partners. • Some women and men may not like the female condom because it may • cause irritation of the vagina, vulva, penis, or anus • slip into the vagina during vaginal intercourse, or into the anus during anal intercourse
  80. 80. DIAPHRAGM • The diaphragm is a barrier method of birth control. It is a round, dome-shaped device made of rubber that has a firm, flexible rim. It fits inside a woman's vagina and covers the cervix. It should always be used with a sperm-killing cream or jelly (spermicide).
  81. 81. ADVANTAGE OF DIAPHRAGM It does not affect future fertility for either the woman or the man. It is used only at the time of sexual intercourse. It is safe to use while breast-feeding.
  82. 82. ADVANTAGE OF DIAPHRAGM It is less expensive than hormonal methods of birth control. It can be used by women who have health problems that would make estrogen use dangerous, and by women who smoke.
  83. 83. DISADVANTAGE OF DIAPHRAGM • The diaphragm should not be used by women who have ever had toxic shock syndrome. • Women who use diaphragms may get more bladder infections (urinary tract infections, or UTIs
  84. 84. DISADVANTAGE OF DIAPHRAGM • Some people are embarrassed to use this method or feel the method interrupts foreplay or intercourse. • A couple must be comfortable with using the diaphragm and be prepared to use it every time they have sex. • A diaphragm can't be used if either person is allergic to latex.
  85. 85. VAGINAL SPONGE The vaginal contraceptive sponge is a barrier method of birth control. It contains a spermicide called nonoxynol-9 that is released over the 24 hours that the sponge may be left in the vagina. The sponge also blocks the cervix so sperm can't pass. It can be inserted immediately before intercourse or up to 24 hours before. It is left in place for 6 hours after intercourse.
  86. 86. Advantages of contraceptive sponge • It does not affect future fertility for either the woman or the man. • It is used only at the time of sexual intercourse. • It is safe to use while breast-feeding. • It is available in drugstores without a prescription.
  87. 87. Disadvantages of contraceptive sponge • Failure rates for the sponge and other barrier methods are higher than for most other methods of birth control. • Some people are embarrassed to use this method or feel the method interrupts foreplay or intercourse.
  88. 88. Disadvantages of contraceptive sponge • The couple must be comfortable with using the sponge and be prepared to use it every time they have sex.
  89. 89. SPERMCIDES • A spermicide is a substance that kills sperm. Spermicides are available as jelly, foam, cream, suppositories, and film. The active ingredient of most spermicides is a chemical called nonoxynol-9.
  90. 90. ADVANTAGES OF SPERMICIDES • They do not affect future fertility for either the woman or the man. • They are used only at the time of sexual intercourse. • They are safe to use while breast-feeding (birth control that contains estrogen affects milk supply).
  91. 91. ADVANTAGES OF SPERMICIDES • They are less expensive than hormonal methods of birth control. • They are safe for women who have other health problems (birth control that contains estrogen makes some health conditions worse).
  92. 92. DISADVANTAGES OF SPERMICIDE • Spermicides cause an extra discharge from the vagina. Women who use spermicides should not douche for at least 8 hours after intercourse so that the spermicide continues to work to prevent pregnancy. (Douching is not recommended for women in general.)
  93. 93. DISADVANTAGES OF SPERMICIDE • Some people are allergic to nonoxynol-9, the active ingredient in most spermicides. They can develop itching or sores in the vagina or on the penis, which make it more likely that HIV can be passed from an infected person during sex. • The nonoxynol-9 in spermicides may also increase the risk of getting HIV/AIDS from an infected partner.
  94. 94. DISADVANTAGES OF SPERMICIDE • Some people are embarrassed to use spermicide and a barrier method or worry that it may interrupt foreplay or intercourse. This can create a problem with using it every time they have sex.
  95. 95. CERVICAL CAPS The cervical cap is a barrier method of birth control. A cervical cap, which is made of rubber, fits tightly over the opening to the uterus (the cervix). It is used with a spermicide.
  96. 96. ADVANTAGES OF CERVICAL CAP • It does not affect future fertility for either the woman or the man. • It is used only at the time of sexual intercourse. • It is safe to use while breast-feeding. • It is less expensive than hormonal methods of birth control.
  97. 97. DISADVANTAGES OF CERVICAL CAP • The cervical cap should not be used by a woman who has ever had toxic shock syndrome. • The cervical cap cannot be used during a woman's period. • Some women experience odor problems if the cervical cap is left in place longer than 24 hours.
  98. 98. DISADVANTAGES OF CERVICAL CAP • The cervical cap can be difficult to place properly or to remove. • Use of the cervical cap can irritate the cervix. • The cervical cap should not be used by women who currently have a vaginal or cervical infection
  99. 99. DISADVANTAGES OF CERVICAL CAP • The cervical cap is less effective in preventing pregnancy after a woman has had a vaginal delivery. • Some people are embarrassed to use this method or feel the method may interrupt foreplay or intercourse. • A couple must be comfortable with using the cap and be prepared to use it every time they have sex.
  100. 100. CERVICAL SHEILD • The cervical shield, such as Lea's Shield, is similar to the diaphragm and cervical cap. It is thought to be as effective as other female barrier methods (the cervical cap, diaphragm, and sponge). • But only limited studies have been done so far. The cervical shield is made of silicone, so latex allergy is not a problem..
  101. 101. CERVICAL SHEILD • The device comes in one size only, simplifying the fitting process. The shield currently requires a prescription
  102. 102. ADVANTAGES OF BARRIER METHOD • Do not affect a woman's or man's future fertility. • Are only used at the time of sexual intercourse. • Are safe for a woman to use while she is breast-feeding. • Do not affect other health conditions, such as high blood pressure or diabetes .
  103. 103. ADVANTAGES OF BARRIER METHOD • Are less expensive than hormonal methods of birth control, and some are available without a prescription.
  104. 104. ADVANTAGES OF BARRIER METHOD • Condoms and diaphragms may reduce the risk of cervical cancer, which is caused by a sexually transmitted human papillomavirus. Condoms also are the best method for reducing the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV.
  105. 105. DISADVANTAGES OF BARRIER METHOD • Failure rates for barrier methods are higher than for most other methods of birth control. If you are considering using a barrier method for birth control, think through what the emotional and financial costs of an unintended pregnancy would be if the method fails.
  106. 106. DISADVANTAGES OF BARRIER METHOD • To prevent pregnancy with a barrier method, you and your partner must be comfortable with using it and be prepared to use it every time you have sex. For some couples, barrier methods are not a good choice because one or both partners: • Find it embarrassing to use.
  107. 107. DISADVANTAGES OF BARRIER METHOD • Do not want a barrier method to interrupt foreplay or intercourse. • Some people develop allergies to spermicides. But using spermicide is advised with diaphragms, cervical caps, or cervical shields. So if you can't use spermicide, you will need to find a different form of birth control.
  108. 108. DISADVANTAGES OF BARRIER METHOD • For people who have an allergy to latex, polyurethane condoms are available. Latex condoms are slightly more dependable than polyurethane condoms.
  109. 109. Barrier methods of birth control Barrier Male condom Failure rate* Effectiveness in preventing STDs 15 (spermicide further lowers Most effective this failure rate) Female condom 21 Somewhat effective Diaphragmwith spermicide 16 Limited effectiveness Spermicide 29 Not effective if used alone; may actually increase risk of getting HIV/AIDS Sponge with spermicide 16 (no past vaginalchildbirth) Limited effectiveness 32 (past vaginal childbirth) Cervical capwith spermicide 16 (no past vaginal childbirth) Limited effectiveness 32 (past vaginal childbirth)
  110. 110. CHEMICAL METHOD FOAMS Contraceptive foam is a form of birth control, which uses a chemical known as spermicide to prevent pregnancy. The mostly common form of spermicide used in contraceptive foam is Nonoxynol9. The foam is inserted into the vagina prior to sexual intercourse.
  111. 111. FOAMS Contraceptive foam can be used with other forms of birth control, such as a female or male condom . Contraceptive foam prevents pregnancy in two ways. The spermicide destroys the sperm cell membrane, which prevents it from fertilizing the egg.
  112. 112. FOAMS • The foam also creates a barrier and blocks the opening of the cervix. This prevents the sperm from getting to the fertilized egg.
  113. 113. FOAM
  114. 114. SIDE EFFECTS The chemical in contraceptive foams can be irritate the vagina or the penis in some men and women.  Changing to a different brand of contraceptive foam may help if irritation occurs. Contraceptive foam can also be messy and may leak from the vagina.
  115. 115. SUPPOSITORY • Each suppository is individually wrapped and contains nonoxynol-9, a standard spermicide. • After opening the package, the suppository is pushed deeply into the vagina so that it lies against the cervix. • IT CAN CAUSE IRRITATION
  116. 116. SUPPOSITORY
  117. 117. IUD The current intrauterine devices (IUD) are small devices, often 'T'-shaped, often containing either copper or levonorgestrel, which are inserted into the uterus..
  118. 118. IUD • They are one form of long-acting reversible contraception which are the most effective types of reversible birth control. • Failure rates with the copper IUD is about 0.8%.
  119. 119. IUD • Among types of birth control, they along with birth control implants result in the greatest satisfaction among users. As of 2007, IUDs are the most widely used form of reversible contraception, with more than 180 million users worldwide.
  120. 120. IUD 1. Medicated IUD: Those IUDs that carry biologically active agents into the uterine cavity like levonorgestrel-releasing device [MIRENA]. It is an intrauterine system (LNG_IUS) that has sleeves of levenorgestril 52mg around its stem releasing 20 microgram/day and lasting for at least five years. The advantage of medicated IUDs is that the carrier part of the devices is smaller and less traumatic.
  121. 121. IUD • 2. Non-medicated IUD: No drugs are added to the matrix or plate form of the IUD. It consists of plastic polyethylene and copper. There are so many types of this group. The most commonly used are • copper T, • TCU 380A, • Multiload 375 and Nova T.
  122. 122. IUD Penetrating the wall of the uterus
  123. 123. CONTRA-INDICATIONS FOR THE USE OF IUD RELATIVE CONTRAINDICATIONS of Intra uterine contraceptive devices:1. Nulliparity 2. Valvular heart disease and cardiomyopathy 3. Previous ectopic pregnancy 4. Moderate to severe anemia
  124. 124. RELATIVE CONTRAINDICATIONS 5. Hypermenorrhea 6. Wilson's liver disease 7. Copper allergy 8. AIDS 9. High risk of STD
  125. 125. ABSOLUTE CONTRAINDICATIONS 1.Cardiomyopathy 2.Recent acute pelvic inflammatory disease 3.Chronic or recurrent PID 4.Recent septic abortion 5.Acute cervical or vaginal infection 6.Congenital uterine anomalies 7.Uterine tumors 8.Undiagnosed uterine bleeding