Carbohydarates

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Carbohydarates

  1. 1. CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM 1/3 of body’s glycogen is stored in liver   1. 2. 3. 4. released as glucose to bloodstream eat – intake glucose liver condenses extra glucose to glycogen blood glucose falls liver hydrolyzes glycogen to glucose Glycogen is bulky, so we store only so much: short term energy supply Fat is the long term energy supply.
  2. 2. CARBOHYDRATES
  3. 3. CARBOHYRATES OCCURENCE EFFICIENT ENERGY:NECESSARY NUTRIENT
  4. 4. CARBOHYDRATES COMPOSITION A carbohydrate is an organic compound comprising only carbon, hydrogen, and oxyge n, usually with a hydrogen : oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n
  5. 5. CARBOHYDRATES CLASSIFICATIONS
  6. 6. SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES
  7. 7. SIMPLE (sugars)
  8. 8. COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
  9. 9. COMPLEX (polysaccharides Starch/Fiber)
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION SIMPLE COMPOUND
  11. 11. MONOSACCHARIDES  GLUCOSE  FRUCTOSE  GALACTOSE OLIGOSACCRIDES  Glucose +Fructose +Galactose =RAFFINOSE  Two alpha D-galactose = STACHYOSE DISACCHARIDES  Glucose + Fructose = SUCROSE  Galactose+ glucose = LACTOSE  Glucose +glucose = MALTOSE POLYSACCHARIDES  Large no. Of glucose + join + glycosidic bond= STARCH
  12. 12. CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharides- glucose, fructose,galactose  Oligosaccharides  Di, tri, tetra, penta, up to 9 or 10  Most important are the disaccharides-lactose, sucrose,maltose   Polysaccharides or glycans Homopolysaccharides-starch, glycogen, cellulose  Heteropolysaccharides 
  13. 13. STRUCTURE OF TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES oligosaccharides
  14. 14. SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES
  15. 15. 1. MONOSACCHARIDES GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE GALACTOSE
  16. 16. Monosaccharides all are 6 carbon hexes 6 carbons 12 hydrogens 6 oxygens arrangement differs accounts for varying sweetness glucose, fructose, galactose
  17. 17. GLUCOSE mild sweet flavor  known as blood sugar  essential energy source  found in every disaccharide and polysaccharide 
  18. 18. FRUCTOSE sweetest sugar  found in fruits and honey  added to soft drinks, cereals, deserts 
  19. 19. GALACTOSE hardly tastes sweet  rarely found naturally as a single sugar 
  20. 20. 2. DISACCHARIDES
  21. 21. DISACCHARIDES  pairs of the monosaccharides       glucose is always present 2nd of the pair could be fructose, galactose or another glucose taken apart by hydrolysis put together by condensation hydrolysis and condensation occur with all energy nutrients maltose, sucrose, lactose
  22. 22. CONDENSATION  making a disaccharide  chemical reaction linking 2 monosaccharides
  23. 23. MALTOSE 2 glucose units  produced when starch breaks down  not abundant 
  24. 24. SUCROSE fructose and glucose  tastes sweet   fruit, vegetables, grains table sugar is refined sugarcane and sugar beets  brown, white, powdered 
  25. 25. LACTOSE  glucose and galactose  main carbohydrate in milk  known as milk sugar
  26. 26. COMPOUND CARBOHYDRATES
  27. 27. 1. OLIGOSACCHARIDES RAFFINOSE STACHYOSE
  28. 28. 2.POLYSACCHARIDES STARCH CELLULOSE GLYCOGEN
  29. 29. POLYSACCHARIDES(COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES)  homoglycans (starch, cellulose, glycogen, inulin)  heteroglycans (gums, mucopolysaccharides)  characteristics: polymers (MW from 200,000)  White and amorphous products (glassy)  not sweet  not reducing; do not give the typical aldose or ketose reactions)  form colloidal solutions or suspensions 
  30. 30. STARCH most common storage polysaccharide in plants  composed of 10 – 30% amylose and 70-90% amylopectin depending on the source  Common sources are grains , potatoes, peas, beans, wheat 
  31. 31. GLYCOGEN  also known as animal starch  stored in muscle and liver  present in cells as granules (high MW)  contains both (1,4) links and (1,6) branches at every 8 to 12 glucose unit  complete hydrolysis yields glucose
  32. 32. FIBERS Found in food derived from plants  Includes polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, gums and mucilages  Also includes non-polysaccharides such as lignin, cutins and tannins  Fibers are not a source of energy because Human digestive enzymes cannot break down fibers  The bacteria in human GI tract can breakdown some fibers. 
  33. 33. GLYCEMIC INDEX way of classifying food according to their ability to raise blood glucose  much controversy 
  34. 34.  Glycemic index is defined as the area under the blood glucose curves seen after ingestion of a meal with carbohydrate-rich food, compared with the area under the blood glucose curve observed after a meal consisting of the same amount of carbohydrate in the form of glucose or white bread.
  35. 35. REQUIREMENTS FOR CARBOHYDRATE  The RDA for carbohydrate is set at 130 g/day for adults and children, based on the amount of glucose used by carbohydrate-dependent tissues, such as the brain and erythrocytes.  Adults should consume 45–65 percent of their total calories from carbohydrates.  It is recommended that added sugar represent no more than 25% of total energy because of concerns that sugar may displace nutrient-rich foods from the diet, potentially leading to deficiencies of certain micronutrients.
  36. 36. PROPERTIES 1. MONOSACCHARIDE - These are crystalline compounds, soluble in water, sweet to taste, and needs digestion in order to be absorbed into the blood stream. They may contain either five carbons (pentose) or six carbons (hexose). 2. DISACCHARIDES -These are crystalline, water-soluble, sweet to the taste, and must be digested to monosaccharides before they can be absorbed and used for energy. These are a combination of two monosaccharides. 3. POLYSACCHARIDES -These are not water soluble and are not crystalline. They form colloidal suspensions instead of solutions. They are not sweet and must be digested before being absorbed. They are made up of many polysaccharides joined together. The water solubility obviously depended on the molecular weight of carbohydrates in water.
  37. 37. THANKYOU

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