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American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market
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American hardwoods and their suitability for the indian market

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  • 1. American hardwoods and their suitability for the Indian market A joint publication by the American Hardwood Export Council and the Indian Plywood Industries Research & Training Institute63345_AHEC_Cover_Spread.indd 1 26/01/2009 07:26
  • 2. Contacts & further information American hardwood American Hardwood Export Council - The American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC) is the just keeps on growing and growing…and growing. As the world faces up to environmental Europe, Middle East & India 3 St Michael’s Alley leading international trade association of the US hardwood industry, representing the committed change, with sustainability the watchword London exporters of US hardwood companies and all the major for natural materials, the good news is that EC3V 9DS US hardwood product trade associations. AHEC’s the net volume of hardwood growing policy is to develop worldwide markets for all species United Kingdom stock in the USA has increased from Tel: +44 20 7626 4111 and thereby balance exports with what is growing in 184,090 million cubic feet in 1953 to just under 400,000 million cubic feet in 2007.* Fax: +44 20 7626 4222 the forest, now and in the future. www.ahec-india.org Against this backdrop, AHEC - the global For further detailed technical information on American promotion and marketing campaign for hardwood species, products, grading & applications, American hardwoods - commissioned a please visit www.ahec-india.org, where you can also major independent research study on the order free hard copies of the following publications: risk of illegal wood entering the supply chain for American hardwood products. A crucial step in AHEC’s determination to set high standards of transparency in the international wood trade, the study is expected to set the standard for other HA areas of the world which are working REF RDWO towards verified and legal standards for ERE OD their own resource. NCE STRUCTURAL DESIGN IN S With the forests continuing to grow and AMERICAN HARDWOODS HARDWOOD REFERENCES the new research study confirming once and for all, the USA is a low risk supplier of hardwood, AHEC is working towards more research initiatives, particularly Indian Plywood Industries The Indian Plywood Industries Research & Training related to sustainability, to reinforce its Research & Training Institute Institute (IPIRTI) is an autonomous body under the position as one of the key, reliable, P.B. #-2273 Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government of India. long-term suppliers of hardwood to the Tumkur road The Institute, which was started as a co-operative world. Yeshwanthpur research association of the plywood Industry and the *Resource Planning Act Assessment 2007 Bangalore-560022 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Karnataka 1962, has evolved into a dynamic and creative The research study (An Assessment India organisation dedicated to developing new of Lawful Harvesting and Sustain- environmentally friendly technologies for the wood Tel: +91 80 2839 4341 ability of US Hardwood Exports) Fax: +91 80 2839 6361 based industry. It is an internationally recognised centre can be viewed by visiting www.ipirti.gov.in of expertise, with an exhaustive source of data and www.ahec-india.org information in the area of wood science and technology, with particular reference to wood based panels. Photograph Acknowledgements Front cover Ian MacDonald • Contents John Aparicio (B) • Foreword Ian MacDonald • Page 4 Northwest Hardwoods (T) • Page 5 Northwest Hardwoods • Page 6 Courtesy of UK Wood Awards (B) • Page 7 John Aparicio (L) Dennis Gilbert (R) • Page 9 Courtesy of UK Wood Awards (R) • Page 14 Ian MacDonald (T) Dennis Gilbert (B) • Page 15 RIVA 1920 (L) • Page 16 Richard Davies (T & B) • Page 17 Salamanca Consortium (L) • Page 18 Warren Corporation Photography (T) Johnny Boylan (B) • Page 19 Courtesy of UK Wood Awards (L & R) • Page 20 RIVA 1920 (T) Courtesy of UK Wood Awards (B) • Page 21 Courtesy of UK Wood Awards (L) • Page 23 Courtesy of UK Wood Awards, John Marshall, Dennis Gilbert, Ali Parquet (L to R) (B) = bottom; (T) = top; (L) = left; (R) = right63345_AHEC_Cover_Spread.indd 2 22/01/2009 19:52
  • 3. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:48 Page 1 Contents 2 Foreword 3 Introduction 4 American alder 6 American ash 8 American cherry 10 American hard maple 12 American soft maple 14 American red oak 16 American white oak 18 American tulipwood 20 American black walnut 22 Comparative tables & summary 24 Glossary of terms 25 Contacts and further information This publication is protected by copyright. The information contained in the publication however, is designed for storage in retrieval systems and may be reproduced. All other aspects of the publication, including photographs, may not be reproduced without AHEC’s prior permission. AHEC takes no responsibility for the information, which is offered as guidance only, and cannot be held responsible for any consequences.
  • 4. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 26/1/09 08:56 Page 2 American hardwoods and their suitability for the Indian market Foreword by Dr Pandey While demand for timber and timber products in the housing sector is increasing in India, the gap between demand and supply is widening due, in part, to the Forest Conservation Act. In contrast, American hardwoods, which are managed sustainably, are in surplus in the US domestic market and are exported all over the world. With the Indian government’s liberalization policy on the import of wood products, the American hardwood industry has great potential and products to develop markets for American hardwood species in India for joinery, furniture and flooring applications. In order to help increase the knowledge and acceptance of American hardwood species in India, the American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC) identified the need for a competent authority to exhaustively test the suitability of US hardwood species in accordance with the relevant Indian Standards for different end use applications. As a first step in this direction, AHEC asked the Indian Plywood Industries Research & Training Institute (IPIRTI), which has the necessary infrastructure and expertise, to examine the suitability of nine US hardwood species and submit the results with recommendations. This joint AHEC/IPIRTI publication summarises the physical characteristics and potential applications for nine key commercial US hardwood species. The results clearly demonstrate that these species can offer Indian designers and manufacturers new opportunities to develop sustainable hardwood products, that are fashionable and can perform to the highest standards C N Pandey Director, IPIRTI
  • 5. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:49 Page 3 Introduction The hardwood forests of the eastern United States contain a wide range of temperate hardwood species, that have been managed for commercial and non-commercial purposes since the turn of the 20th Century. The hardwood sawmilling and processing industry, which depends upon this resource, is the largest producer of sawn hardwood in the world. In recent years the USA has substantially increased exports and through careful management of its forests, the United States is growing more hardwood each year than it harvests, ensuring reliable and long term supplies. In fact, as the world faces up to environmental change, with sustainability the watchword for natural materials, the good news is that the net volume of hardwood growing stock in the USA has increased from 184,090 million cubic feet in 1953 to just under 400,000 million cubic feet in 2007*. The American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC) is the leading international trade association of the US hardwood industry, representing the committed exporters of US hardwood companies and all the major US hardwood product trade associations. AHEC’s policy is to develop worldwide markets for all species and thereby balance exports with what is growing in the forest, now and in the future. The American hardwood industry is now seeking to develop a market for US hardwoods in India. With this in mind, AHEC decided to sponsor the testing of the most commercially available American hardwood species at the Indian Plywood Industries Research & Training Institute (IPIRTI) in Bangalore and to produce a publication of test results and their suitability for end use applications. This publication is designed to help specifiers and manufacturers to understand the physical and mechanical properties and potential applications of American hardwoods, thereby giving them the necessary tools to make an informed choice. Nine species were chosen out of a possible twenty-two or so commercial hardwoods and this choice was made on the basis of their wide availability for export. The nine were as follows: American alder (Alnus rubra), American ash (Fraxinus spp), American cherry (Prunus serotina), American hard maple (Acer saccharum, Acer nigrum), American soft maple (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum), American red oak (Quercus spp), American white oak (Quercus spp), American tulipwood (Liriodendron tulipifera), American black walnut (Juglans nigra) All nine species underwent a series of rigorous testing under strict IPIRTI laboratory conditions. These were designed to evaluate both their physical and mechanical properties, as well as their durability, sound absorption and working properties. A minimum number of 20 samples of each hardwood species were tested. Physical properties, such as specific gravity, average weight and shrinkage were carried out in accordance with Indian Standard IS 1708:1986. Mechanical properties, such as bending, compression, tension and hardness were also carried out in accordance with Indian Standard IS 1708:1986. The sound absorption coefficients for each of the nine species were evaluated according to Indian Standard IS 10420:1982. Durability analysis was carried out using accelerated tests against fungus, borers and termites. American hardwood species are more widely used for interior applications, as most species have limited levels of natural durability. However, many of them can be treated with preservatives for external use, although further research will be needed to assess this potential with the Indian market. The results of the tests for each of the nine US hardwood species, are shown in the following pages. N.B. All values shown in this publication are based on the results of the IPIRTI testing programme and should be taken as a guide only, due to the limited number of samples used and the diversity within and geographical size of the US hardwood forest resource. *Resource Planning Act Accessment 2007
  • 6. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 26/1/09 08:57 Page 4 American alder Alnus rubra Other names: Red alder, Western red alder, Western alder Distribution & Availability West coast USA, principally the Pacific North West, where it is the most common commercial hardwood. Available in a range of grades and specifications as both rough lumber and dimension stock, although veneer production is more limited. General Description Red alder is almost white when freshly cut but quickly changes on exposure to air to light brown with a yellow or reddish tinge. Heartwood is formed only in trees of advanced age and there is no visible boundary between sap and heartwood. The wood is fairly straight grained with a uniform texture. Physical & Mechanical Properties Red alder is a relatively soft hardwood of medium density that has low bending strength, shock resistance and stiffness. Specific gravity (12% MC) 0.52 Average weight (8-10% MC) 557 Kg/m3 Average volumetric shrinkage 4.91% Modulus of Rupture 75.81 MPa Modulus of Elasticity 9477 MPa Compressive strength (parallel to grain) 62.4 MPa Tensile strength (parallel to grain) 71.0 MPa Hardness (tangential) 2816 N Working Poor Fair Good Excellent Properties Sawing Red alder machines well and Planing is excellent for turning and Drilling polishing. It nails, screws and Boring glues well, and can be sanded, painted, or stained Turning to a very good finish. It dries Carving easily with little degrade and Moulding has good dimensional stability after drying. Nailing Screwing Gluing Finishing 4
  • 7. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:49 Page 5 Sound Absorption Coefficients at frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.10 0.12 Durability The wood is non-resistant to heartwood decay, liable to attack by the common furniture beetle but is permeable for preservation treatment. Suitability for End End use application Suitability Uses Tool handles Furniture, kitchen cabinets, doors, Joinery furniture interior mouldings, turning, carving Doors shutters and kitchen utensils. Sports goods Kitchen cabinets Panelling Heavy duty block flooring Parquet flooring Strip or plank flooring 5
  • 8. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:49 Page 6 American ash Fraxinus spp Other names: Northern ash, Southern ash Distribution Availability Distributed throughout Eastern USA. Good availability as lumber and veneer. The lumber is often classified according to growing regions and marketed as Northern ash and Southern ash. It is sometimes separated for colour and sold as white ash (sapwood) or brown ash (heartwood). Fraxinus nigra, black ash, may also be sold as brown ash. Available in a wide range of grades and specifications as lumber and veneer. General Description American ash is similar in appearance to European ash. The sapwood is light coloured to nearly white and the heartwood varies from greyish brown to light brown, to pale yellow streaked with brown. The wood is generally straight grained with a coarse uniform texture. The degree and availability of light coloured sapwood, and other properties, will vary according to the growing regions. Physical Mechanical Properties Ash has very good overall strength properties relative to its weight. It has excellent shock resistance and is good for steam bending. Specific gravity (12% MC) 0.62 Average weight (8-10% MC) 672 Kg/m3 Average volumetric shrinkage 4.62% Modulus of Rupture 121.55 MPa Modulus of Elasticity 12169 MPa Compressive strength (parallel to grain) 67.3 MPa Tensile strength (parallel to grain) 152.9 MPa Hardness (tangential) 6388 N Working Poor Fair Good Excellent Properties Sawing Ash machines well, is good Planing in nailing, screwing and Drilling gluing, and can be stained and polished to a very good Boring finish. It dries fairly easily Turning with minimal degrade, and Carving there is little movement in performance. Moulding Nailing Screwing Gluing Finishing 6
  • 9. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:49 Page 7 Sound Absorption Coefficients at frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0.01 0.04 0.09 0.11 0.09 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.13 0.16 Durability Non-resistant to heartwood decay. The sapwood is liable to attack by powder post and the common furniture beetle. The heartwood is moderately resistant to preservative treatment, and the sapwood is permeable. Suitability for End End use application Suitability Uses Tool handles Furniture, flooring, doors, Joinery furniture architectural interiors, high class Doors shutters joinery and moulding, kitchen Sports goods cabinets, panelling, tool handles, sports goods and turning. Kitchen cabinets Panelling Heavy duty block flooring Parquet flooring Strip or plank flooring 7
  • 10. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:49 Page 8 American cherry Prunus serotina Other names: American black cherry Distribution Availability Throughout Eastern USA. Main commercial areas are Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia and New York State. Widely available in a full range of specifications and grades as both lumber and veneer. General Description The heartwood of American cherry varies from rich red to reddish brown and will darken on exposure to light. In contrast the sapwood is creamy white. The wood has a fine uniform straight grain, smooth texture, and may naturally contain brown pith flecks and small gum pockets. Physical Mechanical Properties The wood is of medium density with good wood bending properties, it has low stiffness and medium strength and shock resistance. Specific gravity (12% MC) 0.48 Average weight (8-10% MC) 521 Kg/m3 Average volumetric shrinkage 3.57% Modulus of Rupture 85.73 MPa Modulus of Elasticity 8848 MPa Compressive strength (parallel to grain) 55.6 MPa Tensile strength (parallel to grain) 71.5 MPa Hardness (tangential) 3073 N Working Poor Fair Good Excellent Properties Sawing Cherry is easy to machine, Planing nails and glues well and Drilling when sanded, stained and polished, it produces an Boring excellent smooth finish. It Turning dries fairly quickly with Carving moderately large shrinkage, but is dimensionally stable Moulding after kilning. Nailing Screwing Gluing Finishing 8
  • 11. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:49 Page 9 Sound Absorption Coefficients at frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.10 0.13 Durability Rated as resistant to heartwood decay. The sapwood is liable to attack by common furniture beetle, and the heartwood moderately resistant to preservative treatment. Suitability for End End use application Suitability Uses Tool handles Furniture and cabinet making, high Joinery furniture class joinery, kitchen cabinets, Doors shutters mouldings, panelling, flooring, Sports goods doors, boat interiors, musical instruments, turning and carving. Kitchen cabinets Panelling Heavy duty block flooring Parquet flooring Strip or plank flooring 9
  • 12. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:49 Page 10 American hard maple Acer saccharum, Acer nigrum Other names: Sugar maple, black maple Distribution Availability Eastern USA, principally Mid-Atlantic and Lake States. A cold weather tree favouring a more Northerly climate. Widely available as lumber and veneer. The higher quality grades of lumber are available selected for white colour (sapwood) although this can limit availability. Figured maple (birds- eye, curly, fiddleback) is generally only available in commercial volumes as veneer. General Description The sapwood is creamy white with a slight reddish brown tinge and the heartwood varies from light to dark reddish brown. The amount of darker brown heartwood can vary significantly according to growing region. Both sapwood and heartwood can contain pith fleck. The wood has a close fine texture and is generally straight grained, but it can also occur as “curly”, “fiddleback”, and “birds-eye” figure. Physical Mechanical Properties The wood is hard and heavy with good strength properties, in particular its high resistance to abrasion and wear. It also has good steam bending properties. Specific gravity (12% MC) 0.65 Average weight (8-10% MC) 700 Kg/m3 Average volumetric shrinkage 4.20% Modulus of Rupture 111.58 MPa Modulus of Elasticity 11111 MPa Compressive strength (parallel to grain) 64.8 MPa Tensile strength (parallel to grain) 124.8 MPa Hardness (tangential) 7002 N Working Poor Fair Good Excellent Properties Sawing Hard maple dries slowly with Planing a large shrinkage, so it can Drilling be susceptible to movement in performance. Pre-boring is Boring recommended when nailing Turning and screwing. With care it Carving machines well, turns well, glues satisfactorily, and can Moulding be stained and polished to Nailing an outstanding finish. Screwing Gluing Finishing 10
  • 13. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:49 Page 11 Sound Absorption Coefficients at frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.13 Durability Rated as slightly or non-resistant to heartwood decay. Sapwood is liable to attack by furniture beetle. The heartwood is resistant to preservative treatment but the sapwood is permeable. Suitability for End End use application Suitability Uses Tool handles Flooring (including high traffic Joinery furniture applications such as gymnasiums Doors shutters and basketball courts), furniture, Sports goods panelling, kitchen cabinets, worktops and table tops, interior Kitchen cabinets joinery: stairs, handrails, mouldings, Panelling and doors. Heavy duty block flooring Parquet flooring Strip or plank flooring 11
  • 14. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:49 Page 12 American soft maple Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum Other names: Red maple, silver maple Distribution Availability Throughout Eastern USA, and to a lesser extent on the West coast (bigleaf maple or Acer macrophyllum). Availability is improving as demand increases. General Description In most respects the wood of soft maple is very similar to that of hard maple. Although due to its widespread growth it may be more susceptible to regional colour variations. Generally the sapwood is greyish white, sometimes with darker coloured pith flecks. The heartwood varies from light to dark reddish brown. The wood is usually straight grained. The lumber is generally sold unselected for colour. Physical Mechanical Properties Soft maple is about 25% less hard than hard maple, has medium bending and crushing strength, and is low in stiffness and shock resistance. It has good steam bending properties. Specific gravity (12% MC) 0.55 Average weight (8-10% MC) 599 Kg/m3 Average volumetric shrinkage 3.71% Modulus of Rupture 102.64 MPa Modulus of Elasticity 9883 MPa Compressive strength (parallel to grain) 53.9 MPa Tensile strength (parallel to grain) 111.3 MPa Hardness (tangential) 5250 N Working Poor Fair Good Excellent Properties Sawing Soft maple machines well Planing and can be stained and Drilling polished to an excellent finish. It glues, screws, and Boring nails satisfactorily. It dries Turning slowly with minimal degrade Carving and there is little movement in performance. Moulding Nailing Screwing Gluing Finishing 12
  • 15. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:49 Page 13 Sound Absorption Coefficients at frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.11 Durability Non-resistant to decay and insect attack. The heartwood is moderately resistant to preservative treatment but the sapwood is permeable. Suitability for End End use application Suitability Uses Tool handles Furniture, panelling, interior joinery, Joinery furniture kitchen cabinets, mouldings, doors, Doors shutters musical instruments, and turning. Sports goods Soft maple is often used as a substitute for hard maple or stained Kitchen cabinets to resemble other species such as Panelling cherry. Its physical and working properties also make it a possible Heavy duty block flooring substitute for beech. Parquet flooring Strip or plank flooring 13
  • 16. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 26/1/09 06:15 Page 14 American red oak Quercus spp Other names: Northern red oak, Southern red oak Distribution Availability Widespread throughout Eastern USA. The oaks are by far the largest species group growing in the eastern hardwood forests. Red oaks grow more abundantly than the white oaks. The red oak group comprises many species, of which about eight are commercial. Good availability as lumber and veneer in a wide range of grades and specifications. Red oak is often classified according to growing regions and marketed as Northern red oak, and Southern red oak. General Description The sapwood of red oak is white to light brown and the heartwood is a pinkish reddish brown. The wood is similar in general appearance to white oak, but with a slightly less pronounced figure due to the smaller rays. The wood is mostly straight grained, with a coarse texture. Physical Mechanical Properties The wood is hard and heavy, with medium bending strength and stiffness and high crushing strength. It is very good for steam bending. Specific gravity (12% MC) 0.66 Average weight (8-10% MC) 730 Kg/m3 Average volumetric shrinkage 5.2% Modulus of Rupture 101.65 MPa Modulus of Elasticity 10808 MPa Compressive strength (parallel to grain) 58.8 MPa Tensile strength (parallel to grain) 139.03 MPa Hardness (tangential) 5845 N Working Poor Fair Good Excellent Properties Sawing Red oak machines well, Planing nailing and screwing is good Drilling although pre-boring is recommended, and it can be Boring stained and polished to a Turning very good finish. It dries Carving slowly with a tendency to split and warp. It has a high Moulding shrinkage and can be Nailing susceptible to movement in Screwing performance. Gluing Finishing 14
  • 17. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:50 Page 15 Sound Absorption Coefficients at frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0.01 0.03 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.12 0.15 Durability Rated slightly non-resistant to heartwood decay, moderately easy to treat with preservatives. Suitability for End End use application Suitability Uses Tool handles Construction, furniture, flooring, Joinery furniture architectural interiors, internal Doors shutters joinery and mouldings, doors, Sports goods kitchen cabinets, panelling, coffins and caskets. Not suitable for tight Kitchen cabinets cooperage. Red oak can vary in Panelling colour, texture, characteristics and properties according to the growing Heavy duty block flooring region. It is therefore recommended Parquet flooring that users and specifiers work Strip or plank flooring closely with their suppliers to make sure the wood they order is suited to their specific needs. 15
  • 18. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 26/1/09 08:58 Page 16 American white oak Quercus spp Other names: Northern white oak, Southern white oak Distribution Availability Widespread throughout Eastern USA. The white oak group comprises many species, of which about eight are commercial. Very widely available in lumber and veneer, in a full range of grades and specifications. General Description White oak is similar in colour and appearance to European oak. The sapwood of American white oak is light coloured and the heartwood is light to dark brown. White oak is mostly straight grained with a medium to coarse texture, with longer rays than red oak. White oak therefore has more figure. Physical Mechanical Properties A hard and heavy wood with medium bending and crushing strength, low in stiffness, but very good in steam bending. Specific gravity (12% MC) 0.59 Average weight (8-10% MC) 634 Kg/m3 Average volumetric shrinkage 3.55% Modulus of Rupture 114.47 MPa Modulus of Elasticity 10582 MPa Compressive strength (parallel to grain) 54.1 MPa Tensile strength (parallel to grain) 108.4 MPa Hardness (tangential) 5660 N Working Poor Fair Good Excellent Properties Sawing White oak machines well, Planing nails and screws well although Drilling pre-boring is advised. As it reacts with iron, galvanised Boring nails are recommended. Its Turning adhesive properties are Carving variable, but it stains and polishes to a good finish. The Moulding wood dries slowly and care is Nailing needed to avoid checking. Screwing Due to its high shrinkage, it can be susceptible to Gluing movement in performance. Finishing 16
  • 19. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:50 Page 17 Sound Absorption Coefficients at frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.11 Durability The heartwood is resistant to decay, extremely resistant to preservative treatment, and the sapwood is moderately resistant to treatment. Its natural durability means that white oak heartwood can be used externally without preservative treatment. Suitability for End End use application Suitability Uses Tool handles Construction, furniture, flooring, Joinery furniture architectural joinery, exterior joinery, Doors shutters mouldings, doors, kitchen cabinets, Sports goods panelling, railway sleepers, timber bridges, barrel staves, coffins and Kitchen cabinets caskets. White oak can vary in Panelling colour, texture, characteristics and properties according to the growing Heavy duty block flooring region. It is therefore recommended Parquet flooring that users and specifiers work Strip or plank flooring closely with their suppliers to make sure the wood they order is suited to their specific needs. Northern and Southern may be sold separately. 17
  • 20. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 26/1/09 08:59 Page 18 American tulipwood Liriodendron tulipifera Other names: Yellow poplar, tulip poplar Distribution Availability Widespread throughout Eastern USA. Widely available in a full range of standard thicknesses and specifications in lumber and veneer form. Tulipwood is one of the larger trees in the US forest and can produce wider and longer specifications that are relatively knot free. General Description The sapwood is creamy white and may be streaked with the heartwood varying from pale yellowish brown to olive green. The green colour in the heartwood will tend to darken on exposure to light and turn brown. The wood has a medium to fine texture and is straight grained. The size of the sapwood and some physical characteristics will vary according to growing regions. The wood has many desirable characteristics and is suitable for a wide variety of important uses. Tulipwood is not a poplar and has many superior properties. However the tree resembles the shape of the European poplar, hence its name in the USA. Physical Mechanical Properties A medium density wood with low bending, shock resistance, stiffness and compression values, with a medium steam bending classification. Specific gravity (12% MC) 0.53 Average weight (8-10% MC) 547 Kg/m3 Average volumetric shrinkage 4.31% Modulus of Rupture 97.67 MPa Modulus of Elasticity 11226 MPa Compressive strength (parallel to grain) 51.7 MPa Tensile strength (parallel to grain) 99.1 MPa Hardness (tangential) 3366 N Working Poor Fair Good Excellent Properties Sawing A versatile timber that is easy Planing to machine, plane, turn, glue Drilling and bore. It dries easily with minimal movement in Boring performance and has little Turning tendency to split when Carving nailed. It takes and holds paint, enamel and stain Moulding exceptionally well. Nailing Screwing Gluing Finishing 18
  • 21. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:50 Page 19 Sound Absorption Coefficients at frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0.03 0.08 0.13 0.11 0.12 0.15 0.14 0.17 0.21 0.27 Durability Non-resistant to decay, heartwood is moderately resistant to preservative treatment, sapwood is permeable. The absorptive properties of tulipwood means that it is potentially ideal for preservative treatment. Suitability for End End use application Suitability Uses Tool handles Light construction, furniture, interior Joinery furniture joinery, kitchen cabinets, doors, Doors shutters panelling, mouldings, edged-glued Sports goods panels, plywood (USA), turning and carving. Kitchen cabinets Panelling Heavy duty block flooring Parquet flooring Strip or plank flooring 19
  • 22. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:50 Page 20 American black walnut Juglans nigra Other names: Black walnut, American walnut Distribution Availability Throughout eastern USA, but principal commercial region is the central United States. One of the few American species planted as well as naturally regenerated. Reasonable availability in both lumber and veneer. General Description The sapwood of walnut is creamy white, while the heartwood is light brown to dark chocolate brown, occasionally with a purplish cast and darker streaks. Walnut can be supplied steamed, to darken sapwood or left unsteamed. The wood is generally straight grained, but sometimes with wavy or curly grain that produces an attractive and decorative figure. The dark heartwood will lighten in colour as it ages with exposure to light. Physical Mechanical Properties Walnut is a tough hard timber of medium density, with moderate bending and crushing strengths and low stiffness. It has a good steam bending classification. Specific gravity (12% MC) 0.53 Average weight (8-10% MC) 569 Kg/m3 Average volumetric shrinkage 3.89% Modulus of Rupture 111.45 MPa Modulus of Elasticity 11508 MPa Compressive strength (parallel to grain) 53.8 MPa Tensile strength (parallel to grain) 101.6 MPa Hardness (tangential) 3283 N Working Poor Fair Good Excellent Properties Sawing Walnut works easily with Planing hand and machine tools, and Drilling nails, screws and glues well. It holds paint and stain very Boring well and can be polished to Turning an exceptional finish. It dries Carving slowly, and care is needed to avoid kilning degrade. Moulding Walnut has good Nailing dimensional stability. Screwing Gluing Finishing 20
  • 23. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:50 Page 21 Sound Absorption Coefficients at frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 Durability Rated as very resistant to heartwood decay, it is one of the most durable woods even under conditions favourable to decay. Sapwood liable to attack by powder post beetles. Suitability for End End use application Suitability Uses Tool handles Furniture, cabinet making, Joinery furniture architectural interiors, high class Doors shutters joinery, doors, flooring, and Sports goods panelling. A favoured wood for using in contrast with lighter coloured Kitchen cabinets timbers. Panelling Heavy duty block flooring Parquet flooring Strip or plank flooring 21
  • 24. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 26/1/09 06:14 Page 22 Comparative tables For comparison, the physical, mechanical, working and sound absorption properties of the nine tested species are shown in the following tables: Physical mechanical properties Hard Soft Red White Alder Ash Cherry maple maple oak oak Tulipwood Walnut Specific gravity (12% MC) 0.52 0.62 0.48 0.65 0.55 0.66 0.59 0.53 0.53 Average weight (8-10% MC), Kg/m3 557 672 521 700 599 730 634 547 569 Average volumetric shrinkage, % 4.91 4.62 3.57 4.20 3.71 5.2 3.55 4.31 3.89 Modulus of Rupture, MPa 75.81 121.55 85.73 111.58 102.64 101.65 114.47 97.67 111.45 Modulus of Elasticity, MPa 9477 12169 8848 11111 9883 10808 10582 11226 11508 Compressive strength, MPa (parallel to grain) 62.4 67.3 55.6 64.8 53.9 58.8 54.1 51.7 53.8 Tensile strength, MPa (parallel to grain) 71.0 152.9 71.5 124.8 111.3 139.03 108.4 99.1 101.6 Hardness (tangential), N 2816 6388 3073 7002 5250 5845 5660 3366 3283 Working properties Hard Soft White Alder Ash Cherry maple maple Red oak oak Tulipwood Walnut Sawing Good Fair Good Excellent Excellent Good Good Good Fair Planing Good Fair Excellent Good Excellent Excellent Good Good Good Drilling Good Fair Excellent Good Good Excellent Excellent Good Good Boring Good Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Good Good Good Fair Turning Excellent Excellent Good Excellent Good Good Good Fair Excellent Carving Good Good Excellent Good Good Good Good Good Good Moulding Good Good Excellent Good Good Good Good Good Good Nailing Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good Screwing Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good Gluing Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Finishing Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent 22
  • 25. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 26/1/09 10:19 Page 23 Sound absorption properties Coefficients at frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Alder 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.10 0.12 Ash 0.01 0.04 0.09 0.11 0.09 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.13 0.16 Cherry 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.10 0.13 Hard maple 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.13 Soft maple 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.11 Red oak 0.01 0.03 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.12 0.15 White oak 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.11 Tulipwood 0.03 0.08 0.13 0.11 0.12 0.15 0.14 0.17 0.21 0.27 Walnut 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 Summary Based upon the tests carried out by IPIRTI, the suitability of the nine American hardwood species for various end use applications is as follows: Heavy Strip or Tool Joinery Doors Sports Kitchen duty block Parquet Plank Species handles furniture shutters goods cabinets Panelling flooring flooring flooring Alder Ash Cherry Hard maple Soft maple Red oak White oak Tulipwood Walnut 23
  • 26. 63345_AHEC_Brochure:63345_AHEC_Brochure 22/1/09 19:50 Page 24 Glossary of terms Checks: Longitudinal separation of the fibres in Values for the individual species are wood that do not go through the given in megapascals (MPa -equivalent whole cross section. Checks result to N/mm2), and are based on testing from tension stresses during the small clear pieces of dry wood. drying process. Modulus of The equivalent fibre stress at Compressive The ability to resist a force tending Rupture: maximum load. A constant used in Strength: to shorten a structural member by structural design and obtained by crushing the fibres longitudinally. loading pieces of wood to destruction. Decay: The decomposition of wood Moisture The weight of water contained in substance by fungi (other terms: rot, Content (MC): wood expressed as a percentage of dote) the weight of the oven dry wood. Density: Weight per unit volume. Density of Pith Flecks: Pith-like irregular discoloured streaks wood is influenced by rate of growth, of tissue in wood, due to insect attack percentage of late wood and in on the growing tree. individual pieces, the proportion of the Sapwood: The outer zone of wood in a tree, next heartwood. to the bark. Sapwood is generally Durability: The resistance of wood to attack by lighter than heartwood, and lacks decay fungi, insects and marine resistance to decay. borers. Shrinkage: The contraction of wood fibres caused Dimensional A term that describes whether a by drying below the fibre saturation Stability: section of wood will resist changes in point (usually around 25- 27% MC). volume with variation in moisture Valves are expressed as a percentage content (other term: movement in of the dimension of the wood when performance). green. Figure: The pattern produced in a wood Specific The relative weight of a substance surface by annual growth rings, rays, Gravity: compared with that of an equal knots, deviations from regular grain, volume of water. S.G. values given are such as interlocked and wavy, and based on wood volume at 12% M.C. irregular colouration. and oven dry weight. Grain: The direction, size, arrangement, Split: Separation of the fibres in a piece of appearance, or quality of the fibres in wood from face to face (other term: sawn wood. Straight grain is used to end-split). describe lumber where the fibres and Stain: A variation from the natural colourof other longitudinal elements run parallel the wood or a discolouration that may to the axis of the piece. be caused by microorganisms, metal Gum Pocket: An excessive local accumulation of or chemicals. The term also applies to resin or gum in the wood. materials used to impart colour to Hardness: The resistance of the wood against wood. indentation and abrasion. Values are Tensile The ability to resist a force acting on given in Newtons (N) and are a Strength: a member and tending to lengthen the measure of the load required to member or pull the fibres apart embed a 11.3mm ball to one half its lengthwise. diameter in the wood. Texture: Determined by relative size and Hardwood: A description applied to woods from distribution of the wood elements. deciduous and evergreen broad- Described as coarse (large elements), leaved trees (Angiosperms). The term fine (small elementor even (uniform has no reference to the actual size of elements). hardness of the wood. Warp: Distortion in lumber causing departure Heartwood: The inner layers of wood in growing from its original plane, usually trees that have ceased to contain developed during drying. Warp living cells. Heartwood is generally includes cup, bow, crook and twist. darker than sapwood, but the two are Weight: The weight of dry wood depends upon not always clearly differentiated. the cellular space, ie the proportion of Modulus of An imaginary stress necessary to wood substance to air space. Values Elasticity: stretch a piece of material to twice its are given for each species in kg/m3 at length or compress it to half its length. 12% MC. 24
  • 27. Contacts further information American hardwood American Hardwood Export Council - The American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC) is the just keeps on growing and growing…and growing. As the world faces up to environmental Europe, Middle East India 3 St Michael’s Alley leading international trade association of the US hardwood industry, representing the committed change, with sustainability the watchword London exporters of US hardwood companies and all the major for natural materials, the good news is that EC3V 9DS US hardwood product trade associations. AHEC’s the net volume of hardwood growing policy is to develop worldwide markets for all species United Kingdom stock in the USA has increased from Tel: +44 20 7626 4111 and thereby balance exports with what is growing in 184,090 million cubic feet in 1953 to just under 400,000 million cubic feet in 2007.* Fax: +44 20 7626 4222 the forest, now and in the future. www.ahec-india.org Against this backdrop, AHEC - the global For further detailed technical information on American promotion and marketing campaign for hardwood species, products, grading applications, American hardwoods - commissioned a please visit www.ahec-india.org, where you can also major independent research study on the order free hard copies of the following publications: risk of illegal wood entering the supply chain for American hardwood products. A crucial step in AHEC’s determination to set high standards of transparency in the international wood trade, the study is expected to set the standard for other HA areas of the world which are working REF RDWO towards verified and legal standards for ERE OD their own resource. NCE STRUCTURAL DESIGN IN S With the forests continuing to grow and AMERICAN HARDWOODS HARDWOOD REFERENCES the new research study confirming once and for all, the USA is a low risk supplier of hardwood, AHEC is working towards more research initiatives, particularly Indian Plywood Industries The Indian Plywood Industries Research Training related to sustainability, to reinforce its Research Training Institute Institute (IPIRTI) is an autonomous body under the position as one of the key, reliable, P.B. #-2273 Ministry of Environment Forest, Government of India. long-term suppliers of hardwood to the Tumkur road The Institute, which was started as a co-operative world. Yeshwanthpur research association of the plywood Industry and the *Resource Planning Act Assessment 2007 Bangalore-560022 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Karnataka 1962, has evolved into a dynamic and creative The research study (An Assessment India organisation dedicated to developing new of Lawful Harvesting and Sustain- environmentally friendly technologies for the wood Tel: +91 80 2839 4341 ability of US Hardwood Exports) Fax: +91 80 2839 6361 based industry. It is an internationally recognised centre can be viewed by visiting www.ipirti.gov.in of expertise, with an exhaustive source of data and www.ahec-india.org information in the area of wood science and technology, with particular reference to wood based panels. Photograph Acknowledgements Front cover Ian MacDonald • Contents John Aparicio (B) • Foreword Ian MacDonald • Page 4 Northwest Hardwoods (T) • Page 5 Northwest Hardwoods • Page 6 Courtesy of UK Wood Awards (B) • Page 7 John Aparicio (L) Dennis Gilbert (R) • Page 9 Courtesy of UK Wood Awards (R) • Page 14 Ian MacDonald (T) Dennis Gilbert (B) • Page 15 RIVA 1920 (L) • Page 16 Richard Davies (T B) • Page 17 Salamanca Consortium (L) • Page 18 Warren Corporation Photography (T) Johnny Boylan (B) • Page 19 Courtesy of UK Wood Awards (L R) • Page 20 RIVA 1920 (T) Courtesy of UK Wood Awards (B) • Page 21 Courtesy of UK Wood Awards (L) • Page 23 Courtesy of UK Wood Awards, John Marshall, Dennis Gilbert, Ali Parquet (L to R) (B) = bottom; (T) = top; (L) = left; (R) = right63345_AHEC_Cover_Spread.indd 2 22/01/2009 19:52
  • 28. American hardwoods and their suitability for the Indian market A joint publication by the American Hardwood Export Council and the Indian Plywood Industries Research Training Institute63345_AHEC_Cover_Spread.indd 1 22/01/2009 19:51

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