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APPLICATIONS OF MICRO CHP IN HOSPITALS
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APPLICATIONS OF MICRO CHP IN HOSPITALS

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  • 1. APPLICATIONS OF MICRO CHP IN HOSPITALS Harshad Suresh Desai, NITC Gopalakrishnan VC, NITC
  • 2. INTRODUCTON
  • 3. A WhisperGen micro CHP UNIT
  • 4. What is CHP?
    • CHP stands for Combined Heat and Power. Also called Co-generation
    • It is the efficient use of fuel for energy conversions into Heat and Electric Power
    • A CHP plant generates heat and electricity simultaneously
  • 5.
    • CHP plants reach efficiencies of almost 90%
    • Using CHP means using less amount of fuel for same amount of energy
    • It is economic, environmental friendly and easy to operate
  • 6. Central Power Generation compared with CHP plant Source: Climate Energy, Massachusetts, USA www.climate-energy.com
  • 7. CHP CLASSIFICATION
  • 8. CHP UNITS are classified on the basis of operating parameter driven operation CHP UNITS INDUSTRIAL CHP PLANTS eg: in sugar factory MICRO/MINI CHP PLANTS eg: in residential areas
  • 9.
    • CHP units in Industries are driven by electrical demand with heat as by product used for heating purposes.
    • Industrial CHP units rated in MW electrical.
    • Paper, food processing, sugar, fertilizers and chemical industries usually have CHP installations.
  • 10.
    • Micro CHP is replacing a conventional boiler for heating purposes of a hospital or residential area.
    • These are thermal led meaning heat is the primary output with electricity as useful byproduct.
    • Hence these are rated in Thermal kW.
  • 11. ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS IN HOSPITALS
  • 12.
    • Hospitals are critical loads in terms of heat as well as power.
    • Continuous electricity is required for all sensitive medical devices.
    • To avoid outages hospitals are provided power directly from sub-stations.
    • Some hospitals have their own Diesel-Generator Sets, Photovoltaic Panels etc for continuous power supply.
  • 13.
    • Thermal energy is used for sterilization, steam supply and hot water purposes.
    • Most of the hospitals generate heat using conventional boilers.
    • These boilers burn fuels like coal, natural gas, diesel and the like.
    • With the rising climate concerns many hospitals have now shifted to Solar Panels for heat generation as well.
  • 14.
    • When hospitals derive energy from two separate sources the transmission losses incurred are more.
    • Hospitals must minimize these losses to concentrate on their prime motive of patient care.
    • Thus in case of hospitals which have energy demand for all the 24 hours, CHP unit is the best possible solution.
  • 15. COMPONENTS OF CHP Source: Creative Environment Networks Website( www.cen.org.uk)
  • 16.
    • Prime Movers can be IC Engines, Stirling Engines, Rankine Cycles or Fuel Cells.
    • IC Engines though cheap have limitations.
    • Stirling Engines are the most popular ones.
    • Rankine cycles are used in power plants. Organic Rankine cycles are being developed as CHP prime movers.
    • Fuel cells have high initial costs.
  • 17.
    • Natural gas is the most preferred fuel for micro CHP.
    • It is easily available, burns cleanly and is easy to transport.
    • However, economists believe extensive use may increase cost.
    • Other fuels include coal, diesel, biofuels and heavy oils.
  • 18.
    • Generators are rated on the basis of peak electrical and thermal demand.
    • Heat recovery system extracts heat from engine cooling systems and waste gases.
    • An automated control system is essential for the ease of operation of micro CHP in hospitals.
  • 19. BENEFITS OF CHP IN HOSPITALS
  • 20.
    • A micro CHP unit operates most efficiently when delivering energy continuously.
    • Hospitals are perfect examples of continuous energy requirement.
    • Economic benefits include:
    • 1. Direct savings due to lower transmission
    • and distribution losses.
    • 2. Generation of income through export to utility.
    • 3. Hospitals can avail carbon offsets.
  • 21.
    • Savings can be allocated as funds for patient care.
    • CHP installation increases the reliability of continuous energy supply to the critical medical devices.
    • Electricity derived from CHP is carbon free and hence is environment friendly.
  • 22. INSTALLATION OF CHP IN HOSPITALS
  • 23.
    • The hospitals must implement all other energy efficiency measures before going for CHP.
    • Cost of CHP unit is inversely proportional to its size.
    • Before installation the hospital must have a feasibility study.
    • The study includes annual profile of electricity and heat demand, the hospital size, distribution type, the present heat and electricity tariffs and finance available.
  • 24.
    • The study should also determine the potential benefits of the installation and an initial low-cost appraisal must be performed.
    • An off site metering and control system is best suited for the hospital.
    • An Energy Services firm may be hired for the detailed study as well as the implementation and off site control.
    • This way hospitals worry only about the cost to the firm.
  • 25. SOME DRAWBACKS AND SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS
  • 26.
    • Installation of many CHP units may cause potential damage to the grid.
    • A proper control system would ensure the export synchronization and hence decreasing the unpredictable nature.
    • Energy trading (Net Metering) may not always be beneficial to the producer.
    • Developing newer trading practices is a possible solution.
  • 27.
    • An increase in CHP units may result in price instability of fuels like natural gas.
    • To avoid such situations it is important to have R&D in multi fuel engines i.e. engines which may run on other fuels like bio-fuels, fuel cell technologies.
  • 28. CONCLUSION
  • 29.
    • The Governments throughout the world are striving for energy security.
    • The Government of India through the Electricity Act 2003 emphasizes the need of deregulated power sector.
    • Hospitals demand continuous high power along with heat.
    • CHP installations in hospitals may be one of the possible solutions to meet deregulation in the generating sector.
  • 30.
    • A CHP installation is reliable, ecologically sound and provides sustained reductions in energy costs.
    • It is important to have a feasibility study before sizing a CHP unit in the hospital.
    • Once installed their maintenance is to be ensured as savings are lost every minute the unit is not in operation.
  • 31. A Tecogen CHP Unit
  • 32. REFERENCES
    • 1. Jeremy Harrison 'MICRO COMBINED HEAT & POWER (CHP) FOR HOUSING', 3rd International conference on sustainable energy technologies,Nottingham,UK,June 2004.
    • 2. Good Practice Guides, Combined Heat and Power in Hospitals.
    • 3. Climate Energy website (HTTP ://www.climate-energy.com )
    • 4. Bob Olmstead, 'Mini Package CHP in the Manufacturing Process', Aegis Energy Services, Inc
    • 5. R.Jablko, C.Saniter & R.Hanitsch, S.Holler, 'Technical and Economic Comparisons of Micro CHP Systems', Germany.
    • 6. Cogeneration Association of India website (HTTP :// www.cogenindia.org )
    • 7. Cogen Europe website (HTTP :// www.cogen.org )
    • 8. Wikipedia website (HTTP :// www.wikipedia.org )
    • 9. T.K.Nagsarkar, M.S.Sukhija, 'Power System Analysis' , Oxford University Press
    • 10. Ted Bronson, 'Combined Cooling,Heating and Power Technologies (CHP): An Overview ', Combined Heat And Power Symposium, February 2003
    • 11. HTTP :// envocare.co.uk
    • 12.Creative Environment Networks, (CEN) website (HTTP :// www.cen.org.uk/chp/technology )
  • 33. THANK YOU

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