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Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
Karma In A  Nutshell
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Karma In A Nutshell

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Karma theory. Why & what role karma plays in our life.

Karma theory. Why & what role karma plays in our life.

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  • Fructify = To make fruitful or productive.
  • All our karmic credits and debits get stored with one's soul for eternity, Credits & debits of karma can not be fulfilled in one life time. In each life time soul attains and exhausts a certain amount of karmas.
  • Apple always falls down. Law of nature.
  • Credits & debits of karma can not be fulfilled in one life time. All our karmic credits and debits get stored with one's soul for eternity In each life time soul attains and exhausts a certain amount of karmas.
  • There are four divisions of Pudgal (matter):1) Skandha (whole-mass): Any object which is a mass of matter can be called skandha , stick, stone, knife, a particle of sand, 2) Skandha-desa (portion of mass): Desa means a part, portion, or division. When a part of the skandha (skandha-desa) is separated from the whole, it also becomes another skandha . 3) Skandha-pradesa (smallest particle of matter): The smallest undetached portion of skandha , which cannot be further divided is called skandha-pradesa . 4) Paramänu (atom): When the smallest portion of the matter is separated from its skandha , it is called paramanu. Parmänu cannot be further sub-divided, cut, or pierced.
  • 1) Physical (audarik) 2) Transformatory (vaikriya) 3) Rranslocational (aharik) 4) Electric (taijas) 5) Sound (bhasha) 6) Respiratory (shvasoshvas) 7) Mental (man) 8) Karman vargana
  • Attraction is similar to magnet attracting iron dust.
  • It is the karmic matter (pollutant, dirt) that keeps the soul away from realization of its true nature or liberation.
  • On the surface, karma appears to be more powerful. However, if we look inward, we perceive the will and determination of soul. A piece of iron seems to be tougher than water, but water causes iron to rust and eventually the piece of iron falls apart and it is reduced to dust. By adopting rational perception, rational knowledge and rational conduct, a worldly being indulges in practices such as penance, renunciation and self-restraint, and eventually removes all karmic blemish. This is a real triumph, the victory of soul over karma. A rational worldly soul succeeds in overcoming karmas through self-endeavor.
  • essential nature of a thing = interstice
  • Lamp draws up oil through the wick and through the instrumentalily of its own heat makes this oil undergo transformation of the form of flame, so does a Jiva through the instrumentality of its mental perturbances of the form of Kashaya receive into itself the appropriate physical particles and make transformation of the form of Karma
  • The human genome has about 3 billion base pairs and about 30,000-35,000 active genes.Science has determined about 10,000 As per Biologists there are one hundred-trillion cells in the body. As per jain religion karman particles are so small that one space-point contains infinity raised to the power of infinity.
  • Nature of the Advil is to relive muscle pain, dental pain, migraine, sinus & cold, allergy relief
  • The only real valuable thing is intuition. Apprehension = a slight or superficial understanding of a subject Intuition is the supra-logic that cuts out all the routine processes of thought and leaps straight from the problem to the answer.» All great men are gifted with intuition. They know without reasoning or analysis, what they need to know. The ability to apprehend or understand; understanding.
  • Delude=deceive the mind or judgment Worst enemy of the Soul.
  • Delude=deceive the mind or judgment, Kashaya = toxic emotion 1 tree makes 1 Lakh matchsticks. But 1 matchstick can burn 1 Lakh trees. Similarly 1 negative thought or doubt  can burn thousands of dreams
  • Quantity of Advil to relive the pain can be 1, 2, 3 or 4 pill per day. I t can be 2 pill three times a day, depending on the pain.
  • Duration of lasting effect of Advil (pain). For temporary pain, one pill may have effect for 24 hrs. For severe pain, may have to take Advil every day, 2 times or 3 times.
  • Intensity or strength could be 200, 400 or 600 mg.
  • Sithil (Loose) = Low grade fever 100 Gadha (Tight) = Mild fever 102
  • Sithil (Loose) = Low grade fever 100 Gadha (Tight) = Mild fever 102
  • Nidhatta (Tighter) = high fever 105 Nikachit (tightest) = above 105
  • Nidhatta (Tighter) = high fever 105 Nikachit (tightest) = above 105
  • Nidhatta (Tighter) = high fever 105 nature of mosquito is to bite & cause malaria. Nikachit (tightest) = above 105
  • Abhigrähik Mithyätva (Absolutist or Fanatic false faith), 2) Abhiniveshik Mithyätva (Perverse or Prejudicial faith) 3) Samshayik Mithyätva (Skepticism): 4) Anabhigrahik Mithyätva (Egalitarian - Faith in false dharma): 5) Anabhogik Mithyätva (Agnostic, Total ignorance, Lack of Knowledge):
  • Mahavir Swami was continually meditating and observing severe austerities. In that process he went without food for days together. He had vowed that he would accept food only if soaked black peas were offered to him from a winnow, by a princess, in chains, with shaved head, who had fasted for three days and who had tears flowing from her eyes. How all these conditions can be operative in one single case ?
  • Based on the austerities for one year performed by the first tirthankar Rishabdev, people do varshi - tapa (austerities for one year) in which one day of fasting is followed by one day of eating. Fasting is the first type of nirjarä for shedding the karmas. Fasting is worth doing it and is an adorable act of nirjarä. Fasting is seen to be practiced intensively around the paryushana days.
  • Normal 97-99
  • such as pleasant-feeling-producing (SAATA vedaniya) karma can be converted into unpleasant-feeling-producing (ASAATA VEDANEEYA) karma and vice versa. It should be noted that one kind (for example, knowledge-obscuring) of karma can not be converted into another kind (for example, obstructing) of karma. NM has this power
  • such as pleasant-feeling-producing (Shaata vedaniya) karma can be converted into unpleasant-feeling-producing (ASHAATA VEDANEEYA) karma and vice versa. It should be noted that one kind (for example, knowledge-obscuring) of karma can not be converted into another kind (for example, obstructing) of karma. NM has this power, if you recite without any kashaya.
  • When alum is added to muddy water, mud settles down to the bottom and water on the top looks clear, until someone may shake the water This settling down is called upsham.
  • Karmas in this state neither become operative prematurely, nor transformed into those of another class. However, they can suffer intensification or diminution.
  • Once the Vasudev was enjoying a musical concert in his assembly. When his eyelids became heavy with slumber he instructed his bed attendant, "When I am asleep stop the program?“After a few minutes Triprishtha closed his eyes and went to sleep. Everyone present was engrossed in the lilting music. The concert went on throughout the night. Suddenly Vasudev was awake. He shouted angrily at the attendant, "Everyone was lost in the intoxicating waves of the melodious music.
  • The negligence in following his instructions added fuel to the fire of Triprishtha’s anger. Directing all his anger on the negligent aide, he said, "Pour molten lead in the ears of this music buff. Let him realize the consequences of ignoring the instructions of his master for the sake of his live for music." Vasudev’s order was carried out. Writhing with extreme and intolerable agony the bed attendant died on the spot.
  • Vasudev, was reborn in the seventh hell . In his 19 incarnation In his 21 incarnation he became a lion ; in the 22 he again went to the fourth hell
  • This mahan pap destined him for the seventh narak, his aim was so good, it was hard to see, but he still killed it,
  • After crime is committed, there is investigation, then he or she charged with crime, there will be court hearing after some time, selection of Jury, hearing in the court room, verdict and sentencing, this is all Abadhakaal.
  • Lord Mahavir had renunciated this world in 629 B.C. He acepted sanyama to attain self-realisation. Lord Mahavir knew that there is a bondage, stronger than that of strong silk ropes or that of strong steel ropes. He knew that there is particular bandage stronger than that of body. He therefore gave away the love for body. He carefully deployed the passions to inner realization. He asked his monkey – like mind to be involved in religions activities.
  • Lord Mahavir had renunciated this world in 629 B.C. He acepted sanyama to attain self-realisation. Lord Mahavir knew that there is a bondage, stronger than that of strong silk ropes or that of strong steel ropes. He knew that there is particular bandage stronger than that of body. He therefore gave away the love for body. He carefully deployed the passions to inner realization. He asked his monkey – like mind to be involved in religions activities.
  • In order to destroy the karmas, he himself went to the land of uncivilised people. He willingly and happily, bore all the anger, abuses, attacks done by ignorant people and stood against the battalion of all kinds of attacks. He never refused to face all the 22 kinds of endurance with equanimity. large banyan tree, started night meditation, Gaushalak was also following him
  • a temple surrounded by scattered heaps of bones and skeletons. Considering it to be an appropriate place for his practices, Mahavir sought permission from the villagers. The villagers informed The ferocious lance wielding demon, Shulpani Yaksha, who dances and laughs on heaps of bones, had turned this Vardhaman village into Asthik-gram, the village of bones. ghost who attacked him with claws, black serpent that attacked Mahavir with and toxic breath, elephant who tossed him around,
  • Even from a distance the Chand kaushik, serpent can burn a man to ashes by casting a mere look at him, flying bird can die ‘‘I surrender this body for the sake of my soul. This body is not mine. I shall bear all the pangs of suffering by being immersed in the soul’’.  
  • One would wonder, how a man made of bodily limbs can endure all these? These are two possible answers to this questions. (1) his height of knowledge was at the peak. He was deeply engrossed in the stream of meditation. His consciousness was very very powerful. In fact he was not living at the leyer of bodily life. (2) he had adopted a view of being harsh to his own self but being subtly soft to all other beings. He therefore had not to make any conscious efforts to endure all such sufferings. This came to him so naturally; After 4 months fast was broken
  • One would wonder, how a man made of bodily limbs can endure all these? These are two possible answers to this questions. (1) his height of knowledge was at the peak. He was deeply engrossed in the stream of meditation. His consciousness was very very powerful. In fact he was not living at the leyer of bodily life. (2) he had adopted a view of being harsh to his own self but being subtly soft to all other beings. He therefore had not to make any conscious efforts to endure all such sufferings. This came to him so naturally; After 4 months fast was broken
  • Transcript

    • 1. It is your Karma. Please do not blame anybody for your karma and its effects.
    • 2. Jai Jinendra
    • 3. Karma, the cosmic scorecard. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The karma theory is the scorecard of Our life, thoughts, and actions . We and only we, are the reason for our suffering or happiness. You reap what you sow and neither God nor anyone else can make this happen or change.
    • 4. Karma, the cosmic scorecard (1). Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” A person’s quality of life can be any combination of following conditions: rich, poor, justice, injustice, happy, sad, strong, weak, lucky, unlucky, prosperity, adversity, fat, thin, hungry, well-fed, loved, hated, sheltered homeless, AIDS, cancer, equalities, inequalities, and many more joyful & miserable conditions.
    • 5. Karma, the cosmic scorecard (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Karma is the root cause of these conditions of life. Karma is the sum of a person's actions, is regarded as creating that person's present & future states of existence & is the settling of past dues. We (our karma) and only we are the reason for our fortunes or misfortunes.
    • 6. Karma, the cosmic scorecard (3) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” This suffering or happiness, fortune or misfortune can be explained by the theory of Karma. Therefore, it is very important that we understand karma’s process clearly.
    • 7. Karma, the cosmic scorecard (4) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The Karma theory also explains what karmas are, why and what role karmas play in our life (with the soul), and how we accumulate different kinds of karmas as well as how we get rid of them.
    • 8. What is Karma ? Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Karma in Sanskrit is called kär'ma. Karma in Prakrit is called kä'mma. The Root word of Karma is Kri meaning “to do“ According to the Jain religion, Karma means actions, thoughts, deeds, conduct & destiny.
    • 9. What is Karma? (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The word karma is commonly understood to mean "action," but implies both action & reaction or cause & effect. Every cause is bound to have its corresponding effect, which governs all lives. If we sow goodness, we will reap goodness; if we sow evil, we will reap evil.
    • 10. What is Karma? (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” One bears the consequences of his own deeds which are controlled by his passion (kashaya, toxic emotion) & action of mind, body and speech. Karma is any act performed directly or done through someone else through action, thought, or speech either passively or actively.
    • 11. What is Karma? (3) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Nothing can intervene between our actions and the fruits thereof. Once done, they become our masters and must fructify .
    • 12. What is Karma ? (4) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Karma is the reason why the soul is trapped in the cycle of birth and death. The souls bound by karma go round and round in the cycle of existence. Actions and emotions in the current lifetime effect future incarnations depending on the nature of the particular karma.
    • 13. Law of Karma Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Karma is the natural, moral & ethical law of the universe in which every good and bad action has a corresponding effect on the doer. The law of Karma is self-regulating without any need of an external entity to manage them.
    • 14. Law of Karma (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” No God, prophet, or deputy of a higher power can interfere with the law of karma. The soul alone is responsible for all it does & maker of its fortunes or misfortunes . Karma is the divine judge & jury of the world at the individual level.
    • 15. Law of Karma (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Karma is a law, like the law of gravity. It is an invisible law of the universe. Karma is a law of credit & debit for this life and beyond . Until credit & debit is brought to zero, the soul can not attain Moksha or liberation.
    • 16. What is Karman Vargana ? Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Karmas are derivatives of karman particles . The Karman particles are made up of the non-living matter (pudgals). They are scattered and floating all over the universe (Lok). They cannot be perceived by the senses or by measurements.
    • 17. What is Karman Vargana? (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” They are most subtle (sookshama) particles and we are neither able to see them with our eyes or with the regular microscope. They are so small that one space-point (smallest possible extent of space) contains infinity raised to the power of infinity karmic particles.
    • 18. What is Karman Vargana? (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” A cluster (skandha) of such innumerable karman particles is called a karman vargana (dravya karma) . The karman vargana is one of the eight kinds of pudgal varganas.
    • 19. Bondage of Karma Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” When these karman varganas get attached to the soul they are called karmas. When the soul acts with a kashaya (bhava karma) like anger, greed, ego or deceit , it attracts these karman varganas to itself.
    • 20. Bondage of Karma (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Karma is stored in our Karma body called Karma Shareer , which our soul (jiva) is occupying. This process is called the bondage (bandha) of karmas to the soul . Bondage or interpenetration, of the karmic particles to the soul is called bandha (bandh tattva).
    • 21. Karman particles floating in universe Karma Karma Shareer
    • 22. Bondage of Karma (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Thus the karmas are the subtle matter surrounding the consciousness of a soul. When these two components i.e. conscience and karma interact we experience life as we know it at present.
    • 23. Dravya & Bhava Karma Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Karman Vargana attached to the soul are the Dravya Karma (Material Karma). The Yoga and the four passions (which lead to bondage) are the Bhava Karma. The Bhava Karma being activities of the soul are spiritual in character while Dravya Karma being part of matter are material in character.
    • 24. Dravya & Bhava Karma (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The Dravya and Bhava Karma are mutually related as each other's counterparts (cause and effect). The Bhava Karma attract Dravya Karma (Karma pudgal) and bind them to the soul, while the latter cause vibration in the soul leading to further Yoga and Kashaya or further Bhava Karma.
    • 25. True nature of the soul Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The true nature of the soul is intrinsically pure in its inherent and ideal state, possessing the qualities of: infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite bliss & infinite energy. These qualities are found to be defiled and obstructed, on account of the association (or covered) with karma. When all karmas are dissolved the soul attains liberation.
    • 26. True nature of the soul (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The karma-tainted soul is like gold ore. The soul when liberated is like pure gold.
    • 27. Supremacy of the soul over Karma Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Karma creates an environment for the soul to make his effect present, but the soul always has supremacy over Karma. The proper efforts (purushārth) of the soul can dissolve or destroy any affects of Karma. Karma plays its role but never effects the Soul. The soul is the ruler of the soul.
    • 28. Karma is science Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Karma is a metaphysical science. According to modern science all natural phenomena occur because of the intrinsic attributes of the substances like matter, energy and life process.
    • 29. Karma is science (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The theory of karma may be considered as the interactions between the soul and karman particles that occur due to the thought activities of a living being. Each person’s karma is unique, just like his fingerprint.
    • 30. Karma is science (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Water from rivers, lakes, and oceans is evaporated by the rays of the Sun and the water vapor rises, clouds are formed and it rains. This rain results from the interaction between water, solar energy, atmospheric particles, wind etc.
    • 31. Karma is science (3) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Such interaction occurs due to the intrinsic properties of matter and energy, like karmic material particles and the soul, which is karma .
    • 32. Karma verses Gene Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Is it possible that genes carry not only the traits of their parents (heredity) but also the karmas of the lives before them ? Are karmas (subtle body) the cause and the genes (gross body) their effect (fruits) ?
    • 33. Karma verses Gene (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Do karmas play a role in the physical body of the living organism with the help of genes ? Science tells us that the nature and behavior of a soul are determined by genes. On a single aggregate of a karma are written infinite scripts.
    • 34. Karma verses Gene (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The Jain religion tells us that a soul behaves according to the vibrations that come from the karma or karmic body, so we know that there is relation between Karma & genes . Can science unravel the mystery of Karma and it’s relation to genes ? May be one day !!!!!
    • 35. Characteristics of Karma Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” At the time of bondage (bandh tattva) of karmas to the soul, four characteristics of karmas are decided. They are: (1) Prakriti Bandha (Nature) (2) Pradesh Bandha (Quantity) (3) Sthiti Bandha (Duration) (4) Anubhava Bandha (Intensity)
    • 36. Characteristics of Karma (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The nature and quantity of karmas depends on the vigor of the activities or actions. The duration and intensity of karmas depend upon the intensity of the desires (kashaya, toxic emotion) behind the activities or actions.
    • 37. Prakriti, nature of bondage Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Prakriti bandha is classified into eight categories, according to the particular attributes of the soul that it obscures . Prakriti bandha obscures the essential nature of the soul: knowledge, vision, bliss, power, eternal existence, and equanimity.
    • 38. Prakriti, nature of bondage (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (1) Jnanavaraniya karma Knowledge-obscuring (2) Darshanavarniya karma Perception-obscuring (3) Antaraya Karma Power-obstructive (4) Mohaniya karma Belief & conduct deluding Eight categories of Prakriti bandha.
    • 39. Prakriti, nature of bondage (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (5) Vedaniya Karma Feeling-producing (6) Nama karma Physique-determining (7) Ayu karma Lifespan-determining (8) Gotra Karma Status-determining Eight categories of Prakriti bandha.
    • 40. Jnanavaraniya karma ( Prakriti bandha) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (1) Jnanavaraniya karma (Knowledge-Obscuring) Obscures the soul's attribute of knowledge sensory (mati), scriptural (shruta), clairvoyance (avadhi), telepathy (manahpraya), omniscience (keval).
    • 41. Darshanavarniya karma ( Prakriti bandha) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (2) Darshanavarniya-karma (perception-obscuring) Obscures the soul's attribute of: vision perception. (chakshu), non-vision perception (achakshu), transcendental intuition (avadhi) faculty of perfect intuition (keval) sleeping ability (Nindrani)
    • 42. Antaraya karma ( Prakriti bandha) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (3) Antaraya karma (power obstructive) Obscures the soul's attribute of: giving donations (dan antaraya), gaining prosperity (labh antaraya), enjoyment (bhog antaraya) re-enjoyment (upabhog antaraya) physical strength (virya antaraya)
    • 43. Mohaniya karma ( Prakriti bandha) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (4) Mohaniya karma (belief & conduct deluding) M ohaniya karma is sub-grouped into Darshan & Charitra (conduct) mohaniya karma. Darshan mohaniya karma deludes the jiva with: wrong belief (Mithyatva mohaniya) mixed belief (Mishra mohaniya), clouded right belief (Samkit mohaniya),
    • 44. Mohaniya karma 1 ( Prakriti bandha) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (4) Mohaniya karma (belief & conduct deluding) Chritrya mohaniya karma deludes the jiva with: Destructive passions (Kashaya mohaniya) Anger, ego, deceit &greed Auxiliary (quasi) passion (Nokashaya mohaniya) Laughter, liking/disliking, fear, disgust, sexual attraction for a female, male & both.
    • 45. Vedaniya karma ( Prakriti bandha) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (5) Vedaniya Karma (Feeling-producing) Vedaniya Karma produces feeling of pleasure & pain for Jiva. Feeling of pleasure (Shaata vedaniya) Feeling of pain (Ashaata vedaniya)
    • 46. Nama karma (Prakriti bandha) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (6) Nama karma Physique-determining Nama karma is responsible for assuming: auspicious or inauspicious body, good or bad appearance, complexion, physical limbs etc,
    • 47. Ayu karma ( Prakriti bandha) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (7) Ayu karma Lifespan-determining in one birth. Ayu karma determines jiva’s life span. There are four type of Ayu karma. Age of the hellish beings. (Nark ayu) Age of animal life. (Tiryanch ayu) Age of the human being. (Manushy ayu) Age of the celestial being (Dev ayu)
    • 48. Gotra karma ( Prakriti bandha) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (8) Gotra Karma Status & family determining. Gotra karma determines the status and social standing: Takes birth in rich & (Uchha gotra) respected family . Takes birth in poor & (Nicha gotra) un-respected family .
    • 49. Ghati & Aghati Karmas Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” These eight karmas are grouped into two categories Ghati Karmas (destructive) and Aghati Karmas (non-destructive). Ghati Karmas destroy the true nature of the soul. Aghati Karmas do not destroy the nature of the soul, but affect the body in which the soul resides.
    • 50. Ghati & Aghati karma (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The first four types of karmas are Ghati karmas , and last four are Aghati karmas . Different types of karmas thus affect the soul in different ways as per their nature.
    • 51. Pradesh (Quantity of bondage) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Pradesh is the quantity of karmic matter that is received and gets activated at the time of experience. If the physical vigor of our activities is slight, then we accumulate fewer karman particles.
    • 52. Pradesh (Quantity of bondage) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” If the physical vigor of our activities is strong, then we accumulate larger numbers of karman particles on our soul. The intensity of the soul's action determines the quantum of karma.
    • 53. Sthiti (Duration of bondage) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The duration of the karmic particles to be bonded with the soul is decided by the intensity of our emotions at the time of the activity. The milder the intensity, the shorter is the duration of the bondage of the karmas. The stronger the intensity, the longer is the duration of bondage.
    • 54. Sthiti 1 (Duration of bondage) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The karmic bond remains latent and bound to the consciousness up to the time it is activated. The time karmas stay bonded to the soul range from a fraction of a second to an innumerable number of years .
    • 55. Anubhava (Intensity of karma) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The intensity of karmas depends upon how intense our passions are at the time of our activities. The lesser the intensity of our passions, the less severe is the result of the bondage; the greater the intensity, the more severe the result of the bondage.
    • 56. Anubhava 1 (Intensity of karma) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” When karmas attach to the soul, there are four levels of bondage: 1. Sprusta or Sithil bandha (loose): Karmas can be easily shed by regret. Example: Like a loose knot of the string which can easily be untied or having low grade fever with 100 degree temperature, (normal body temperature is 98.6) which can be easily treated.
    • 57. Anubhava 2 (Intensity of karma) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” When karmas attach to the soul, there are four levels of bondage: 2. Baddha or Gadha bandha (Tight): Karmas can be shed by offering an apology. Example: Like a tight knot which needs some efforts to untie it or having a mild fever with 102 degree temperature.
    • 58. Anubhava 3 (Intensity of karma) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” When karmas attach to the soul, there are four levels of bondage: 3. Nidhatta bandha (Tighter): Karmas can shed by very strong efforts, like austerity (atonement, kindness etc). Example: Like a tighter knot which needs lots of efforts to untie it or having a high fever with 105 degree temperature.
    • 59. Anubhava 4 (Intensity of Karma) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” When karmas attach to the soul, there are four levels of bondage: 4. Nikachit bandha (Tightest): Karmas can only be shed by bearing the consequences. Example: Like a knot which could not be untied no matter how hard you work at it or having a very high fever with 106 degree temperature (can damage nervous system).
    • 60. Mosquito killing Karma bandha Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” A person is enjoying a summer afternoon in a beautiful park during mosquito season. He is annoyed and very angry because they are biting hard. He kills one mosquito by trapping in his hands, and takes pride in killing. His bondage of karma can be as per following: Nature: Ashaata vedaniya (pain) karma Duration: 10 yrs inactive + 4 days active Intensity: Malaria with 104 degree fever Quantity: 100K karman particle
    • 61. Causes of influx of karmas Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Following are the five causes for the influx of karmas (Äsrava tattva) to the Soul. (1) Wrong Belief (mithyatva) (2) Vowlessness (avirati) (3) Passions (kashayas) (4) Negligence (pramad) (5) Psychophysical activities (yoga)
    • 62. Causes of influx of karmas (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Mithyātva (False Belief, delusion) Lack of faith in the nine fundamentals (Nav tattvas) expounded by the Jinas. Perverse faith, fanatic false faith irrational skepticism, prejudicial faith ignorance, faith in false dharma. False belief is the greatest enemy of the soul.
    • 63. Causes of influx of karmas (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Avirati (Non-restraint life) Avirati means Vowlessness. Not to take any vows against commitment of sins is Avirati. Even though we may not commit sins, the absence of vows is a cause for the bondage of karma. The state of avirati can only be overcome by observing the vows of a layman .
    • 64. Causes of influx of karmas (3) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Pramāda (Indolence) Pramäd is mainly of five behaviors- arrogance, sensual cravings, passions (kashäyas), sleep and engaging in gossiping. Lack of enthusiasm towards acquiring merit and spiritual growth is Pramāda. Disrespect and dislike of religion, seeking pleasure in worldly objects and passions is Pramāda
    • 65. Causes of influx of karmas (4) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Kashāya (Destructive emotions) The four passions: are the primary reason for the attachment of the karmas to the soul. They keep the soul immersed in the darkness of delusion leading to deluded conduct and unending cycles of reincarnation. anger, pride, deceit & greed
    • 66. Causes of influx of karmas (5) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Yoga (Psychophysical Activity) Yoga means psychophysical activities. The thoughts, the words, and the physical activities of the jiva are called yogas. If these activities are meritorious, the soul gathers auspicious karmas, and if they are demeritorious, the soul gathers inauspicious karmas.
    • 67. What removes karma ? By austerities (tapa), jiva sheds the karmas. There are two types of Nirjarä: (1) Internal austerity Aabhyanter (mental) Mental austerity to purify the soul. (2) External austerity Bahya (physical) Physical austerity, discipline of the body against passion & desires. Following action of the soul will lead to removal (Nirjarä tattva) of past karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap”
    • 68. What removes karma (1) ? Internal austerity: Following action of the soul will lead to removal (Nirjarä tattva) of past karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (1) Präyaschhit Atonement, asks for forgiveness. (2) Vinay Humbleness, kindness, respect. (3) Vaiyävrutya Homage to worthy ones. (4) Svädhyäya Self-study of Scripture. (5) Dhyäna Meditation. (6) Vyutsarga Abandonment of passions, food etc.
    • 69. What removes karma (2) ? External austerity: Following action of the soul will lead to removal (Nirjarä tattva) of past karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (1) Anashana: Fasting, renouncing food, water. (2) Unodari Eat less than the normal diet. (3) Vruti-samkshep Limiting food items. (4) Ras-Parityäg Limiting tasty food. (5) Käyäklesha Physical Forbearance (6) Pratisamlinatä Controlling of Senses.
    • 70. What bonds inauspicious karma ? (1) Pranatipat: Violence, injure/kill any living being. (2) Mrushavad: Untruth, lies, fabrication, forgery. (3) Adattadan: Stealing, theft, swindle. (4) Maithuna: Unchastely, rape, assault, abduction. (5) Parigraha: Possessiveness, more than you need. (6) Crotha: Anger, makes life poisonous (kashäya). Following action of the soul will lead to bonding of inauspicious or evil (Päp tattva) karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap”
    • 71. What bonds inauspicious karma (1) ? (7) Maan: Ego. (kashäya). (8) Maya: Deceit, treachery, cheating (kashäya) (9) Lobha: Greed (kashäya). (10) Raga: Lust, attachment. (11) Dwesh: Hatred, aversion, malice, jealousy. (12) Kalaha: Quarrel, argument. Following action of the soul will lead to bonding of inauspicious or evil, (Päp tattva) karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap”
    • 72. What bonds inauspicious karma (2) ? (13) Abyakhan: Accusation, blame. (14) Paishunya: Gossip behind someone’s back. (15) Rati Arati: Excess joy & over sorrow. (16) Parparivad: Speak ill of others. (17) Maya Mrushavad: Deceive others. (18) Mithyatva shalya: False faith Following action of the soul will lead to bonding of inauspicious or evil (Päp tattva) karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap”
    • 73. What bonds auspicious karma ? (1) Anna-punya: Offering of food. (2) Pän-punya: Offering of water. (3) Layan-punya: Offering shelter. (4) Shayan-punya: Offering bed. Following action of the soul will lead to bonding of auspicious or merit (Punya tattva) karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap”
    • 74. What bonds auspicious karma (1) ? (5) Vastra-punya: Offering of clothes. (6) Man-punya: Auspicious mental activities. (7) Vachan-punya: Auspicious activities of speech. (8) Käy-punya: Auspicious physical services. (9) Namaskär-punya: Homage to punch-parmesthi. Following action of the soul will lead to bonding of auspicious or merit, (Punya tattva) karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap”
    • 75. What stops inflow of karma ? Following action of the soul will lead to stopping of inflow of (samvar tattva) of the fresh karma. Samvar is control of the passions ( kahsya ) and emergence of experience of bliss within the soul. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (1) Samiti: Carefulness (not to hurt any living beings). during, walking, traveling, speaking, disposing etc. (2) Gupti: Restraint , restriction of inauspicious activities of mind, speech and body, and to engage in the auspicious activities.
    • 76. What stops inflow of karma (1) ? Following action of the soul will lead to stopping of inflow of (samvar tattva) of karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (3) Yati-dharma: Forbearance, humility, absence of greed straightforwardness, truthfulness, self-restraint, penance, renunciation, non-ownership attitude, celibacy. (4) Bhävanäs: Mental reflections , cultivation of a very positive attitude, friendships with all living beings. Evolution of pure & deep reflection.
    • 77. What stops inflow of karma (1) ? Following action of the soul will lead to stopping of inflow of (samvar tattva) of karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (5) Parishahajaya: Acceptance of sufferings. Remaining in a state of serenity and equanimity in hardship. (6) Chäritra: Conduct. The endeavor to remain in a state of constant spiritual purity.
    • 78. Maturity of karma Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The consequences of karma are inevitable . Karma as moral action and reaction : goodness sown is reaped as goodness . The consequences may take some time to take effect but the karma is never fruitless.
    • 79. Maturity of karma (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Latent karma becomes active and bears fruit when supportive conditions arise. A great part of attracted karma bears its consequences with minor fleeting effects (passing quickly) , as generally most of our activities are influenced by mild negative emotions .
    • 80. Maturity of karma (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” However, those actions that are influenced by intense negative emotions cause an equally strong karmic attachment which usually does not bear fruit immediately. It takes on an inactive state and waits for the supportive conditions .
    • 81. Maturity of karma (3) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The supportive conditions are the proper time, place, and environment, to arise for it to manifest and produce effects. If the supportive conditions do not arise , the respective karmas will manifest at the end of maximum period for which it can remain bound to the soul.
    • 82. Maturity of karma (4) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” These supportive conditions for the activation of latent karmas are determined by the nature of karmas, intensity of emotional engagement (kashaya) at the time of binding karmas and our actual relation to time, place and surroundings.
    • 83. Maturity of karma (5) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” There are certain laws of precedence among the karmas, according to which the fruition of some of the karmas may be deferred but not absolutely barred. The soul has energy to transform and modify the effects of the karmas, by its actions.
    • 84. Maturity of karma (5a) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Out of 100,000 karmas maybe one karma matures immediately, the remaining 99,999 goes through transformations. Karma bondage can be altered , or transformed to a certain extent. There are transformations (karan) affecting each subclass of karmas.
    • 85. Transformations of karmas. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The soul undergoes process of eternal transformation. Through such processes, the soul transforms karmas being obtained at the moment or those already in its possession. This process of transformation is called Karan. Through purushārth (efforts) of the soul, it is possible to transform and modify the effects of the karmas. The following are the states and transformations of karmas.
    • 86. Bandha, Transformation (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (1) Bandha (bonding) Karmas being earned in the present that will be realized in the future are called ‘karma-in-bonding’, the Bandha. Mosquito example: Karma earned at time of the killing a mosquito will be realized after 10 years of time for 4 days.
    • 87. Udaya, Transformation (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (2) Udaya (maturity) Udaya is the fruition of karmas as per its nature in the due course. Udaya is the bearing of fruit by the Karma due to all other conditions also being ripe (Vipak-kaal). Mosquito example: The Suffering of the fever at 104 temp . for 4 days after 10 years of time.
    • 88. UdiraNa, Transformation (3) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (3) UdiraNa (premature) By this process, it is possible to make certain karmas operative before their predetermined time. The Karma that could have borne fruits later can be ripened early to give results in advance (like ripening of fruits by auspicious or inauspicious the acts).
    • 89. UdiraNa, Transformation (3a) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (3) UdiraNa (early invitation) Udirna of Pap (inauspicious) karma. Done by performing Nirjara (atonement, penance etc). Udirna of Punya (auspicious) karma. Done by delaying action of Punya karma (saving for a rainy day) by living the simple life of an ascetic.
    • 90. UdiraNa, Transformation (3b) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (3) UdiraNa (premature) Mosquito example. Jiva by undertaking the auspicious action of Nirjara (penance, atonement) can transform inactive time to 9 years from 10 years & reduce the temperature of the fever from 104 degrees to 100 degree.
    • 91. UdiraNa, Transformation (3d) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (3) UdiraNa (premature) Mosquito example. Jiva by undertaking inauspicious action of Pap tattva will transform the inactive time to 9 years from 10 years & increase the temperature of the fever from 104 to 105 degrees.
    • 92. Udvartanā, Transformation (4) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (4) Udvartanā (intensification) By this process, there is an increase in duration (stithi) and intensity (anubhava) of the karmas due to additional negative emotions & feelings (inauspicious action). Mosquito example: The Fever intensified by one degree to 105, lasting for 6 days from the original 4 days.
    • 93. Apavartanā, Transformation (5) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (5) Apavartanā (dilution) By this process, there is a decrease in duration (stithi) and intensity (anubhava) of the karmas due to positive emotions and feelings (auspicious action). Mosquito example: The Fever going down by two degrees to 102, lasting for only 2 days from the original 4 days.
    • 94. Satta, Transformation (6) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (6) Satta (Existence) Satta is the quiescent state of karma. Karma earned in previous lives, are called “Karma in existence”. These are dormant karmas that are not mature. Mosquito example: Fever in dormant state.
    • 95. Sankramana, Transformation (7) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (7) Sankramana (inter-change) It is the mutation or conversion of one sub-type of karma into another sub-type. However, this does not occur between different types. For example, papa (bad karma) can be converted into punya (good karma) as both sub-types belong to the same type of karma or vice versa.
    • 96. Sankramana, Transformation (7a) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (7) Sankramana (inter-change) Mosquito example: No more fever for 4 days. Ashaata vedniya karma (pain feeling) transformed into shaata vedniya karma (pleasure feeling) due to Jiva’s auspicious action of Nirjara.
    • 97. Upaśamanā, Transformation (8) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (8) Upaśamanā (state of subsidence) During this state the operation of karma does not occur (dormancy) and can undergo inter-change, intensification or dilution. This is like fire covered by ashes. As soon as dormancy is over the Karma start giving results like fire where ashes have been removed.
    • 98. Nidhatti, Transformation (9) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (9) Nidhatti (flexibility) In this state, premature operation and inter-change is not possible. Only intensification and dilution of karmas is possible. Nidhatti is the state or Karma when its powers can be partially altered by Jiva’s (the soul’s) efforts of penance.
    • 99. Nikāchit, Transformation (10) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (10) Nikāchit (inflexibility) No variations or modifications are possible. The consequences are the same as were established at the time of bonding. Such Karma will release the soul only giving results upon maturity (Udaya). Written in stone, it is permanent, cannot be changed.
    • 100. Nikāchit Karma of Mahavir Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Mahavir swami in his 18 th birth as a Triprustha Vasudev, had a bondage of Nikachit Karma. He ordered to pour hot lead in the ears of his aide, who did not listen & obey his instruction, during a music concert. Vasudev’s order was carried out and his aide died on the spot under intolerable agony.
    • 101. Nikāchit Karma of Mahavir (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Due to his intoxication of power, passion for grandeur (bombastic behavior) , and extremely cruel attitude , he had to suffer the excruciating result in his last 27 th life of Mahavir. The aide reincarnated as a farmer (cowherd) and hammered large thorns like nails in both of Mahavir's ears.
    • 102. Nikāchit Karma of Mahavir (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Mahavir suffered unbearable ear pain (ashata vedaniya karma) but stayed in samata (equanimity) during the pain to dissolve his Karma. Mahavir’s did penance of the 640 months by fasting during his 26 th birth could not transform his Karma because it was Nikāchit bandha karma.
    • 103. Nikāchit Karma of Shrenik Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Shrenik Maharaja committed a gross violence by killing a pregnant deer. He took a great pride (ego) , killing two deer with one arrow in a hard to see environment with perfect aim. Because of his gross violence & ego, he acquired Nikāchit bandha karma, which earned him infernal (naraki) life.
    • 104. What is Abādhākala ? Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” The karma produce their effect after a certain induction period or duration. This duration is called abādhākala or quiescence (inactive or latent) time or a waiting time before realization. . The abādhākala is the duration of time between the bondage of the karma and the fruition of the karma.
    • 105. What is Abādhākala (1) ? Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” This is a golden period for the Jiva, for transformations or modifications (karan) of the past karmas. Karmas producing unpleasant feeling (ashaata vedaniya) can be converted into, karma producing pleasant feeling (shaata vedaniya) and vice versa, as per Jiva’s good or bad actions .
    • 106. Mahavir & golden period Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Prince Mahavir, at age 30, left the kingdom and went to the forest for 12.5 years to meditate (sadhana). During this golden period he took rigorous ascetic vows to dissolve & modify his ghati karmas by promising himself to remain fully in samata (equanimity) during meditation. It did not matter to him what afflictions (upsargas) he may have had to face.
    • 107. Mahavir & golden period (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Mahavir believed in ahimsa (non-violence). He also personified fearlessness (abhaya). He believed that a person afflicted with fear (or pain) cannot promote ahimsa. This principle became an integral part of his way of life. For this reason he remained alone during the whole span of his spiritual practice. Following are the few of many afflictions he faced:
    • 108. Mahavir & golden period (1) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Afflictions: (1) S corching heat: Gaushalak was cooking food under the tree where Mahavir was meditating. Due to high wind, the area caught the fire. The flames of the fire scorched his feet causing great pain. Even this acute pain did not disrupt the depth of his tranquility.
    • 109. Mahavir & golden period (2) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (2) Deadly t orture by demon god: ShulpaNi (demon) tortured Mahavir during his meditation, by taking avatar of: A mad elephant who tossed him around, a ghost attacked with fangs & claws & a black serpent with toxic breath. This extreme agony by ShupaNi (yaksha) failed to pierce the serenity of his composure. He had an endless capacity to tolerate pain.
    • 110. Mahavir & golden period (3) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (3) Bitten by poisonous snake: Chand Kaushik spit toxic waves of venom, bit Mahavir’s feet, coiled around Mahavir’s body and started stinging him all over his body. He began to bleed but remained motionless in his meditative pose, showing only compassion.
    • 111. Mahavir & golden period (4) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (4) Fasting: During 12.5 years of Sadhana, Mahavir did not eat any food or drink water for 11.5 years of time (4166 days). Fasts were sometimes in a sequence of continuous 180, 150, 60, 45, 30, 25, 15, 3 or 2 days; he never took food for 2 consecutive days nor did he eat more than once a day.
    • 112. Mahavir & golden period (5) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (5) Thorns in the Ears. When Mahavir was meditating, a cowherd asked him to look after his oxen. When the cowherd returned, he did not find his oxen, he asked, "where are my oxen?" Mahavir did not reply, he was in deep meditation. Cowherd became irritated and shouted, “are you deaf, don’t you hear anything ?"
    • 113. Mahavir & golden period (5a) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” (5) Thorns in the Ears. The cowherd picked up a long nail and pierced the ears of Mahavir deeply by hammering the thorns in. Even the excruciating agony did not move Mahavir from his meditation, nor did it evoke any feeling of anger or aversion in him. (The law of karma is being repaid as he once had poured lead in to ear of his past aide.)
    • 114. Mahavir & golden period (6) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Attained Moksha (liberation) Mahavir remained calm & peaceful in the midst of these & many more forms of torture & fiercely performed penance for 12.5 years. During this golden period he never lost his serenity and dissolved all of his ghati karma. The 12.5 year period of spiritual practices of Bhagavan Mahavir was the basis of his personal achievement of omniscience.
    • 115. Mahavir & golden period (6a) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Attained Moksha (liberation) Mahavir practiced fearlessness, non-possession and non-violence (abhaya, aparigraha, ahimsa,) which became his enlightened conduct. These three led Mahavir to the attainment of omniscience at the age of 42.5 years. Died in Pavapuri at age 72 & attained Moksha.
    • 116. Goal of the soul During our human life (golden period), the soul must actively get involved in the process of modification of karma to dissolve, reduce intensity & time of the Karma by practicing nirjara tattva & more. This includes sankramana (inter changing) & udiraNa (early invitation). Karma = “as you sow, as you reap” Golden time may not come back, we must take most advantage of it now.
    • 117. Goal of the soul (1) Avoid vigorously: Evil karma (pap tattva) Cause of karmas (Äsrava tattva) Inflow of Karma (samvar tattva) Bondage of karma (bandh tattva) Practice vigorously: Auspicious karma (Punya tattva) Dissolving of past karma (Nirjarä tattva) Attainment of liberation (Moksha tattva) Karma = “as you sow, as you reap”
    • 118. Goal of the soul (2) Please do not blame anybody for whatever is happening to you whether fortunes or misfortunes, pleasure or pain. Accept your karma. Remain in complete equanimity, practice only auspicious activities of mind, body & speech as described in this presentation and aim for the ultimate bliss of liberation (moksha) by modifying karma. Karma = “as you sow, as you reap”
    • 119. Thank you & Michhami Dukaddam If we have made any mistakes, Please accept our sincere apologies. Materials in this presentation is compiled data , using many Jain web sites, lectures & books. Please read more regarding Nav-tattva in detail at “ http://www.jcnc.org/jainism/reference_title.asp?category=Nav+Tattva+(9+Principles)”
    • 120. Thank you & Michhami Dukaddam Please let us know if you have any suggestions to improve this presentation or require a copy of the presentation in power point format. [email_address] You are welcome to share this presentation. Harshad, Bakula & Maniar family.

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