Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Sem
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Sem

1,418

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,418
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
109
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  1. Micro structural Characterization By Harsha Kamatagi Usn 1ms10mse08
  2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)• The SEM is an instrument that produces a largely magnified image by usingelectrons instead of light to form an image.• A beam of electrons is produced at the top of the microscope by an electrongun.• The electron beam follows a vertical path through the microscope, which is heldwithin a vacuum.• The beam travels through electromagnetic fields and lenses, which focus thebeam down toward the sample.• Once the beam hits the sample, electrons and X-rays are ejected from thesample.• Detectors collect these X-rays, backscattered electrons, and secondaryelectrons and convert them into a signal that is sent to a screen similar to atelevision screen. This produces the final image.
  3. Specimen chamber
  4. Beam-Specimen Interactions
  5. signals The beam electron can interact with electric charge field of both specimen nucleus and electrons These interactions are responsible for a multitude of signal types: backscattered electrons, secondary electrons, X-Rays, Auger electrons, cathadoluminescence. When a beam of electrons interacts with electric charge of a specimen atom electron The result is a transfer of energy to the specimen atom and a potential expulsion of an electron from that atom as a secondary electron (SE). If the vacancy due to the creation of a secondary electron is filled from a higher level orbital, an X-Ray characteristic of thatenergy transition is produced.
  6. Hitachi S-4700.
  7. Optical microscope
  8. Comparison between SEM andoptical microscope
  9. optical semIllumination Light beam Electron beamWave length 2000-7000 .05A AResolution Visible 50A region on 2000AMagnification 10x-20x 10x-2,00,00 0xDepth of .1microns 30focus mircometer at 1000x
  10. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
  11. Working TEMs work the same way except that they shine a beam of electrons (like the light) through the specimen(like the slide). Whatever part is transmitted is projected onto a phosphor screen for the user to see. The "Virtual Source" at the top represents the electron gun, producing a stream of monochromatic electrons. This stream is focused to a small, thin, coherent beam by the use of condenser lenses 1 and 2. The first lens largely determines the "spot size"; the general size range of the final spot that strikes the sample. The second lens actually changes the size of the spot on the sample; changing it from a wide dispersed spot to a pinpoint beam.
  12. Conti…..  The beam is restricted by the condenser aperture (usually user selectable), knocking out high angle electrons (those far from the optic axis, the dotted line down the center)  The beam strikes the specimen and parts of it are transmitted  This transmitted portion is focused by the objective lens into an image  Optional Objective and Selected Area metal apertures can restrict the beam; the Objective aperture enhancing contrast by blocking out high-angle diffracted electrons  The image is passed down the column through the intermediate and projector lenses, being enlarged all the way
  13. Contd…. The image strikes the phosphor image screen and light is generated, allowing the user to see the image. The darker areas of the image represent those areas of the sample that fewer electrons were transmitted through (they are thicker or denser). The lighter areas of the image represent those areas of the sample that more electrons were transmitted through (they are thinner or less dense)
  14. Differences
  15. Auger Electron Spectroscopy When an electron beam bombards a solid surface; secondary electrons, backscattered electrons, Auger electrons, and characteristic X-rays are produced.
  16. Auger Electron Spectroscopy
  17. Auger process The basic Auger process starts with the removal of an inner shell atomic electron to form a vacancy. Several processes are capable of producing the vacancy, but the bombardment with an electron beam is the most common one. The inner shell vacancy is then filled by a second electron from a higher shell. Energy will be simultaneously released. A third electron, the Auger electron, is ionized. The excessive energy in this process is dissipated as kinetic energy of the Auger electron. This process of an excited ion decaying into a doubly charged ion by the ejection of an electron is called the Auger process.
  18. A typical AES spectrum in the form of d N(E)/dE vs E. Reference: J. C. Vickerman, Surface analysis – the principal techniques, John Wiley & Sons
  19. Contd….. electron spectroscopy is one of the most frequent analytical methods for surfaces, thin-films, and interface compositions. This wide applicability arises from the combination of surface sensitivity (0.5 to 10 nm), good lateral surface resolution (as little as 10 nm), periodic table coverage (except hydrogen and helium),
  20. References FE-SEM Training Manual, Hitachi Scientific Instruments http://www.microscopy.ethz.ch/lens.htm Joseph Goldstein et al. “Scanning Electron Microscopy JEOL 6700 SEM User Manual http://www.cas.muohio.edu/~emfweb/EMTheory /OH_Index.html http://www.gel.usherbrooke.ca/casino/What.html http://emalwww.engin.umich.edu/courses/semlectures/semlec. anchor659909 David C. Joy. “Low Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy”,
  21. THANK YOU

×