User Interface design notes

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Presented to the Baobab Health Trust, Lilongwe, Malawi, March 2014

Presented to the Baobab Health Trust, Lilongwe, Malawi, March 2014

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  • 1. Boabab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Design Harry Hochheiser University of Pittsburgh Department of Biomedical Informatics ! harryh@pitt.edu ! +1 410 648 9300 Attribution-ShareAlike CC BY-SA
  • 2. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Goals Designing Work, not designing interfaces ! Start big - think about where we’d like to get ! Then, scale back to what we can do. ! !
  • 3. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu What are our design goals? Definition of goals informs design Can’t tell if you’ve succeeded without goals… Lean Value Diamond… (modified from Grunden and Hagood, 2012) Costs Quality Time/Efficiency Satisfaction Materials, Capital, Revenue Patient, Staff, MOH Capacity, Wait times, Turnaround time Safety Waste Removal, Best Practices IMPROVE Safety, Quality, Satisfaction DECREASE Costs
  • 4. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Multiple Goals • Often dealing with multiple goals • May have to make tradeoffs… • Explore alternative designs?
  • 5. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Framing questions • Gerry’s example about managing the fatalities from vehicle accidents • PASSIVE: measuring data • ACTIVE • installing airbags • re-routing traffic flow VISIONARY: ask “What is the goal?” To safely move people and goods? Solution - more public transit and fewer cars!
  • 6. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu After Interpretation Data Collection Analysis and Interpretation ! Design Activities Before designing.. ! How do you know you've got it all, and got it right? Review with Stakeholders
  • 7. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu How to Inform Design? ● Goal – go from all of this data to design ● Design of what? ● Software artifacts ● Underlying work processes ● Easier said than done ● Secondary intents ● Systems for tracking medical device repair might be used to track productivity of individual technicians ● Cultural issues: control, resistance to change, diverse stakeholders... ● Issues of trust and authority – customers vs. stakeholders?
  • 8. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Activity Design Scenarios Problem Scenarios Activity Design Scenarios Original description of motivating challenges Original description of motivating challenges Description of how proposed design will meet those challenges
  • 9. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Storyboards ● Cartoonish depictions of interaction designs/visions ● Design to communicate ideas ● Particularly for stakeholders ● Tell the story graphically – graphical scenarios..
  • 10. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Storyboards ● Amal Dar Aziz – Guide to storyboarding http://hci.stanford.edu/courses/cs147/ assignments/storyboard_notes.pdf
  • 11. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Storyboards/Scenarios are not 
 prototypes ● Continuing goal: communicate vision ● Avoid miscues ● Convey broad ideas of design ● Focus on big ideas ● Prevent/discourage rapid descent into micro-critiques ● “That button should really be in the lower-right corner...” ● Prototypes will come along soon enough
  • 12. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu User Environment Design ● Storyboards and scenarios are not necessarily complete ● Tie them together in some coherent whole? ● System-level view ● System-level diagrams to try to layout relationship between activities how well does it hang together. ● Analogy -architectural floor plan?
  • 13. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Floor plans as inspiration... ● Show overview of how things fit together – not too much detail S. Wood 2003 Using a Floor Plan as a Metaphor for Design: Is your product a dream house, or a construction nightmare? http://incontextdesign.com/articles/using-a-floor-plan-as-a-metaphor-for-design-is-your- product-a-dream-house-or-a-construction-nightmare/
  • 14. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu User Environment Design ● Focus areas with functions, link, objects. ● Defines overall structure of how things will get done ● Built up from storyboards ● Can guide development – one “room” or focus area at a time... ● Not UML Design! ● Beyer & Holtzblatt do not discuss with stakeholders. ● Why not?
  • 15. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Prototypes ● User Environment Design - informs interface design ● Two challenges ! ● How to do the design ● How to use prototypes to engage users and validate design
  • 16. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Prototypes ● Pre-release functionality for evaluation ● feedback prior to large investment in development Wizard-of-Oz Storyboard Video Prototype Rapid Prototype Working System Low Cost, Low Fidelity High Cost, High Fidelity Paper prototype Computer Animation Rosson & Carroll, 2002
  • 17. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Paper Prototypes
 (thanks again to Anind)
  • 18. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Prototypes evolve H. Beyer & K. Holtzblatt, Contextual Design. ACM Interactions, 1999 • Explore with users • Modify on the fly • Insights inform • Redesign • Revision of earlier findings • New visions • Iterate ! • Other forms • More detailed mockup • “Wizard-of-Oz” ! • Don't get too pretty too quickly •Discourages feedback
  • 19. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Prototypes as means, not ends ● Final design may not look like prototype at all, and that's fine. Paper Mockup of Stembook Das, et al. 2008 Linked Data in a Scientific Collaboration Framework ! www.stembook.org
  • 20. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Prototyping Tools Use Cogtool? ! Presentation Software - Open Office? ! Pencil http://pencil.evolus.vn/ ! many others..
  • 21. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Advice on prototypes Don’t make them pretty ! Try several head-to-head explore ideas like IDEO shopping carts…
  • 22. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu The Prototype Paradox ● Prototypes are supposed to be throw-away, but... ● ..they tend to take on a life of their own ● Especially when presented as (possibly minimally) working software ! ● Another argument for staying with paper as long as possible
  • 23. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Interface Design ● Often considered an art, not a science ● Choose an interaction style ● “First, do no harm” ● Build on familiar models ● Metaphors ● Don't mess with convention ● Less is more ● Complexity is the enemy ● Get the basics right, then refine or innovate ● Don't use 3D (unless you need to)
  • 24. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design 1. Strive for consistency 2. Cater to universal usability 3. Offer informative feedback 4. Design dialogs to yield closure 5. Prevent errors 6. Permit easy reversal of actions 7. Support internal locus of control 8. Reduce short-term memory load
  • 25. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Consistency • Language • Yes, No, Cancel, Abort.. • Layout • Colors • Widgets
  • 26. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Universal usability Users of varying abilities, education, background Different computing environments… ! this is a strength of Baobab’s
  • 27. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Informative Feedback Make it clear when steps are done Indicate where you are in the process ANC Prescription page?
  • 28. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Design Dialogs to Yield Closure Process bars, completeness indicators Indications when a task is complete
  • 29. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Prevent Errors Better to prevent than to recover ! Again, a strength at Baobab
  • 30. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Permit easy reversal of actions • “Back” or “Undo” button ! • Note feedback guideline - very important here
  • 31. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Support internal locus of control • System doesn’t take over ! • “The computer will reboot in…”
  • 32. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Reduce short-term memory load • Don’t force users to remember what they’ve done • Related to other rules: • Offer informative feedback • Design dialogs to yield closure • Prevent errors • ANC: synopsis of user status at top of screen? • dialog that blocks screen content?
  • 33. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Contextual Design and Agile Development ● The Agile Manifesto (www.agilemanifesto.org) ● Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. ● Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. ● Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. ● Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. ● Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.
  • 34. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu BIONF 2014 January 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Contextual Design and Agile Development ● The Agile Manifesto (www.agilemanifesto.org) ● The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. ● Working software is the primary measure of progress. ● Agile processes promote sustainable development. ● The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. ● Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. ● Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. ● The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. ● At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
  • 35. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Design Challenges • Mini design sprints • 3 problems, 30 minutes each • 2-3 groups each problem • Design a solution • Storyboards • Paper prototypes • Flowchart • …etc.
  • 36. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Design Challenge 1 • Client sign in and hand-off to counselor
  • 37. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Design challenge 2 • Counselor referral of client for treatment • subsequent follow-up?
  • 38. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Design challenge 3 • Registration desk and counselors managing load and referring clients who can’t be seen on a given day.
  • 39. Baobab Health, March 2014Harry Hochheiser, harryh@pitt.edu Presenting and critiquing ideas? • What problem were you trying to solve? • Strong points? • Weak points? • Based on • models from interviews, including questions and observations • Design guidelines • Cognitive issues • Holes in designs? Holes in our understanding?