Critical theory
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  • 1. ED 203 FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION ira santos harold siapo agnes surop
  • 2. Questions for Reflection: Who controls the schools? Who makes policies that govern schools? Who determines the ethical, social, and economic goals of education? Who establishes the curriculum?
  • 3. What is Critical Theory?  It is one of the more recently developed theories to appear (Gutek). It is a theory that stresses the importance of critique in ideology and situating analysis of a topic like education within the dominant social relations and system of political
  • 4. What is Critical Theory?  It borrowed themes such as conflict from Marxism. It sought to raise the consciousness of disempowered and dispossessed people. GUTE
  • 5. Critical Theory focuses on… GUTE CRITIQUE It examines the issue of who – what class – controls educational institutions and processes and establishes
  • 6. Critical Theory focuses on… GUTE REFORM We must work against cultural agents that reproduce the status quo (social, political, and economic)
  • 7. Proponents of Critical Theory ANTONIO GRAMSCI -born on January 22, 1891 in Italy -Most important Marxist of the 20th century -known for his concept of cultural hegemony- maintaining the state of capitalist country. -He was clear that the transformation from capitalism
  • 8. Proponents of Critical Theory JURGEN HABERMAS -Born outside Düsseldorf in 1929, Habermas came of age in postwar Germany -Habermas embraced the critical theory of the Frankfurt School. -Habermas' primary contribution to philosophy is his development of a theory of rationality. -In 1981 Habermas published The The o ry o f Co m m unicative Actio n, in which he develops on the concept of
  • 9. Proponents of Critical Theory HERBERT MARCUSE -born on July 19, 1898 in Germany -Marcuse co-founded the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research with Theodore Adorno and Max Horkheimer.
  • 10. Proponents of Critical Theory MAX HORKHEIMER -Max Horkheimer (1895–1973) was a leader of the so-called “Frankfurt School” n 1916, his manufacturing career ended and he was drafted into World War. After World War I, he enrolled Munich University, where he studied philosophy and psychology. After university, Horkheimer moved to Frankfurt am Main, where he studied under Hans Cornelius.
  • 11. Proponents of Critical Theory IVAN ILLICH -Ivan Illich was born in Vienna. - Illich's concerns around the negative impact of schooling hit a chord - and he was much in demand as a speaker.
  • 12. Proponents of Critical Theory THEODOR ADORNO -was one of the most important philosophers and social critics in Germany after World War II -The scope of Adorno's influence stems from the interdisciplinary character of his research and of the Frankfurt School to which he belonged.  -It also stems from the thoroughness with which he examined Western philosophical traditions, especially from Kant onward, and the radicalness to his critique of
  • 13. Proponents of Critical Theory PAULO FREIRE
  • 14. Critical Theory is based on Tends to reject the universalizing concepts found in Idealist and Realist metaphysics. Seekto spark public debate overeducation GUTE
  • 15. Critical Theory vs. Pragmatism 1. The primacy of scientific method as the basis of the Complete Act of Thought. GUTE
  • 16. Critical Theory vs. Pragmatism 2. The impulse to create largerand more inclusive shared communities through consensus- building strategies. GUTE
  • 17. Critical Theory against all odds YOU’RE NEITHER CRITICAL NOR THEORETICAL!!! GUTE
  • 18. Educational Implications First stage: Critical Theory is constructed by its positive utopianism: “ a vision of better reality, which overcomes the present oppressive reality. This transformation of utopia becomes the arena of today’s praxis” (Horkheimer, 1985) Its aim is to “building a new world” (Horkheimer, 1985)
  • 19. Educational Implications  Second Stage:  The second stage can be described as philosophical pessimism.  He explicitly dissociate himself from the Marxian tradition.  He dissociate himself from the tradition which believed in the possibility of “the good society”, wherein not only social relations but also thought itself could be elevated.  He abandons the revolutionary project.  As long as there is room for liberty, collective violence will continue to rule.
  • 20. Educational Implications  His pessimism is not a preview for escapism, it is a new setting for the realization of the principle of hope and for the struggle over potential counter-education.  Horkheimer’s later Critical Theory abandons optimism but it is unconditionally Utopian.  “negative theology”
  • 21. Critical Theory Schools Frankfurt School New Frankfurt School
  • 22. Horkheimer Builds a School  The Frankfurt School was a tight network of independent radical philosophers, economists, and sociologists associated with the German Institute for Social Research- essentially a Marxist think tank bankrolled by the radical son of German millionaire grain merchant (McLaughlin, 1999)  The institute was founded in the early 1920s with the purpose of promoting the development of radical intellectual ideas not controlled by traditional Marxist and social democratic parties or academic disciplines.
  • 23. Horkheimer Builds a School The Frankfurt School provides rich material for the sociology of knowledge as an example of how a marginal school of thought gained widespread influence and crosses the boundaries between disciplines, social movements, psychoanalysis, Marxism, and national traditions. The Frankfurt School thinkers produced innovative blend of radical philosophy and social science.
  • 24. Horkheimer Builds a School  Fromm brought psychoanalysis into the institute, helping create the distinctive mixture of Marx and freud that gave Herbart Marcuse and Frankfurt School notoriety as part of the New Left era academic radicalism.  Fromm was replaced by Herbert Marcuse, Theodore Adorno, Walter Benjamin
  • 25. New Frankfurt School  Critical Theory in Haberman’s words is “a theory of society conceived with a practical intentions” (Shijun, 2006)  It is a development of the theoretical tradition of historical materialism, and historical materialism contains in itself the relation between theory and practice in two senses.  Studies the historical condition outside the theory  Studies the action situation in which the theory can possibly interfere.
  • 26. New Frankfurt School  Unlike science, it does not hold an objectivist attitude towards its objects  Unlike philosophy, it does not regard its own origin as something transcendent, or something with ontological superiority.  Habermas insists to make distinctions between “practice” and “techne”
  • 27. New Frankfurt School  Habermas new understanding of “theory” and “practice” argues that: a) any type of knowledge is inherently related to practice. b) he defines critical theory as “theory of society conceived with a practical intention” (Shijun, 2006) c) critical theory is significantly different both from classical Marxism and the first generation of Frankfurt School not only in terms of a theory’s normative basis, but also in terms of a theory’s practical effect.
  • 28. Implications for Phil. Education  There is a striking difference in value systems of the educational institution, depending on the sector/group that governs it.  Learning and activities that facilitate learning will be more authentic. The teachers are expected to be judicious in formulating activities that tailor-fit the interests and the context of their students.
  • 29. Implications for Phil. Education  The teaching of the nation’s history, language, and system of government will be more deliberate. The subject matter will go beyond the facts, and will require the students to practice critical thinking. The concept of pantayong pananaw that explores the Philippine identity is also worth applying in the teaching of history and language.  Teachers are expected to be empowering and to be facilitators of change for their students.  Partnerships between schools and private/multi-sectoral organizations or local communities are established. This is especially seen in the Alay Kapwa and NSTP programs implemented by other schools.
  • 30. Insights  TRANSFORMATIVE EDUCATION is the focal point of critical theory and will be most applicable in our country’s context.  Our schools have not fallen short in presenting the situation of our country; however, the next step we must take is to empower our students to put everything they have learned to action.
  • 31. Let’s have an activity! We will distribute sheets of short bond paper for your use.
  • 32. Activity: The Profile of a Transformative Educator  Sheets of short bond paper will be distributed.  In the same sheet of paper, a drawing of a human is shown. This will represent each member of the class. The drawing magnifies some body parts, particularly the head, heart, and the hands.  For these parts, you will be asked to write your own version of qualities that a transformative educator must possess. Limit your qualities/expectations to FIVE for each body part.  There are no right or wrong answers.
  • 33. Think, pair, share Turn to your seatmate and together, discuss your answers for this activity.