Emergence will be shown to consist of multi-directional, in particular bottom-up and top-down, processes. The latter, also called downward causation, in turn consist of specific processes, including 2nd-order emergence (see, for example, Gilbert, 2004) and immergence (see Andrighetto et al., 2008a, and current results of the EMIL project, http://emil.istc.cnr.it/ ). Immergence is the process by means of which higher-level effects retroact on the lower-level entities that generated them, modifying their operating rules and reinforcing or reproducing the initial generative process. Two examples will be analyzed at some length, reputation and social norms. Reputation can be seen as a 2nd-order emergent effect of shared informational reciprocity (Dunbar, 1998; Conte and Paolucci, 2002; Sommerfeld et al., 2007). A computational system (REPAGE), built up in the last five years within the LABSS, will be presented, and simulation results showing how it performs in simple multi-agent systems will be discussed. Commonly, norms are either top-down (legal norms) or bottom-up (conventions) effects. In this talk, they will be defined as immergent phenomena (see Andrighetto et al., 2008b), i.e. behaviors that spread over a population because and to the extent that the corresponding normative beliefs and commands spread as well. After a short incursion on a normative agent (EMIL-A) architecture, as worked out within the EMIL project (see D.1.2 on the EMIL site), the role of normative agents will be shown by simulation findings. These illustrate the different macro-social regularities obtained within two separate populations of normative agents and social conformers.
Directions of Emergence. Reputation and Social Norms Rosaria Conte LABSS/ISTC-CNR AISB, Aberdeen, UK, April 1- 4, 2008
An effect is said to be emergent when it is generated by micro-level entities in interaction.
Apart from debates on
Properties (such as unintentional , unpredictable, unreducible; Kim, 1995), etc .
Orders of emergence: (1st-order and 2nd-order emergence: c onsciousness for Dennett: is a second order emergence, in the sense that it emerges from the interactions of the parts of the mind and, through its emergence, changes how the system processes information.
it is generally perceived as an upward process
What about way back?
Existing theories of downward causation (such as Emmeche et al,, 2000) are affected by debate about reductionism and even by metaphysics ( Abdoullaev, )
A downward notion of 2nd-order emergence has been put forward (Gilbert), as implying recognition of emergent effect (see also, Goldspink and Kay, in ongoing symposium): emergent effect is represented by agents, thus contributing to its replication.
For evolutionary theorists (Dunbar, 1998; Panchanathan, 2001), reputation allowed the
evolution of indirect reciprocity and the
enlargement of hominids’ settlements
Figura Interplay between informational and mateiral, direct and indirect reciprocity. Reproduced from Conte and Paolucci (2002). Step 1: Direct material reciprocity A B give Step 2: direct informational reciprocity A C tell … A n B A tell tell tell Step 4: indirect informational reciprocity give give … A n B A give Step 3: Indirect material reciprocity
Andrighetto, G., Conte, R.,Turrini, P., Paolucci, M. (2007). Emergence In the Loop: Simulating the two way dynamics of norm innovation. In Proceedings of the Dagstuhl Seminar on Normative Multi-agent Systems, 18-23 March 2007, Dagstuhl, Germany.
Andrighetto, G., Campennì, M, Conte, R., Paolucci, M. (2007). On the Immergence of Norms: a Normative Agent Architecture. In Proceedings of AAAI Symposium, Social and Organizational Aspects of Intelligence, Washington DC.
Conte, R., Andrighetto, G., Campennì, M, Paolucci, M. (2007). Emergent and Immergent Effects in Complex Social Systems. In Proceedings of AAAI Symposium, Social and Organizational Aspects of Intelligence, Washington DC.
Andrighetto, G., Campennì, M, Conte, R., Cecconi, F. (2008). Conformity in Multiple Contexts: Imitation Vs Norm Recognition, The second World Congress on Social Simulation (WCSS-08), George Mason University, Fairfax - July 14-17, 2008. Submitted.
Andrighetto, G., Campennì, M, Conte, R., Cecconi, F. (2008). How Agents Find out Norms: A Simulation Based Model of Norm Innovation, 3rd International Workshop on Normative Multiagent Systems (NorMAS 2008), Luxembourg, 15 -1 8 July, 2008. Submitted.
Andrighetto, G.; Campennì, M.; Conte, R. (2007) . EMIL-M: MODELS OF NORMS EMERGENCE, NORMS IMMERGENCE AND THE 2-WAY DYNAMIC, Technical Report, 00507, LABSS-ISTC/CNR.